2012 Advisory Panel

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13 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 1 μήνα)

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2012 Advisory Panel

Electromechanical System Solutions

Joe Beno

Center for Electromechanics

The University of Texas at Austin

12/4/2012

Introduction


Electromechanical System Solutions


Synergistic combination of electromechanical hardware
(actuators, motors, generators); controls and related software;
sensors and related software; communication and related
software; transducers; power electronics; processors; materials
science; and all interconnections.


Key applications


Almost any electrically powered device or system that moves
itself or something else under its own power.


This talk focuses on motion control systems, actuation systems,
robotic systems and anything else not covered by other talks.


Key Challenges


Get Ahead of the
Wave (or at least ride it!)

1.
Exploit advances in all related fields, especially
computation, analysis and power electronics.

2.
Improve Integration and Systems Engineering.

3.
Identify commercially viable products and
commercially viable new science.


Source: Lyshevski textbook

on Mechatronics

Mechatronics: New engineering discipline that
emerged in ~2000.

CEM vision also includes material science and
systems engineering.

At Universities the disciplines of Electrical
Engineering, Computer Science, Mechanical
Engineering and Material Sciences are still
largely represented by separate departments


after 40 years CEM still needed to focus on
cross discipline applications.

Significant Recent Programs

Hobby Eberly Telescope


20 ton robot to move
optical package along


trajectories to




within ~5





microns in





real time.

Significant Recent Programs

HET Tracker Video

Significant Recent Programs

Giant Magellan Telescope Azimuth and Elevation
Drives Design Study


New class of super large telescopes


Operational in ~2020 in Atacama Desert, Chile


7 Large mirrors, viewing area 80 ft in diameter


Long circular track (~60 m);
permanent magnet
direct drive solution


4 forcer heads per track, ~6,700 lbf total


Integrate with GMT control system


Less than 2% force ripple (desire close to 0.1%)


Must stay with 2
o

C of ambient


Minimize size and weight




Significant Recent Programs

GMT Azimuth Drive Design Tour Video

Significant Recent Programs

Oshkosh 90,000 lb Airport Rescue and
Firefighting (ARFF) Active Suspension System


2.5x to 4x increase in vehicle per wheel
mass compared to previous vehicles


Required hybrid power train
development: 10 Farad Cap storage,
200 kW peak power, 48 kW avg power


6 actuators, each with 17,300 lbf peak and
6,600 lbf continuous


3.5x force and 2x speed (7 m/s wheel
vertical speed) of previous suspension
actuators


Result: 3x increase in cross country speed


Result: Greatly improved handling and
safety


eliminates roll on high g turns



Significant Recent Programs

ARFF Highlights Video

Significant Recent Programs

NASA Vibration Isolation System


Isolates electronics racks on heavy lift
vehicle launch platforms (e.g., space
shuttle mobile launch platform).


Disturbance rejection up to 2 kHz (high
bandwidth actuators)


2.75 ton payload


Vertical velocity primarily less than 1 m/s


Actuator stroke ~6 inches


Very low friction system


Developed new “voice
-
coil” actuator


Significant Recent Programs

NASA Vibration Isolation Video

Recent and Ongoing Smaller Scale
EM System Examples


High Temperature Superconducting Magnetic
Bearings for Ultra Low Loss Flywheel Systems



Aggregate Screen Actuator (sifts and
separates gravel by size; 100 Hz, 3250 lbf,
homopolar actuator with PM bias)



Canfield Joint as Gimbal Replacement System
for Satellite Reaction Wheels (~2 kg)



Small programs with potential to expand
CEM expertise and applications

Key CEM Strength


Modeling and Simulation

Key CEM Strength


Culture
of Model Verification

Key CEM Strength


Balanced System Design

Geared Actuator Weight vs. Gear Ratio

Active Suspension Alternator

System Design

Power Electronics

Mechanical Advantage

Power Source

Auxiliaries

~3
MW Flywheel Battery &
Power Electronics

High Peak
-
to
-
Average

Dual Motor Controller

Key CEM Strength


Multidisciplinary Analysis

Specifications


X axis,140 turns @ 12 Amps per coil


M19 Laminations 0.063 in, 1.5 deep


Air gap 0.100 in @ 14 in diameter


O.D. 20 in, I.D. 8 in


0 Hz


Neumman Boundary Conditions

x

x

EM FEA of Coil Circuit of Screen Actuator

Key CEM Strength


Effective
Use of Energy Storage

Flywheel

Mechanical Springs

PM (Potential Energy)

Caps; Ultra
-
Caps

Batteries

How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Identify and Develop New Opportunities


CEM traditional customer’s budgets are declining. Their response: keep current staff and
reduce/eliminate external contracts (Army R&D centers/labs, NASA, ONR)


One exception: Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) and Small Business
Technology Transfer (STTR) programs: established by Congress and must be externally
contracted to small businesses


