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IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
1



Luís

Paulo Reis


Http://www.fe.up.pt/~lpreis

lpreis@fe.up.pt

Member of the Directive Board of LIACC


Artificial Intelligence and Computer
Science Lab. Of the University of Porto, Portugal

Associate Professor of the School of Engineering, University of Minho, Portugal




IntellWheels:

Intelligent Wheelchair with Flexible
Multimodal

Interface



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
2


Introduction


Participant Institutions


Motivation and Objectives


Intelligent Wheelchairs


IntellWheels

Project


System Architecture


Hardware Platform


Multi
-
Agent System


Communication Platform


Simulation System


Multimodal Interface


Experiments and Results


Simulated IW Experiments


Real IW Experiments


Conclusions and Future Work

Presentation Outline



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
3


Research Labs:


LIACC


Artificial Intelligence and Computer Science Laboratory, Univ. Porto


INESC
-
P


Institute for Systems Engineering and Computers, Porto


IEETA


Institute of Electronics and
Telematics

Engineering of
Aveiro


Universities/Faculties:


University of Porto


DEI/Faculty of Engineering and DEEC/Faculty of Engineering


University of
Aveiro



DETI/University of
Aveiro


University of Minho


DSI/School of Engineering


Health

Institutions
:


IPP/ESTSP


Porto Polytechnic Institute/ Health Technology Superior School


APPC


Portuguese Association for Cerebral Palsy


Funding

2010
-
2012
(FCT/RPID/
ADA/109636/2009
)
:


FCT


Fundação

para

a
Ciência

e a
Tecnologia


COMPETE


Prog
. Operacional
Fac
. Competitividade


Participant Institutions



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
4


Limited mobility of certain individuals


Increment

of

the population

aged

over

60 years









Individuals

with

severe

physical disabilities


Cerebral palsy


Tetraplegia



Inability to

control

conventional

electric wheelchairs

0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
2010
2020
Number of elderly

Year

Worldwide elderly population (in millions) 1980
-
2020

Motivation



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
5


Definition:


Robotic device provided with sensorial and
actuation systems and processing
capabilities:


Semi
-
Autonomous behavior with obstacle
avoidance


Autonomous navigation and planning
capabilities


Flexible Human
-
Machine interaction


Cooperation with other IW and with other
devices (e.g. automatic doors)


Intelligent Wheelchair



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
6


More than 50 IW international
projects


Obstacle avoidance


Human
-
machine interface


MAS very restricted use


IW built from scratch


Inexistence


IW useful in practice:


