ADVANCED DISPLAYS FOR DISMOUNTED WARFIGHTERS

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ADVANCED DISPLAYS FOR DISMOUNTED WARFIGHTERS

21
-
22 SEPTEMBER 2010

UNCLASSIFIED

UNCLASSIFIED

Outline


Introduction


Types of Advanced Displays


Current Displays and Lessons Learned


Occluded Helmet Mounted Displays


Head Mounted Displays


Fused Night Vision Goggles


Conformational Displays


Tactile Displays


Flex Displays


See
-
through Helmet Mounted Displays


Augmented reality displays and Enhanced Cognition


Conclusions



Introduction

The purposes for using displays are:



to present or hold up to view




to provide information or graphics on a screen



to provide a representation of information

x+3=5

X=2

Now just a minute, earlier

you said x equals 4!

Introduction

The purpose of advanced displays is to
immerse warfighters in the operation so
they can experience and convey critical
information from real
-
time data feeds in
an intuitive, recognition
-
based manner.

Multifunction Displays (MFDs)

Definition
-

a display surface which, through
hardware or software, is capable of displaying
information from multiple sources, in several
different reference frames. It may display
different groups of data one at a time or in a


combined fashion.

Introduction

Multifunction, not multiple displays

Types of Advanced Displays

HMDs

Fused NVGs

Tactile Displays

Notebooks

PDAs

Flexible Displays

GMDs


Augmented Reality

Displays

Headmounted

Body
-
worn or Carried

Occluded

See
-
through

Formed

Configurable


Color Helmet

Mounted Display

FBCB2

The Soldier is the most difficult “combat platform” to interface with!



One Size never fits all



Soldiers have different opinions



Soldier Acceptability is critical

Current Systems

AN/PVS
-
14 NVG


Current Displays and

Lessons Learned

Introduction

The Future


Nett Warrior

All BCTs

Navigation Module
Battery
GPS
Antenna
Computer
Helmet
Mounted
Display
Headset &
Mic
Soldier
Control Unit
Soldier
Radio/
Antenna
Navigation Module
Battery
GPS
Antenna
Computer
Helmet
Mounted
Display
Headset &
Mic
Soldier
Control Unit
Soldier
Radio/
Antenna
Land Warrior

2005

Land Warrior

“Manchu”

2007

Land Warrior

“Strike”

2008/2009

Nett Warrior

2012/2017


Command & Control


-

Soldier: Voice & Data


-

Leader: Voice & Data





Key Attributes


-

Weapon: Subsystem


-

Radio: EPLRS


-

Interoperability: w/ FBCB2






Size & Weight


-

11 components


-

16 pounds




Command & Control


-

Soldier: No capability


-

Leader: Voice & Data




Key Attributes


-

Weapon: Dropped


-

Radio: EPLRS


-

Interoperability: w/ limited external


assets





Size & Weight


-

9 components


-

11 pounds




Command & Control


-

Soldier: No capability


-

Leader: Voice & Data




Key Attributes


-

Weapon: Dropped


-

Radio: EPLRS


-

Interoperability:
-

UGV interoperability for


IED Defeat


-

Air/Ground Integration thru SADL




Size & Weight


-

7 components


-

9 pounds


Command & Control


-

Soldier: Interoperable with Soldier Voice & PLI


-

Leader: Digital Voice & Data





Key Attributes


-

Weapon: Dropped


-

Radio: EPLRS/JTRS (P3I) and Open


Architecture


-

Interoperability: increased w/ external sensors


(JBC
-
P and Fire Control Systems)




Size & Weight


-

Minimum essential


-

10 pounds (Objective)


Evolution From Land Warrior To

Ground Soldier System (
Nett Warrior
):

Current Path to Modernization

Current Displays and

Lessons Learned

Introduction

Cognitive Walkthroughs with Target Audience Soldiers


Several Iterations of User Juries for the Ground Soldier System




Ease of training



Intuitiveness



Speed



Errors


Limited Hardware Evaluations




Icons


Current Displays and

Lessons Learned

Occluded Head Mounted Displays


Currently planned for many systems (NETT Warrior, Common Controller,
etc.)