Some military system procurements surviving


More focused on application of existing technology, more production oriented, less
research


More focused on OEM’s


DOE: Doing energy research (a CEM strength), but has major cost share requirements


Impact:


Must develop new customers (DARPA, industry)


Must team with industry more for military procurements


Must team with industry more for SBIR/STTR’s (small contracts with opportunities for
expanding CEM areas of expertise)


Must team with industry more for DOE opportunities


CEM program mangers must expand outreach to industry and new customers (
travel
)

How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Identify and Exploit New/Emerging Technology


CEM uniqueness is applied R&D through advanced prototype hardware


Usually (but not always) exploits basic R&D or new products from other
organizations


Example: Toray T1000G fiber critical to increased flywheel energy density that
was significant motivation for government sponsors to fund CEM flywheel
research in the 1990’s and early 2000’s.


Example: Emerging permanent magnet materials and improved
processing/controls critical to development active magnetic bearings that was
significant motivation for government sponsors to fund CEM flywheel research
in the 1990’s and early 2000’s.


Example: Emerging COTS motor generators, advanced analysis capabilities,
new processing/controls technology critical to CEM active suspension program
from 1993 to ~2005.


Has been a major source of CEM innovation in the past.


Impact:


CEM must expand outreach efforts to identify new/emerging technology


CEM must expand awareness of relevant R&D developments
and their potential
before industry and other R&D organizations


How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Develop New Areas of CEM Expertise


Active funded areas of R&D grow old and funding wanes.


Newness and excitement wears off.


Upcoming government and industry leaders want to make their own mark.


Sometimes, after sufficiently long lulls, R&D area re
-
emerges


New technology expands possibilities


Other options don’t pay off and they wear out their welcome


Impact:


CEM must continually develop new areas of expertise


Past examples: flywheel energy storage systems, active suspension systems, oil and
gas support areas (subject of later talk); telescope movement control systems


How to establish a new area of expertise?


Get smart through equivalent of IR&D


Team with other experts


Establish a presence through papers, conferences, meetings, outreach.


How To Develop $3M to $5M New
Annual Funding for EM Systems

Required Resources


One 3 day trip per month (~$1,800 average travel cost per trip)


Cultivating new sponsors, joint planning/budgeting/proposing activities with
industry members, visiting government agencies, attending meetings, and
attending 2
-
3 conferences per year


0.5 days planning and arranging trip, preparing briefings, etc.


1 day follow
-
up from trip


2 hrs per day when not on travel for white papers, responding to budget
requests, maintaining contact and presence with sponsors and team members,
searching for funding opportunities, etc.


3 major proposal efforts per year (4 PI man
-
days and 4 engineering support
man
-
days each)


Total: ~$9.5K / month


My current B&P budget: $1,670/month (not enough to cover one average trip
if I use vacation time to cover my labor cost).


If successful, UT will earn $1M to $1.6M in overhead and CEM will receive
$290K to $500K direct funding for admin, lab services, software, etc.
per year

after the building year.


Near Term Focus


Re
-
energize flywheel energy storage programs


After having plateaued for ~20 years, Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) offer 30
-
50% improvement
in energy density in near term to reinforce existing carbon fibers and 1 to 2 orders of
magnitude in long term to replace existing carbon fibers


Team with organizations with appropriate CNT expertise


Exploit SBIRs/STTRs to get started and build technology and “presence”


Will significantly outperform other forms of energy storage (e.g., Li batteries)


Cost will be an issue


After having plateaued for ~20 years, magnetic bearings are poised to make major step in
efficiency through use of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) Trapped Field Magnets
(TFM)


Also exploits advancements in COTS cryo
-
cooling technology


Builds on CEM recognized expertise in HTS generators


Builds on past CEM STTR for HTSMBs for flywheels


Exploit SBIRs/STTRs to get started and build technology and “presence”


Government is showing renewed interest in flywheel energy storage systems (Li batteries
are showing initial signs of wearing out their welcome)


NASA has major internal flywheel development program, needs CEM composite and
HTSMB expertise, and want to team with CEM to go after DARPA money


Favorable circumstance: new DARPA program manager, friend of NASA, and flywheel advocate


Flywheel Technology Status and Roadmap paper may help focus Government funding




Near Term Focus


Exploit leading edge telescope motion control system expertise


Follow
-
on to Giant Magellan Telescope main axis drives system study


Several consortiums have new super large telescopes in various stages
of planning and design


Contracts often spread among consortium members and consortium
countries


Continue to pursue industry support for active suspension projects


Builds on existing CEM customers and CEM active suspension
reputation


New Government interest in Semi
-
active suspension systems (subset of
CEM technology


Expand to new areas


Robotics


U.S. lags in industrial robots but leads in compliant robots that physically
interact with humans


Have will continue to team with Professor Deshpande, U.T. Department of
Mechanical Engineering




Discussion and Questions