Very low cost


Low ergonomic impact


Useful for handicapped individuals


Mixed reality environment


Flexible multi
-
modal interface


IW development platform

Related Work

6

Sonar
Infravermelhos
Scanner laser
Laser striper.
Visão Computacional
colisão/contacto
Odometria
Seguir linha
Bussula
GPS
Giroscópio
Voz
EOG
Force-Feedback Joystick
Orientação pela face/cabeça
Reconhecimento de gestos
Deictic
EMG
Robo Modificado
CR Motorizada Modificada
Add-On Unit
Omnidirectional
Sub assumção
Redes Neurais
Multi-niveis
1
ACCoMo, Universidade Chiba, Chiba,
Japão
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2
Automated-Guided Wheelchair—NEC Corporation,
Japão
X
X
X*
3
Autonomous Wheelchair—Arizona State University,
USA
X
X
X
X
4
CALL Centre, Universidade of Edinburgh,
Escócia
X
X
X
X
5
CCPWNS—University of Notre Dame,
USA
X
X
X*
6
CHARHM—Advanced Technologies Development Center,
Argélia
X
X
7
COACH—French Atomic Energy Comission,
França
X
X
X
8
CWA—National University of Singapore,
Singapore
X
X
9
CWA (Power)
X
X
10
Deictic Wheelchair, Northeastern University, Boston,
USA
X
X
X
X
X
11
EASY, Universidade de Bremen,
Alemanha
X
X
X
X
X
12
FRIEND, Universidade de Bremen,
Alemanha
X
X
X
X
X
13
Hephaestus—TRAC Labs,
USA
X
X
X*
14
INCH—Yale University,
USA
X
X
X
15
INRO—FH Ravensburg-Weingarten,
Alemanha
X
X
X
X
X
16
Intelligent Wheelchair—University of Texas at Austin,
USA
X
X
X
X
X
17
Intelligent Wheelchair System—Osaka University, Japan (protótipo 1)
X
X
X
X
X
X
18
Intelligent Wheelchair System (prototipo 2)
X
X
X
X
19
IntellWheels, Universidade do Porto, FEUP,
Portugal
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
20
Luoson III—National Chung Cheng University,
Taiwan
X
X
X
X
X,
X
X
21
MAid—RIAKP,
Alemanha
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
22
Mister Ed—IBM,
USA
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
23
Mr. HURI—Yonsei University,
Korea
X
X
X
X
X
X
24
NavChair—University of Michigan,
USA
X
X
X
X
25
NLPR Robotized Wheelchair—Chinese Academy of Sciences,
China
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
26
OMNI—University at Hagen,
Alemanha
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
27
Orpheus—National Technical University of Athens,
Grécia
X
X
X
28
Phaeton—Northeastern University,
USA
X
X
X
X
X
X
29
RobChair—University of Coimbra,
Portugal
X
X
X
X
X
X
30
RoboChair, Universidade de Essex e CAS,
UK e China
X
X
X
X
X
X
31
Robotic Wheelchair—FORTH,
Grécia
X
X
X
X
32
Rolland—University of Bremen,
Germany
(protótipo 1)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
33
Rolland (protótipo 2)
X
X
X
X
34
Rolland (protótipo 2 com laser)
X
X
X
35
SENA, Universidade de Málaga,
Espanha
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
36
SENARIO—TIDE, Finlândia
X
X
X
X
X
X
37
Siamo—University of Alcala,
Espanha
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X,
X*
38
SIRIUS—University of Seville,
Espanha
X
X
X
39
Smart Alec—Stanford University,
USA
X
X
X
X
Cadeira de Rodas Inteligente
Sensores
Factor-Forma
Controlo
Entradas
Sonar
Infravermelhos
Scanner laser
Laser striper.
Visão Computacional
colisão/contacto
Odometria
Seguir linha
Bussula
GPS
Giroscópio
Voz
EOG
Force-Feedback Joystick
Orientação pela face/cabeça
Reconhecimento de gestos
Deictic
EMG
Robo Modificado
CR Motorizada Modificada
Add-On Unit
Omnidirectional
Sub assumção
Redes Neurais
Multi-niveis
41
CALL Center,
UK
X
X
X
X
42
Chinese University of Hong Kong,
China
X
X
X
43
Kanazawa University,
Japão
X
44
Toyohashi University,
Japão
X
X
X
X
X
X
45
University of Ancona,
Italia
X
X
X
46
University of Plymouth,
UK
X
X
X
X
X
X
47
University of Portsmouth,
UK
X
X*
48
SmartChair—University of Pennsylvania,
UK
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
49
SPAM—AT Sciences,
USA
X
X
X
X
X*
50
SWCS—AT Sciences,
USA
X
X
X
X
51
TAO—Applied AI Systems, Inc.,
Canadá
X
X
X
X*
X
52
TAO-2
X
X
X
X*
X
53
TetraNauta—University of Seville,
Espanha
X
X
X
X
X
X*
54
TinMan—KIPR,
USA
X
X
X
X
X
X
55
VAHM—Universitie de Metz,
França
(modified wheelchair)
X
X
X
X
X
56
VAHM (robot base)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
57
Voice-cum-Auto Steer Wheelchair—CEERI,
Índia
X
X
X
X
X
58
WAD Project—Bochum University,
Alemanha
X
X
X
59
Watson—NAIST,
Japão
X
X
X
X
60
Wheelesely—Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
UK
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Cadeira de Rodas Inteligente
Sensores
Entradas
Factor-Forma
Controlo


IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
7

IntellWheels modules

IntellWheels

-

Architecture


Goals


Develop an intelligent wheelchair with
generic platform kit: hardware/software


To be mounted in commercial electric
wheelchairs


Modular architecture: Multi
-
Agent System


Easy integration with new sensors,
actuators and modules


Flexible

HMI (Multimodal Interface)


High
-
level

planning


Simulation

and

Mixed
-
Reality


Autonomous, shared and manual control


Low visual and ergonomic impact and
very low cost

Control modes and possible environments



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
8



Off
-
the
-
shelf devices

-
Human
-
machine interface

-
Easy to adapt to other wheelchair models

-
Powered wheelchair control

-
Sensors and Processing/interface board



Basic functions developed in firmware
(without PC)

