MCT/CNPq/FNDCT/CAPES/FAPEMIG/
FAPERJ/FAPESP
–
INSTITUTOS NACIONAIS DE
CIÊNCIA E TECNOLOGIA
Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia

Informação Quântica (INCT

IQ)
National Institute of Science and Technology
–
Quantum Information
Coordinator: Prof.
Amir O. Caldeira
Unicamp
Vice

coordinator: Prof. Luiz Davidovich
UFRJ
Introduction
The field of Quantum Information concerns the study of methods for characterizing, transmitting,
processing, storing, compressing and utilizing information contained i
n quantum mechanical systems.
This interest has led to the detailed investigation of a large number of physical systems in search of
candidate architecture in which to implement these techniques. Quantum Information is a
multidisciplinary field, which has
developed rapidly in the last few years, motivated by fundamental
aspects as well as promising perspectives of applications in computation, communication and
cryptography.
This proposal regards the creation of a National Institute of Science and Technolo
gy
–
Quantum
Information (INCT

IQ). The importance of this institute derives from the need to develop basic research
that will in turn generate technology based on quantum computation and communication. In particular,
research directed towards communicatio
n technology based on quantum cryptography is extremely
important, given that quantum cryptography is the only intrinsically secure method for transmitting secret
information. This has led to a strong effort in the direction of commercial devices for quant
um
cryptography, funded directly by government and industry. Moreover, prototypes developed by research
groups [GISIN02] and businesses [IDQUANTIQUE, MAGICQ, SMARTQUANTUM] are currently
available. Additional interest in Quantum Information is related to th
e fact that a quantum computer can
in principle perform tasks that are intractable with even the most powerful classical computers. One
important example is the factorization of large numbers. Factorization and other similar mathematical
operations form th
e basis of present classical cryptography technology. The construction of a quantum
computer therefore threatens the security of past and present communication as well as electronic
commerce. Therefore, the academic, the commercial and the strategic points
of view require that Brazil
increase its efforts and pursue the state of the art in this highly international field.
In order to situate the proposed INCT

IQ within the international scene and latest developments in the
Quantum Information field, we woul
d like to briefly introduce the history of the field, while also
summarizing the main achievements in recent theoretical and experimental research. Historically, one can
identify interesting similarities between the ``Industrial Revolution´´ in the 18th an
d 19th centuries, and
the ``Information Revolution´´ currently in progress. The former was possible, mostly due to important
scientific advances of the time, such as the development and application of the theories of
Thermodynamics and Electrodynamics. In
the latter, one identify incredible progress, again due primarily
to the development and application of two scientific theories: Quantum Mechanics and Information
Theory. Quantum Mechanics is essential for the design of semi

conductor devices and lasers, w
hich are
crucial components in computers, the Internet, cell phones, CD and DVD players, digital cameras and
many other devices. Information Theory has advanced the quantification and manipulation of
information, as for instance, in providing methods for c
ompressing digital information such as in MP3
files. The fundamental character of the advances in both theories forms a considerable juxtaposition with
their impact on the daily life of ordinary people through the subsequent technologic applications.
Curr
ently, we find ourselves at the beginning of a new chapter in the history of the ``Information
Revolution´´, where quantum properties play an essential. Even though most information processing
devices depend on the laws of Quantum Mechanics (like in a tran
sistor), the information in itself is of a
classical nature. Here we are referring to the usual classical bits of information, which are processed in a
computer or transmitted in a digital communication channel. However, the current evolution of these
elec
tronic devices leads to the reduction of the size of electronic components to the quantum level. This
miniaturization thus requires that engineers and physicists face the quantum aspects of information sooner
or later. Whether one is interested in taking a
dvantage of the quantum properties of physical systems for
quantum information processing and transmission as mentioned above, or one is concerned with the
miniaturization of components, it is inevitable that one must eventually consider the quantum charac
ter of
the information itself.
This situation has lead to a great scientific and technological race over the last few years, in which the
manipulation of the quantum properties of matter and radiation is the main goal. Atoms, ions, photons,
quantum dots
(semi

