Beyond Gazing, Pointing, and Reaching

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13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Beyond Gazing, Pointing, and
Reaching

A Survey of Developmental Robotics

Authors: Max
Lungarella
, Giorgio
Metta

Overview


Introduction




Research areas




Existing theories




Observations and future directions

Introduction


What is developmental robotics?


Use robots to test models from developmental psychology and
neuroscience


Applies insights from ontogenetic development



Why combine robotics with psychology?


Novel methodologies


New research tools



Aim of the article?


Present state of developmental robotics


Motivate use of robots as research tool



Research areas


Criteria


Situatedness


Addressing hypotheses raised by either developmental
psychology or neuroscience


Order of identified research articles


Social Interaction


Sensorimotor control


Categorization


Value systems


Developmental plasticity


Motor skill acquisition and morphological changes



Research area: social interaction


What kind of social
interaction?


Joint attention


Scassellati

(1998, 2001)


Nagai (2002)


Low
-
level imitation


Demiris

(1999)


Development of language


Varshavskaya

(2002)


Social regulation


Dautenhahn

and
Billard

(1999)

Research area:
sensorimotor

control


Crucial to interact with world


Examples


Control of reaching


Marjanovic

(1996)


Metta

(1999)


Control of grasp


Coehlo

(2001)


Interaction with objects


Metta

and Fitzpatrick (2003)


Interaction with environment


Berthouze

(1996)



Research area: categorisation


Categorisation in developmental robotics


How categories are formed


By interaction
with
environment, searching for
correlations between
sensors


Categorisation of objects


Scheuer

and
Lambrinos

(1996)



Sensorimotor related categorisation


Berthouze

and
Kuniyoshi

(1998)





Research area: value system


Value systems in robotics


Internal mediator of environmental stimuli/events


Used to guide exploration process



Value dependant learning


Learning technique where value system alters the learning by:


Specifying mechanisms by which stimuli can modulate
learning


Providing system with input that essentially is signal filtered by agent’s value
system


Almassy

(1998)


simulated neural model, value system altered strength of
connection from neurons of visual area to ones of motor area


Lungarella

and
Berthouze

(2002)


value system used to explore
parameter space


Research area: developmental plasticity


Brain inspired


developing a brain is plastic (flexible) and the plasticity is
experience dependent


Almassy

(1998)


Self generated movements crucial for emergence and development of
visual responses


Foveal

preference


Research area: morphological changes and
motor skill acquisition


Morphological changes


For example: body growth


One of the most explicit characteristics of ongoing developmental
processes


Articles:


Lungarella

and
Berthouze

(2002)


How morphological changes influence acquisition of motor skills?


Does inherent
adaptivity

of motor development lead to behaviours not
obtainable by simple value based regulation of neural parameters?


Comparative analysis between simultaneous and progressive use of available
DOFs.


Simultaneous use of available DOFs reduces probability of
physical
entrainment.






Exisiting

theories


Developmental engineering:


Brooks and Stein (1991): development as way to construct intelligent
robotic systems


Aim: “to show that adoption of framework of biological development is
suitable for construction of artificial systems”.


Recognising long sequences of cause
-
effect relationships characterises
learning in real context


Features of human
-
like intelligent systems (Brooks, 1998):


Development


Embodiment


Social interaction


Multisensory integrations


Key assumptions:


Human intelligence not as general purpose as thought


Intelligence does not require monolithic control system


Intelligent agent does not require centrally stored model of real world





Existing theories cont.


Cognitive Developmental Robotics:


Asada (2001)


Aim: “to avoid implementing robot’s control structure according to
designer’s understanding of robot’s physics, but to allow robot develop its
own understanding”.


Robot no longer given externally designed structure


Autonomous Mental Development:


Weng

(2001)


States that for robot to be truly mental developed means to be non
-
task
specific


Aim: to develop robots that are non
-
task specific and able to develop own
task representation that could not be possibly embedded a priori by
designer






Observations and future directions


Majority of studies reviewed in paper belong to either
social interaction or
sensorimotor

control.


Researchers underline importance of developing robots
with social and early motor competencies


very few try
to achieve it.


Future direction: going beyond “gazing, pointing and
reaching”