-

Sensor reading

-

Pre
-
processing odometry

-

Obstacle avoidance

IntellWheels

-

Hardware



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
9

IntellWheels

-

Hardware

Left Side

Right Side



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
10

IntellWheels

-

Hardware

Left Side

Right Side



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
11

IntellWheels

-

Hardware

Left Side

Right Side



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
12

IntellWheels

-

Hardware

Left Side

Right Side



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
13

Multi

Agent

approach

-
Interaction, communication, redundancy

-
Easy to add new functionalities


Hardware module


Electric wheelchair, sensors, actuators,
microprocessor, PC


Simulator module


Virtual environment and mixed reality


Control Agent


Low
-
level control algorithms


Perception Agent


Sensors, mapping and localization


Intelligence/Cognitive Agent


High
-
level decision, planning and cooperation


Interface Agent


Interprets user’s inputs into high level commands

IntellWheels

Software/MAS



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
14


Communication

layer


Messages


reception

and

sending


Lowest

level

defenses


Security

layer


Messages

integrity


Temporal

layer


Filters

messages

with

temporal

window


Clock

sinchronization


Parser

layer


Highest

level

protections


Container

layer


Implements

user

interface

and

manages

the

platform


Distributes

and

maintains

agents’

lists

LAL,

GAL

and

FAL


Time

triggered

state

machine


Role

can

be

performed

by

any

agent


Elected

by

the

agents

IntellWheels

Communications

Follows FIPA standard:
FIPA
-
ACL , FIPA
-
SL



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
15

Virtual world (2D View)

Simulation
-

First Person View

IntellWheels

Simulator


Advantages:


Fast evaluation of new methodologies


Tool for training patients in a safe

environment


Interact with virtual objects and

virtual IW



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
16

IntellWheels

Simulator


Real Environment


No Connection to virtual information


Augmented Reality


Virtual objects interfere with real world


Augmented
Virtuality


Real objects interfere with virtual world


Virtual Environment


No connection with real world information


Real
Environment

Augmented
Reality

Augmented
Virtuality

Virtual
Environment



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
17

OR

OR

OR

OR

Facial Expressions

OSAKA IW

Voice Commands

MIT IW

Head Gestures

RoboChair IW


Joystick / Buttons

Standard

...


Which interaction is best adapted to wheelchair patients ?

Several patient
-
wheelchair interfaces were proposed in the literature

Inputs for patient
-
wheelchair interaction

IntellWheels

Multimodal Interface



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
18

Facial Expressions

Voice Commands

Head Gestures

Joystick / Buttons

...


There is no single input well adapted for all physical limitations

IntellWheels

combines
user inputs (e.g. speech, pen, touch, manual
gestures) in a coordinated manner with multimedia system output

Integrated inputs for the IntellWheels patient
-
wheelchair Multimodal Interface

IntellWheels

Multimodal Interface



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
19

Action:

Wheelchair goes to Room

Blink Left Eye

Say “
Go


IntellWheels

Multimodal Interface


Advantages:


Natural and transparent interaction style


Flexibility

depending
on

the

user

and

context


Adaptable to each user: User defined
input sequences


Freely associated to wheelchair output
actions and interface actions


Friendly Graphical User Interface







IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
20


Simulator and
Intellwheels

prototype were used for testing the IW
usability


46 individuals performing the experiment with a simulated IW


12 individuals performing the experiment with a real IW


Application of a questionnaire with the System Usability Scale (SUS)


UbiSense

System for IW tracking (40 Hz)

Experiments and Results



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
21

Experiments and Results




IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
22


Usability of the Intelligent Wheelchair in real environment is higher than
in the simulated environment


SUS

Mean

Score



63

in

Simulated

Experiment


77

in

Real

Experiment



No statistical evidences to affirm that are differences between real and
simulated environment in terms of safety and control of the IW









Most of the users considered the multimodal way of driving the
wheelchair very practical and satisfactory


Experiments and Results



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
23

Experiments and Results



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
24

Experiments and Results



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
25

Experiments and Results



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
26

IntellWheels

in the Media



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
27


FCT Funding
(FCT/RPID/
ADA/109636/2009
)


INTELLWHEELS
-

Intelligent Wheelchair with Flexible Multimodal Interface was
awarded with RIPD/ADA/109636/2009 FCT funding,

94,360 (July 2010)