conductor devices) and also superconductor devices, are candidates for applications
which have no counterpart in the classical world. The idea of taking advantage of quantum mechanical
laws for practical application is not recent. Early work by physi
cists such as Richard
Feynman[FEYNMAN82] and David Deutsch[DEUTSCH84] had already pointed in this direction. Their
revolution idea was that the exotic properties of quantum systems could be used to actually improve some
tasks in information processing. Ten
years later, more concrete ideas in this sense began to appear. Of key
importance was the demonstration that certain algorithms, such as those of factoring and search of an
unstructured data base, could be improved when implemented with quantum bits, perf
orming better than
their classical counterparts [SHOR94,GROVER97]. In addition, a quantum cryptography scheme was
proposed by Bennett and Brassard [BENNETT84], in which the security is intrinsically assured due to
quantum principles such as the uncertainty
principle and the ``no

cloning theorem´´. These early
applications contributed to show that not only do quantum bits have the potential to replace classical bits,
but also offer incredible improvements.
Parallel to this development, there have been con
siderable achievements concerning fundamental
concepts, which are now part of the history of the birth of Quantum Information. In this case quantum
entanglement, which has been a point of intrigue for physicists since the early years of Quantum
Mechanics
[EISTEIN05,BELL64], plays the most prominent role. A principal part of the research efforts
in Quantum Information concerns the generation, characterization and transmission of entangled states.
To date, entangled states have been produced with two [KWIAT9
9,MAIR01], three [PAN00], four
[LAMAS

LINARES01] and even six photons [LU07]. These photonic entangled states have been used in
the implementation of quantum teleportation [BOUWMEESTER97, FURUSAWA98, PAN03B,
ZHANG06], which deals with the transfer of an ar
bitrary quantum state between two parts, for the
implementation of quantum cryptography [JENNEWEIN00,
WAKS02, GROSSHANS03
, URSIN07],
entanglement distillation and purification [KWIAT01,PAN01,PAN03A] and implementation of quantum
logic gates and quantum alg
orithms [OBRIEN03,OBRIEN07,POLITI08]. Among all these applications of
photonic entangled states, we would like to call special emphasis to the realization of one

way quantum
computing [
RAUSSENDORF01,
WALTHER05,PREVEDEL07], which indicates a possible quantu
m
computer architecture which has no classical analog. In addition, fundamental questions are still subject
of intense debate and new tests of quantum mechanical non

locality are being performed
[GROBLACHER07,SALART08], which are of utmost importance for
the future of Quantum
Information.
In addition to photons, entangled states have been prepared in other physical systems such as trapped
ions [HAFFNER05, LEIBFRIED05, ROOS06, BLATT08, BLOCH08], used in the implementation of
quantum logic gates [
SCHMIDT

KALER03, LEIBFRIED03
, BENHELM08
] and basic algorithms and
protocols[GULDE03,
BARRETT04,RIEBE04,
REICHLE06], as well as quantum error correction
[
CHIAVERINI04
]. Semi

conductor based devices are natural candidates for quantum computing devices,
given that t
he present computer technology is also based on silicon [KANE98,
KROUTVAR04,
ELZERMAN04, GREILICH
06, FUSHMAN08, ROBLE
DO08],
and an exciting new potential candidate
are super

conductor qubits [
WALLRAFF04, CLARKE08
, GRAJCAR08
]. These are mesoscopic systems
c
apable of implementing qubits, in analogy with cavity quantum electrodynamics [PASHKIN03,
YAMAMOTO03,
CHIORESCU04
], with the advantage of a higher potential for scalability. Another
important issue is the interface between photonic and atomic systems[CHOU
05,TANZILLI05,
FELINTO06,CHOI07, WILK07], which may be used to transfer quantum information between these two
different kinds of systems [MONROE02,KIMBLE08], and to establish long distance entangled states
using quantum repeaters [DUAN01,CHOU07,CHEN08].
a
) detailed description of the program of the institute, along with justification and demonstration of
relevance, with emphasis on the intended advance in Brazil for the field or topic.
Research in Quantum Information in Brazil has grown rapidly in recent
years. This large growth was
motivated in large part by the formation of the Millennium Institute for Quantum Information as part of
the “Millennium Institute Program 2002