Lightweight


Relatively high resolution and easier to read


Require less power than many portable devices


Less glare than many portable devices


Hands free



Both real world and HMD imagery must be within the user’s depth of
field, dark focus and dark vergence


Restricted field of view can impair performance and adversely affect the
ability to see the “whole picture” and reduce SA


Binocular rivalry


Competition for the attention of the wearer/attentional tunneling which
adversely affects dual task performance


Eyestrain and blurry vision


As HMD wearers move their heads, displayed objects in front continue
to be in front and this is unnatural


Motion sickness, often explained as being caused by sensory conflict.


Interference with night vision devices and weapon sights


Fogging due to weather


Potential for placing the musculoskeletal system of the head and


neck under increased levels of stress




POTENTIAL PROBLEMS

Occluded Head Mounted Displays


Scaling Robotic Displays: Displays and Techniques for
Dismounted Movement with Robots


Soldiers performed significantly worse with the GMD than
they did with the HHD on course completion times, driving
errors, and the number of times they drove off course.


Soldiers also preferred the HHD to the GMD and rated the
workload with the HHD lower.

Helmet Mounted Displays

Occluded Head Mounted Displays

Dismounted Land Navigation Study

PTN Tactile System: GPS sensor, electronic compass,

processing unit,

battery pack,

eight tactors placed equidistant,

on
a belt around the torso,

worn over T
-
shirt




LAND WARRIOR HMD GPS SYSTEM




HANDHELD GPS PLGR



1. 24 Soldiers (N = 21)

2. 3 routes, each with 2 waypoints & endpoint, each approx 1800m

3. 3 systems: Tactile, PLGR, LW HMD

4. Order of routes and systems counterbalanced




Helmet Mounted Displays

Occluded Head Mounted Displays


Occluded Head Mounted Displays

Dismounted Land Navigation
Outcomes





System
% Reached
PTN
100
PLGR
100
LW
100
Target Detection

12.5
13
13.5
14
14.5
15
15.5
16
16.5
17
Nav Speed
PTN
LW
PLGR
0
2
4
6
8
10
Targets
PTN
LW
PLGR
Helmet Mounted Displays


Occluded Head Mounted Displays

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Easy to learn
Easy to use
Easy to tell where
located
Ease to stay on
Route
Accuracy of
guidance
PTN
LWS
PLGR
Very bad

Very good

Good

Somewhat good

Neutral

Somewhat bad

Bad

Helmet Mounted Displays

Dismounted Land Navigation
Soldier Feedback

Fused Night Vision Goggles

Urban Enhanced Night Vision Goggle

Enhanced Night Vision Goggle

Occluded Head Mounted Displays

Scene Interpretation

OVERLAY COLOR





Contrasting color for FLIR

image vs. green I
2

image

improves target detection

speed and range.



Bonnett, Redden, & Carstens, 2003




Contrasting color also

assists in differentiating

terrain characteristics.

Fused Night Vision Goggles

Occluded Head Mounted Displays

High Thermal



Target Detection



Patrolling

Navigation

High I
2


Optimal Mix of


I
2

and Thermal


Depends on Purpose

Fused Night Vision Goggles

Occluded Head Mounted Displays

Urban Enhanced Night Vision Goggles
(UENVG)

Urban Enhanced Night Vision Goggles
(UENVG)


UENVG is a prototype system used to determine the impact of adding a
Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) capability into the existing ENVG system.


SWIR


works in darker conditions than I
2


can see objects with great clarity on moonless nights because
night sky radiance (nearly all in SWIR wavelengths) emits 5 to 7
times more illumination than starlight )


is not visible to the human eye but interacts in a similar manner as
visible wavelengths


has shadows and contrast and can see through glass


Flexible Displays



Near term Objectives


Compare indoor and outdoor sunshine


readability



Collect Soldier opinions on the technology



Recent Efforts



Evaluations at Fort Benning (2009, 2010)


Handheld and Forearm


Instructors from Warrior Training Center



Evaluation at Fort Bliss (2009)



Survey of

9 prototypes



Benefits



Much less glare, lighter, rugged



Much less power consumption



Longer battery life

Occluded Head Mounted Displays

Near
-
term: Rugged, Low Power, Compact,
Lightweight

Far
-
term vision: Novel form
-
factors

Enabled by

FDC’s Unique

GEN II (37x47cm)

Pilot Line toolset

and People

21 Partners Representing:

Display Technology

Manufacturing Tool Suppliers

Materials Developers

Defense Contractors

Conformational Displays


Flexible Displays

Conformational Displays

Scalability of Robotic Displays: An Evaluation of Controller Display Options



Evaluated 3 options for TALON controller Display:


-

6.5 inch Split Screen


-

3.5 inch Toggle Screen


-

3.5 inch Toggle Screen plus Tactile belt

Results



3.5 Toggle Screen associated with slower


performance and higher workload


than either (A) or (C). No difference between


(A) and (C)




Tactile belt enabled a smaller screen while


providing cues that supported performance.