FreeBots



Festival
Nacional

de
Robótica

2011


INTELLWHEELS got 2
nd

Place at
FreeBots

2011 competition (held at Festival
Nacional

de
Robótica

2011), IST, Lisbon, April 2011


Galardão

da

Inclusão



Investigação

Aplicada


INTELLWHEELS
-

Intelligent Wheelchair with Flexible Multimodal Interface was
awarded with
Galardão

da

Inclusão
,
Investigação

Aplicada
, at Gala
da

Inclusão
,
I.P.Leiria
,
Leiria
, December 2011


Prémio da Associação Salvador


INTELLWHEELS was awarded with 2
nd

Place (1
st

Menção

Honrosa
) at
Prémios

da

Associação

Salvador “Ser
Capaz
”, (3500
Eur



35% of the total awarded
money), January 2012


Awards



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
28


Platform to Develop Intelligent Wheelchairs


Transformation of electric Wheelchairs into an Intelligent Wheelchair


Low cost, low ergonomic impact


Simulation with mixed reality support


Multimodal Interface


Flexible Multimodal Interface


combination of multiple inputs


User may define his own communication/command language


Collaboration with Health Institutions
(FCT/RPID/
ADA/109636/2009
)


Project started July 2010


ESTSP/IPP


School of Allied Health Science of Porto


APPC


Portuguese Association for Cerebral Palsy


Scientific Project Ends August 2012


Spinoff
-

Commercial Product?


European Project to further develop the concept?



Conclusions



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
29


Prototypes / Hardware


New prototype under development


ASUS
Xtion

for mapping and obstacle avoidance


Simulation


New simulator based on
Usarsim


Multimodal Interface


Eye Gaze Tracking


Facial Expression recognition


Brain Computer interface


Automatic Wheelchair configuration


Patient Modelling


Machine Learning


Experiments with real patients
(FCT/RPID/
ADA/109636/2009
)


ESTSP/IPP

School of Allied Health Science of Porto


APPC


Portuguese Association for Cerebral Palsy

Future/Ongoing Work



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
30

Main

Publications


Journals

and

Book

Chapters

1.
Braga,

Rodrigo
.

A
.
M
.
,

Petry
,

M
.
R
.
,

Moreira
,

A
.
P
.
,

Reis,

L
.
P
.

(
2011
)

IntellWheels
:

A

Modular

Development

Platform

for

Intelligent

Wheelchair
.

JRRD

-

Journal

of

Rehabilitation

Research

and

Development,

IF
:

1
.
36

(accepted

Dec

2010
)

2.
Silva,

Daniel

Castro
;

Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo
;

Oliveira,

Eugénio

(
2011
)
:

Designing

a

Meta
-
Model

for

a

Generic

Robotic

Agent

System

using

GAIA

Methodology

.

Information

Sciences,

Elsevier,

IF
:

3
.
29

(accepted

Dec

2010
)

3.
Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Petry
,

Marcelo
;

Moreira
,

Antonio

Paulo
;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo

(
2009
)
:

Concept

and

Design

of

the

Intellwheels

Platform

for

Developing

Intelligent

Wheelchairs
.

Informatics

in

Control,

Automation

and

Robotics,

Lecture

Notes

in

Electrical

Engineering
,

2009
,

Volume

37
,

Part

3
,

pp
.

191
-
203


Conference

Proceedings

(
Indexed

at

ISI

Web

of

Knowledge
)

4.
Petry
,

Marcelo

R
.;

Moreira
,

Antonio

Paulo
;

Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Reis,

Luis

Paulo

(
2010
)
:

Shared

control

for

obstacle

avoidance

in

intelligent

wheelchairs,

IEEE

Conference

on

Robotics,

Automation

and

Mechatronics
,

RAM

2010
,

pp
.

182
-
187
,

201

5.
Silva,

Daniel

Castro
;

Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo
;

Oliveira,

Eugénio

(
2010
)
:

A

generic

model

for

a

robotic

agent

system

using

GAIA

methodology
:

Two

distinct

implementations,

IEEE

Conference

on

Robotics,

Automation

and

Mechatronics
,

RAM

2010
,

pp
.

280
-
285
,

2010

6.
Frederico

M
.

Cunha,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.

Braga,

Luís

Paulo

Reis

(
2010
)
:

Evaluation

of

a

Communication

Platform

for

Safety

Critical

Robotics
.

Artifical

Intelligence

and

Soft

Computing,

10
th

Int
.

Conf
.

ICAISC

2010
,

Poland,

June

13
-
17
,

2010
,

LNCS

6114
,

Springer

,

pp
.
239
-
246


7.
Cunha,

Frederico

M
.;

Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo

(
2010
)
:

A

Cooperative

Communications

Platform

for

Safety

Critical

Robotics
:

An

Experimental

Evaluation
.