2005” of the CNPq, and its subsequent extension as part of the
“Millennium Institu
te Program 2005

2008”
–
CNPq. Today it is clearly evident that the Millennium
Institute for Quantum Information had an extremely positive effect, not only by the quantity and quality
of research and development, but also due to the notable increase in th
e interaction between researchers
of distinct fields. Previous to the Millennium Institute, several researchers and laboratories in Brazil were
already quite active in the field, even though Quantum Information was at the time a very recent area of
resear
ch. In spite of the fact that these groups conducted research independently, and were not
coordinated nationally, they made significant contributions to the field on an international level. The
Millennium Institute for Quantum Information consolidated
and coordinated these efforts, allowing for
the creation of new laboratories, promoting the training of new professionals in the field and consequently
producing a sharp increase in the quality of research produced in Brazil. The Institute assisted
substa
ntially in the production of a critical mass of researchers, which led to a considerable increase in the
number of publications in important scientific journals, including experiments conducted entirely in
Brazil and published in journals such as Nature, S
cience and Physical Review Letters. Another aspect
which has marked the evolution in the field was the realization of several international events in Brazil,
most notably the PASI
–
The Physics of Information school/workshop, in Búzios, RJ, in 2003, and t
he
Quantum Information School and Workshop, in Paraty, RJ, in 2007. Both of these international events
were organized by participants of the Millennium Institute for Quantum Information, and relied on the
institute for financial and administrative support.
These events, together with the annual review meetings
of the institute, resulted not only in collaborations and joint publications (involving UFRJ, UFMG, UFF,
…), but also played an important role in the development of the field in other institutions, a
s a results of
the exchange of information and ideas. This explains, for example, the increase in research concerning
the role of decoherence, which gave rise to publications by researchers at UFRJ, UNICAMP, UFSCAR,
USP and UFMG; research concerning the c
haracterization and detection of entanglement, and subsequent
publications by researchers at UFRJ, UNICAMP, UFMG; research involving the subtle properties of
entangled photons and fields, demonstrated in experiments performed at UFRJ, UFMG, UFF and USP.
T
hese events provide and enormous contribution to the students as well in the form of exposure to
research performed in other groups, which at times is definitive in determining the subject of research
projects and theses. In the duration of the Millennium
Institute, a demonstrative number of students have
been graduated in this field, many of them now researchers in Brazilian institutions, some of whom which
lack consolidated research groups.
In order to take advantage of this critical mass of res
earchers, it is now necessary to aggregate the activity
in this field through consistent funding and an integrated organization of research activities. This
aggregation could be put into effect through the establishment of the National Institute of Scien
ce and
Technology
–
Quantum Information. One can see a considerable oscillation in the amount of funding per
researcher or laboratory provided as part of the Millennium Institute for Quantum Information over
nearly ten years. The first Millennium Institu
te administered about 5 million reals, distributed among 10
laboratories and 40 researchers. In the second institute, funding was decreased to 2 million reals, while
the number of associated laboratories increased to 14, and the number of researchers to 7
0, revealing a
drastic decrease in investment. Despite this reduction, research in this field in Brazil has increased in
quantity and quality. This progress is evident in the sequence of annual reviews and partial reports of the
Millennium Institute.
The current objective is to focus on the amalgamation of research activities of the National Institute for
Quantum Information, so as to increase experimental activities and maintain the current quality of
research. As will be described in detail below,
we plan to attain this objective by intensifying
collaboration through exchange of students, extended scientific visits, topical meetings, and Quantum
Information schools. We have also budgeted so as to provide consistent financial support for emergent
gr
oups, consisting in most cases of young researchers, many of whom were graduated as part of the
Millennium Institute for Quantum Information, and have been recently installed at new or developing
institutions. The National Institute will congregate these
new research groups together with those
currently well

established groups, the positive contribution of which will certainly be present in the
graduate programs at these developing institutions. The National Institute will be the impetus to bring
intern
ational leaders in the field to Brazil, which, in coordination with the advanced study schools of the
agency CAPES, will serve to educate and train professionals in the field. The National Institute offers a
singular opportunity to stimulate the developm
ent of science and technology based on Quantum
Information in Brazil and South America. Brazil currently is the Latin American country with the largest
number of researchers and production in the field, and thus plays an important role in the establishmen
t of
an effective joint Latin American collaboration with countries such as Argentina, Chile, Peru, Uruguay,
Colombia and Mexico, all of which have already demonstrated interest in this exchange.
The INCT

