APPLICATION-OF-ROBOTICS-IN-AGRICULTUREx

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13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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APPLICATION OF


ROBOTICS IN
AGRICULTURE

presented by: Devidas s kini and Nandesh


mechanical branch

GSIT karwar

CONTENTS


Introduction


Application of robotics


Weeding


Robotic weeding


Construction


Flame method


Improvement


Conclusion


Acknowledgement


R
eferences

AGRICULTURE


It is also called farming or the cultivation of plants,
animals and other life forms for food biofuel, drugs
and other products used to sustain and enhance
human


In the developed world Industrial agriculture based
on large scale monoculture has become dominant
system of modern farming

INTRODUCTION

ROBOTICS




Robotics is branch of science that deals with design,
construction, operation.


It uses computer system for its mechanism like
sensory feedback information processing


That can replace or resemble humans in dangerous
environment and manufacturing process.

WHY??


The farmers world wide remain at high risk of work
related injuries such as skin disease as well as
certain cancers related to chemical use and
prolonged sun exposure


Use of pesticides and other chemicals used in
farming can also be hazardous to worker health and
in case where families commonly share in work and
live on the farm itself so the entire family can be at
risk for injuries, illness and death

weeding


Weeding

is a type of pest control using chemical or physical method to
stop weeds reaching the mature stage where they can harm
domesticated plants and livestock, the basic method is
ploughing(cutting
the roots of weeds) or use of herbicides


As shortage of labour has been a problem in agriculture as stated above
as well as herbicides may harm the naturality of the soil, we go for the
use of
automated machines

with nature friendly techniques of removal
of weeds

ROBOTIC WEEDING


There are several methods that can kill and remove
unwanted plants
without using chemicals
.
T
hese
can range from total removal down to simple
retardation.in principle there are three main areas
there that requires different treatment

1.
Inter row areas

2.
Intra row areas

3.
Close to crop areas


Inter row area is simple because there is large space
between the rows


Intra row is little difficult because of irregular spacing of
plants


In close to crop area weeds are likely to grow more inn
number and
needs more care and accuracy
. So as not to
damage the plant

CONSTRUCTION


Autonomous system requires a vehicle and cameras
for weed detection and mapping


It is equipped with
RTK
-

GPS
on top of that it is
designed with an operating console connected to
spraying devices sensors or weeding tools. Vehicle
must communicate with the farm management for
navigation and proper recognition of weeds


Development and construction of an autonomous robot for
weed control in row crops e.g. sugar beets or maize. The
robot can be divided into four main modules:


1. A vehicle as a platform for carrying e.g. weeding tools for
in
-

row weeding. The vehicle could be equipped with the
control modules described below
.



2. A control unit, with input from Vision, GPS, and other
necessary sensors, are providing the vehicle and the tools
with the necessary control signals
.



3. A GPS module that provides the vehicle with its global
position in real time.


4
. A vision system detecting the position of the crop relative
to the vehicle position.


The
autonomous vehicle should be developed to test
different sensor systems and tools in the field. The vehicle
should be able to work under field conditions, where the
vehicle can be disturbed by irregularities, when following a
specified path.


The
control software is intended to be executed on a PC
physically attached to the vehicle. Interface cards, the serial
and parallel ports will be used for communication with the
peripherals. The control software is going to be developed
with a high level programming language and is going to work
on a Windows operating system. This is chosen because of
our expertise in this area, the flexibility, and the large
number of available interface cards with drivers. The control
of motors and the higher
-
level path control are intended to
be solved with classical methods


T
esting
RTK/GPS is made one of the main goals.


Vision
the
development of the vision system is not a
primary goal. Therefore, we want to make the
vision system simple and it should just be able to
recognize spots on the ground with good contrast to
the ground. It should be possible to replace this
simple module with more advanced modules for
crop recognition in the field.




From the test conducted it is known that if
herbicides are used in right way at right time it
becomes a great way for prevention of weeds
without of much harming the plants


As the controlled use of herbicides can be a
problem to humans we can use a micro sprayer in
robotic vehicle and removal of weeds in the close to
crop region we can use flame method or laser
method

MICRO SPRAYER


The
use of a micro spray that delivers very small
amounts directly on to the weed leaf has been
fitted to the crop scouting
robot.
Machine vision
can be used to identify the position of an individual
weed plant and a set of nozzles mounted close
together can squirt a herbicide on to the weed.
Tests have shown that splashing can be reduced
when a gel is used as a carrier rather than water



FLAME METHOD


A computer with a camera detects the individual
plants in the row and the software calculates the
position of the plants the plant detection algorithm
can distinguish between crop and weed


When a crop plant is passing the position of the
plant is recorded by the camera. When the same
plant a moment later is passing under the array of
burners.


Signals are sent from the computer which causes the
plasma jets adjacent to the plant to be switched off
where as other jets are kept on. This pattern of on and
off jets are moving along the array with same speed as
the machine driving forward the result is that the
pattern of hot plasma jets is stationary with respect to
the ground while the machine is passing in much the
same way as the belts of the caterpillar stays still while
the vehicle is passing. The end result is that the weed is
destroyed and the crop is spared.


HOW WE CAN IMPROVE



Precision crop protection is said to reduce the application of pesticides
and the input of physical plant
protection.


Chemical
and mechanical weed control methods in some cases show
disadvantages and limits. The thermal weed control can be an efficient
alternative to herbicides and physical treatment.


In
this case high temperature is carried by a supporting agent over the
plant. The denaturation of the proteins caused by high temperature
stops the process of plant growing.


Already
known as a thermal weed control method are the flame
-
scarfing
technic and the application of hot water or hot foam. In order to find a
suitable laser, we have to check the interaction between plant and laser
treatment and define the application process.


To
detect the perfect target for the laser, different tissues will be tested
(e.g. leaf tissue, stems and meristem) as well as the distance between
laser and plant and the length and frequency of the application. The aim
of the project is to
analyze
the
existence
of growth depression effects
after a treatment with laser and to
characterize
how strong these
depressions are.


CONCLUSIONS


An initial outcome from this study indicates that most of
these autonomous systems are more flexible than
conventional systems and may reduce labor costs and
restrictions on the number of daily working hours.


Moreover
, it is possible to substitute the most trivial working
routines with autonomous systems although some routines
are nearly impossible to automate due to the required
accuracy of the specific tasks
.


In
addition, at this stage of development, the initial
investments and annual costs for expensive GPS systems are
still relatively high but it seems possible to design economic
viable robotic systems for grass cutting, crop scouting and
autonomous weeding.

AKNOWLEDGEMENT


I thank MR. RAGHAVENDRA KULKARNI (HOD
MECHANICAL) for guiding
me, I
thank our principal
MR. RAJENDRA KUMAR for giving me opportunity
to write this
paper, I
thank our librarian for giving us
references


Thank you

QUESTION AND
QUERIES