PAAMS

2010
,

Advances

in

Soft

Computing
,

Springer
,

Vol
.
70
,

pp
.
151
-
156


8.
Reis,

Luís

Paulo
;

Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Sousa,

Márcio
;

Moreira,

António

Paulo

(
2009
)
:

IntellWheels

MMI
:

A

Flexible

Interface

for

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair
.

RoboCup

2009
:

13
th

annual

RoboCup

Int
.

Symposium,

Graz,

Austria,

June

29

-

July

5
,

LNCS

5949
,

Springer,

pp
.

296
-
307

9.
Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Malheiro
,

P
.

Reis,

L
.
P
.

(
2009
)
:

Development

of

a

Realistic

Simulator

for

Robotic

Intelligent

Wheelchairs

in

a

Hospital

Environment
.

RoboCup

2009
:

13
th

RoboCup

Int
.

Symposium,

Graz,

Austria,

June

29

-

July

5
,

LNCS

5949
,

Springer
,

pp
.

23
-
34


10.
Braga,R
.

A
.
M
.
,

Petry
,

M
.
R
.
,

Moreira
,

A
.
P
.
,

Reis,

L
.
P
.

(
2008
)
.


ntellwheels
:

A

Development

PlatForm

for

intelligent

wheelchairs

for

disabled

people
.

5
th

ICINCO

2008



Int
.

Conference

on

Informatics

in

Control,

Automation

and

Robotics
.
Vol

I
.

pp
.
115
-
121
.

Funchal
,

Madeira,

Portugal
.

May

11
-
15
,

2008
.

11.
Braga,

R
.

A
.
M
.
,

Petry
,

M
.
R
.
,

Reis,

L
.
P,

Oliveira,

E
.

(
2008
)
.

Multi
-
Level

Control

of

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair

in

a

Hospital

Environment

using

a

Cyber
-
Mouse

Simulation

System
.

ICINCO

2008

-

Int
.

Conf
.

Informatics

in

Control,

Aut
.

and

Robotics
.

Vol

II
.

pp
.
179
-
182
,
Funchal
,
Madeira,

Portugal
.

May

11

15
,

2008
.

12.
Faria,

P
.

M
.

;

Braga,

R
.

A
.

M
.;

Valgôde

E
.

;

Reis

L
.

P
.
(
2007
)
.

Interface

Framework

to

Drive

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair

Using

Facial

Expressions
.

In
:

Proc
.

IEEE

International

Symposium

on

Industrial

Electronics,

2007
,

Vigo
.

IEEE

International

Symposium

on

Industrial

Electronics,

2007
.

pp
.

1791
-
1796
.

13.
Faria,

P
.

M
.

;

Braga,

R
.

A
.

M
.;

Valgôde

E
.

;

Reis

L
.

P
.
(
2007
)
.

Platform

to

Drive

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair

Using

Facial

Expressions
.

Proc
.

9
th

International

Conference

on

Enterprise

Information

Systems

-

Human
-
Computer

Interaction

(
ICEIS

2007
)

2007
:

pp
.
164
-
169



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
31

Other

Publications


Other

Publications

14.
Martins,

Bruno
;

Valgode
,

Eduardo
;

Faria,

Pedro
;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo

(
2006
)
.

Multimedia

Interface

with

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair
.

In

João

M
.

Tavares

and

Renato

N
.

Jorge

(
eds
.
)

Proc
.

of

CompImage

2006



Computational

Modelling

of

Objects

Represented

in

Images
:

Fundamentals

Methods

and

Applications
,

Coimbra,

Portugal,

20
-
21

October
,

2006
,

Taylor

&

Francis

Group
,

London
,

UK,

pp
.

267
-
274
,

2007
,

ISBN
:

978
-
0
-
415
-
43349
-
5

15.
Faria,

Pedro

Miguel
;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo

(
2007
)
.

An

Approach

to

a

Wheelchair

Driving

System

using

Facial

Expressions
.

Proceedings

da

2
ª

Conferência

em

Metodologias

de

Investigação

Científica

(
Comic
07
)
.

pp
.

33
-
43
.

Porto,

Portugal,

February

1
-
2
,

2007

16.
Sousa,

Márcio
;

Braga,

Rodrigo

A
.

M
;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo

(
2008
)
.

Multimodal

Interface

for

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair
.

Proc
.

3
rd

International

Workshop

on

Intelligent

Robotics,

IROBOT

2008
,

October

14
th
.

pp
.

95
-
116

.
Lisbon

University

Institute



ISCTE,

Lisbon,

Portugal,

2008
.