IQ will congregate researchers in the fields
of Classical Optics, Quantum Optics, Atomic
Physics, Solid State Physics, Electrical Engineering, Classical and Quantum Information Theory and
Computer Science. The INCT

IQ contains more than 20 research groups, including 12 laboratories,
associated to15
different institutions located in 7 states, forming a national network which will work in a
coherent and coordinated manner.
The participating groups:
Group
Acronym
Type
Institution
Location
Laboratory of Quantum
Information in Atomic
Systems
LIQA

UFP
E
experiment
UFPE
Recife, PE
Optics and Materials
Group
GOM

UFAL
experiment
UFAL
Maceió, AL
Laboratory of Quantum
Information Technology
LTIQ

UFC
experiment
UFC
Fortaleza, CE
EnLight
ENLIGHT

UFMG
both
UFMG
Belo Horizonte, MG
Quantum Information
and Com
putation Group
GICQ

UFU
theory
UFU
Uberlândia, MG
Quantum Optics
Laboratory
LOQ

UFRJ
experiment
UFRJ
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Laboratory of Atomic
and Molecular Collisions
LACAM

UFRJ
experiment
UFRJ
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Laboratory of Cold
Atoms of Rio de Janeir
o
LAFRJ

UFRJ
experiment
UFRJ
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Quantum Optics and
Quantum Information
Group
GOIQ

UFRJ
theory
UFRJ
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Condensed Matter
Theory Group
GMCT

UFRJ
theory
UFRJ
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Quantum Optics and
Quantum Information
Group
GOI
Q

UFF
both
UFF; UFF

VR
Niterói, RJ; Volta
Redonda, RJ
Quantum Information
and Critical Phenomena
Group
GIQFC

UFF
theory
UFF
Niterói, RJ
Quantum Information
and Quantum Chaos
Group
GCQIQ

CBPF
theory
CBPF
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Quantum Information
Processing
with Nuclear
Magnetic Ressonance
Group
GPIQRM
N
experiment
CBPF; USP/São
Carlos; UFES
Rio de Janeiro, RJ; São
Carlos, SP; Vitória, ES
Laboratory of Quantum
Communication
LCQ
experiment
PUC

Rio
Rio de Janeiro, RJ
Quantum Information
Group
GIQ

UFABC
theory
UFABC
Santo André, SP
Computer Science
CC

Unicamp
theory
Unicamp
Campinas, SP
Quantum Optics Group
GOQ

Unicamp
theory
Unicamp
Campinas, SP
Theory Group
–
DFMC
GTDFMC

Unicamp
theory
Unicamp
Campinas, SP
Quantum Coding Theory
Group
GTCQ

Unicamp
theory
U
nicamp
Campinas, SP
Laboratory of Atomic
Interactions
LIA

USP/SC
experiment
USP/São Carlos
São Carlos, SP
Quantum Information
Theory Group
GIQT
theory
UFSCAR;USP/São
Carlos; UCG
São Carlos, SP, Goiânia,
GO
Laboratory of Coherent
Manipulation of Atoms
an
d Light
LMCAL

USP
experiment
USP
São Paulo, SP
Theory Group
GT

USP
theory
USP
São Paulo, SP
Quantum Information
Group
GIQ

UEPG
theory
UEPG
Ponta Grossa, PR
b) clearly defined objectives and goals which allow for observation and analysis;
I.
St
imulate and organize research in Quantum Information, resulting in fundamental and practical
technological advances. This objective will be attained through the identification and coordination
of the topical objectives listed below.
II.
Amalgamate active res
earch groups with the assistance of the more established groups, through
technical visits, student exchange, and periodic meetings.
III.
Training and education of human resources through undergraduate education and research projects,
graduate education and res
earch, post

doctoral research, realization of Quantum Information
schools, and training in sophisticated experimental techniques.
IV.
Support the emergent research groups and laboratories (e.g. UFF