Tactile Displays

Conformational Displays

3.5”Toggle Display

6.5” Split Screen

3.5” Toggle Display with Tactile Belt


Tactile Displays


Subjective Measures


Task difficulty and SA ratings were worse for the toggle
display.


Some Soldiers preferred the toggle/tactile display
because they felt they were able to pay more attention to
the driving display while wearing it.


Others preferred the split screen display because of the
wealth of information provided.


A fixed position camera and latency cause some driving
difficulties.


The egocentric GPS caused problems when Soldiers
glanced away from the screen.


Conformational Displays


Tactile Displays

See
-
through Displays


Augmented Reality Display


The Last 18 Inches: How can you improve perception, squad coordination, and
decision making in tactical, high stress urban operations?


Squads and platoons are not well served by current information systems


Overloaded: too much 2D, 3D, video data


Confusing: irrelevant data, old, out
-
of
-
scale, inaccurate


Optimized for strategic levels, not tactical block
-
to
-
block, not flowing from bottom
-
up


Its getting worse: soldiers/vehicles as sensors, geospatial & human network models


Most equipment today distracts during operations


Pain in the neck: heavy, cumbersome, ill
-
suited for on the move


Can’t make use when and where needed, intended for desktop


Need for “on the go” interfaces, computing, sensing



Independent module development, proliferation of multiple methods (the TV remote problem)


High stress tactical decision making


Hard to remember important stuff


Too much to pay attention to


Need tools to aid attention and memory

See
-
through Displays


Augmented Reality Display


Extend superiority into short
-
range combat inside urban and jungle
environments.


Extend collaborative planning, rehearsal, and execution capabilities from company
to squad level.


Enable quieter, non
-
linear, distributed, increased op tempo, 3D operations (e.g.
take down building from 3 directions)


Enable effective, quick dynamic
replanning


Reduce chaos, fratricide, avoid surprises

Squads Need

Omniscience

&

Telepathy

within the City Block

“I’ve got

your back!”

See
-
through Displays


Augmented Reality Display


Make data useful to platoon/squad/soldier in context


Geospatial registration of annotations


Agent
-
based systems to recognize intent, state


Tools to leverage models for preview, execution, debrief


Relevance at the level of seconds and meters


Make communication for squads and platoons more effective


Integrate planning, execution, and debrief in one system


Improve remote (higher command) understanding of local
ops/data/history by virtual
experience


Make interaction with information “on the go”


Overwatch feeding/filtering information selectively


Interface sensors respond to natural body actions, non
-
screen
interfaces


Advances in smaller, lighter, lower power, higher resolution displays,
computing, sensing enable head/body worn approaches


Make overwatch automatic


Plan via analogy


Fuse, filter, prioritize information automatically (learn)

See
-
through Displays


Augmented Reality Display


Civilian technology offers examples to
learn from and leverage…


Madden Board and first down line


graphics registered in scene
images for enhanced communication


Nintendo
Wii

as “natural interaction”


NFL offensive play caller


in booth above field


overwatch

feeds info
to coach and QB


Nascar

crew chief communication to driver


“Mission Impossible” controller feeding data and info to agents in
mission/field


Blackberry,
iPhone
, iPod, HUD (Private Eye) displays and interfaces


Social information systems like
GoogleEarth
,
Facebook
, Wikipedia,
wwmx.org, rich info sources with engaging interfaces


GoogleEarth

is an example of local users creating overlays on global 3D
base model maintained/updated centrally


Conclusions


The Dismounted
Warfighter

is the most difficult
c
ustomer

for d
isplays
.



Display technology c
ontinues

to advance and today’s
f
ailures

may be tomorrows s
uccesses
.



Displays should be chosen based on mission
requirements, echelon level and on environmental
considerations.



Human factors considerations and experimentation are
critical for effective display design.