17.
Malheiro,

Pedro
;

Braga

Rodrigo

A
.

M
.;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo

(
2008
)
.

Intellwheels

Simulator
:

A

Simulation

Environment

for

Intelligent

Wheelchairs
.

Proc
.

3
rd

International

Workshop

on

Intelligent

Robotics

,

IROBOT

2008
,

October

14
th
.

pp
.

117
-
128
.

Lisbon

University

Institute



ISCTE,

Lisbon,

Portugal,

2008
.


18.
Braga,

R
.
A
.
M
.
,

Petry
,

M
.
R
.
,

Moreira
,

A
.
P
.
,

Reis,

L
.
P
.

(
2008
)
.

Platform

for

Intelligent

Wheelchairs

Uusing

Multi
-
level

Control

and

Probabilistic

Motion

Model
.

8
th

Portuguese

Conference

on

Automatic

Control
,

Controlo

2008
,

pp
.
833
-
838
,

Vila

Real,

Portugal
.

July

21

23
,
2008
.

19.
Braga,

R
.
A
.
M
.
,

Rossetti
,

R
.
J
.
F
.

Reis,

L
.
P
.
,

Oliveira,

E
.

(
2008
)
.

Applying

multi
-
agent

systems

to

simulate

dynamic

control

in

flexible

manufacturing

scenarios,

in

Agent
-
Based

Modeling

and

Simulation

Symposium,

19
th

European

Meeting

on

Cybernetics

and

Systems

Research
.

Vienna,

March

25
-
28
,

2008
.

Trappl
,

R
.

(Ed
.
)

Cybernetics

and

Systems
.

Vienna
:

Austrian

Society

for

Cybernetic

Studies
.

v
.
2
,

pp
.
488
-
493

20.
Petry
,

Marcelo
;

Braga,

Rodrigo
;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo
;

Moreira
,

António

Paulo

(
2010
)
.

Real
-
Time

Obstacle

Avoidance

for

Intelligent

Wheelchairs

.

Proceedings

of

the

5
th

Doctoral

Symposium

on

Informatics

Engineering

2010

(
DSEI’
10
),

Porto,

Portugal,

28
-
29

January,

pp
.

67
-
78

21.
Faria,

Brígida

Mónica
;

Lau
,

Nuno
;

Reis,

Luís

Paulo

(
2010
)
.

An

Approach

for

Classification

of

Patients

and

Users

of

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair

using

Data

Mining
,

ICH

-

I

International

Health

Congress

Gaia
-
Porto
,

Vila

Nova

de

Gaia,

Portugal,

September

23
-
25
,

2010


PhD

and

MSc

Thesis


1.
Rodrigo

A
.
M
.

Braga,

Plataforma

de

Desenvolvimento

de

Cadeiras

de

Rodas

Inteligentes
,

PhD

Thesis
,

PRODEI
,

FEUP,

November

2010


2.
Marcelo

Roberto

Petry
,

Desenvolvimento

do

Protótipo

e

Controlo

de

uma

Cadeira

de

Rodas

Inteligente,

MSc

Thesis

-

MIEEC
,

February

2008

3.
Pedro

Miguel

Castro

Malheiro,

Intelligent

Wheelchair

Simulation
,

MSc

Thesis

-

MIEEC
,

July

2008

4.
Márcio

Miguel

Couto

de

Sousa,

Multimodal

Interface

for

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair
,

,

MSc

Thesis

-

MIEEC
,

July

2008

5.
José

Carlos

Pinto

Miranda,

Sistema

de

Visão

para

Controlo

de

Cadeira

de

Rodas

Inteligente,

MSc

Artificial

Intelligence

and

Intelligent

Systems

(FEUP

and

FEP),

December

2009

6.
Sérgio

Miguel

Fontes

Vasconcelos
,

Multimodal

Interface

for

an

Intelligent

Wheelchair,

MSc

Thesis

-

MIEIC
,

February

2011



IntellWheels: Intelligent Wheelchair | Luis Paulo Reis |
RPID/
ADA/109636/2009

|Jan
2012|
32



Principal Investigator: Luís Paulo Reis, PhD

(
lpreis@fe.up.pt
)

Main Researchers:
António

Paulo
Moreira

(PhD), Rodrigo Braga (PhD), Marcelo
Petry

(MSc),
Brígida

Mónica

Faria

(MSc),
Sérgio

Vasconcelos

(MSc)




IntellWheels:

Intelligent Wheelchair with Flexible
Multimodal

Interface