Volta Redonda, UFABC, UFU
and UFC).
V.
Promote the developmen
t of experimental research on a national level, in fields that are important
and currently in rapid developement on an international scale, but are inexistent or underdeveloped
in Brazil. Some examples are: quantum optics in semiconductors, optical lattic
es, quantum
memory, a national quantum cryptography system, and superconducting devices. This promotion
will happen through mini

courses given by international experts, prolonged visits from experiences
researchers, and student exchange with cutting

edge i
nternational laboratories.
VI.
Dissemination of relevant information about the field to the public, through a website and
demonstrations.
VII.
Publication of results in the leading scientific journals and participation in conferences and
workshops in Brazil and t
he exterior.
Topical Objectives of the INCT

IQ
Quantum Information is a field, which, aside from uniting researchers from distinct disciplines, provides a
common language with which to discuss similar concepts that appear in quite different contexts.
The
INCT

IQ institute will consist of more than 60 researchers from different disciplines, and has as its
principle objective the coordination of these researchers in an effort to maximize production in the field.
To attain this goal, the institute will b
e organized into general research topics, with emphasis on
experimental work and the interaction between theory and experiment. These topics were chosen due to
their current importance in the field, in combination with the interests of the participating g
roups of the
institute, and in attempt to promote pivotal areas of research, which are currently inexistent or nearly
inexistent in Brazil. The INCT

IQ will act through financial support, organization of scientific visits and
other types of exchange and i
nteraction. Included in the budget are funds for a completely new
laboratory, to specialize in a state of the art experimental technique, which is currently inexistent in Brazil
and of great importance to the field in general (see topics 9 and 10 below).
1.
Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Communication.
The development of secure methods of
communication in a crucial goal for the country. A principal objective of the INCT

IQ is the development
of quantum cryptography in Brazil. The groups: LTIQ

UFC, EN
LIGHT

UFMG, GOIQ

UFF, LOQ

UFRJ, LMCAL

USP, LCQ

PUC, GOM

UFAL and GOQ

UINCAMP, will work on the practial
implementation of already existing quantum cryptography protocols and the design of new protocols for
quantum cryptography and quantum communication. T
he main objectives are the realization of
experiments in optical fibers and free space, using attenuated laser pulses and photon pair sources, and
continuous variable schemes. Due to the large national interest in this topic, the management of research
ef
forts by the INCT

IQ will be extremely important. A topical meeting “Quantum Cryptography” is
planned.
2.
Light

Matter Interface, Quantum Memory and Quantum Repeaters.
The transfer of quantum
information from atomic degrees of freedom to light degre
es of freedom and vice versa is essential for the
integration of systems which transmit quantum information with those that process and store quantum
information, and also for establishing long distance quantum entanglement. Thus, a main objective of the
INCT

IQ is the experimental study of this light

matter interface in the context of quantum information.
The laboratories LIQ

UFPE and LMCAL

USP will work with the interaction of light with atomic
systems in vapor cells or magneto

optical traps. The goals
of this study are the transfer of information
between non

classical states of light and matter and the storage of quantum information for the
implementation of a quantum repeater. In addition to financing these studies, the INCT

IQ will stimulate
the col
laboration between these laboratories and theoretical groups of the institute, through technical
visits and student exchange.
3.
Quantum Computing with Nuclear Magnetic Ressonance.
Nuclear Magnetic Ressoance (NMR) has
been recognized as a useful techni
que with which to implement simple quantum algorithms. An objective
of the INCT

IQ is the investigation of quantum algorithms and simulation of quantum systems using
NMR. The group GPIQRMN, composed of researchers from 3 institutions, will conduct experi
mental
studies of algorithms and quantum operations. At the same time, the group will study new materials, in
an effort to identify materials for useful quantum processors. This line of research will converge with that
of item 9.
4.
Quantum Com
puting with Cold Atoms and Condensates.
The last decade has seen several proposals
for the realization of quantum computation and quantum information experiments in atomic systems
involving trapped atoms, molecules and condensates. In order to implement
these proposals, it is
necessary to perfect atom trapping techniques and develop experimental methods with which to
implement atomic interactions. The INCT

IQ will coordinate experimental work to be conducted in the
laboratories LAFRJ

UFRJ, LIA

USP/SC and
theoretical work by the group GICQ

UFU. The laboratories
will develop experimental techniques which enable the manipulation of quantum information encoded in
the atomic degrees of freedom and the implementation of controlled logic operations between atom
s.
5.
Quantum Computation with Linear Optics.
Linear optics, combined with photodetection, is sufficient
to realize quantum computing algorithms. Research conducted in this direction has illuminated certain
fundamental aspects of quantum computation.
Using the one

way computation model as well as the
standard model of quantum computation, the laboratories LTIQ

UFC, ENLIGHT

UFMG, GOIQ

UFF,
GOIQ

UFF, GOM

UFAL and LOQ

UFRJ will study the experimental implementation of logic gates and
basic algorithms thr
ough basic circuits consisting of optical interferometers. One particular aspect to be
studied, and one of great interest to the theory groups of the INCT

IQ, is the role of decoherence in both
standard quantum computation and the one

way model. The INCT

IQ will manage these experimental
efforts and stimulate development through technical visits and student exchange.
6.
Production and Detection of Entangled Photons and Single Photons.
This research is focused, on the
one hand, on the generation
of single photons as well as two and four photons, and on the other hand, on
the resolved detection of one, two, three, four (or more) photons. The current sources of two and four
photons are indispensable for experimental studies of entanglement, quantum
computation and
communication, while single photons are valuable for secure quantum cryptography. The laboratories
LOQ

UFRJ ane ENLIGHT

UFMG have worked with the experimental techniques involved in the
generation of entangled photon pairs for some years,
and have published important results in international
journals. The laboratories LTIQ

UFC, GOIQ

UFF, and LCQ

PUC have implemented the detection of
single photons, produced through an attenuated laser. These five laboratories, in collaboration with the
l
aboratories at GOM

UFAL, will focus on the construction of photon sources and detectors.
Simultaneously, the laboratory LIQA

UFPE will work on the development of synchronizable single

photon sources and sources with memory, which are indispensable in quan
tum communication and
computation with photons. The coordination of this research by the INCT

IQ will accelerate fundamental
research and development of technology, principally in the area of quantum cryptography, where the
generation and detection of sin
gle photons and photon pairs is of utmost importance.
7.
Entanglement in Continuous Variables and in d (d>2) Dimensional Systems.
This line of research will
be developed simultaneously from the theoretical and experimental sides, and as such is an e
xcellent point
of convergence, from which can also be exploited two complementary experimental techniques. The
laboratories specializing in correlated intense beams (GOIQ

UFF, LMCAL

USP) will work with the
entanglement of field quadratures of two modes of
the electromagnetic field, while the laboratories
specializing in correlated photons (ENLIGHT

UFMG, LOQ

UFRJ, GOM

UFAL) will work with the
continuous variables in the spatial and spectral degrees of freedom of photon pairs and with d

dimensional systems
(d>2), also constructed in the spatial and spectral degrees of freedom of photon
pairs. These laboratories will rely on intense collaboration with the participating theoretical groups of the
institutes (GOIQ

UFF, GOIQ

UFRJ, GTDFMC

UNICAMP, GCQIQ

CBPF, ENL
IGHT

UFMG). This
work involves both fundamental aspects and applications, such as cryptography in higher dimensional
systems, or higher dimensional alphabets.
8.
Quantum computing in condensed matter, based on spins and quantum dots.
Quantum hardware
composed of solid state devices, in particular those based on silicon, have attracted great attention due to
the possibility of taking advantage of existing microelectronic technology. The groups ENLIGHT

UFMG, GTMC

UFRJ, GOIQ

UFRJ, GICQ

UFU, GIQ

UFABC, GT
DFMC

UNICAMP, GIQ

UEPG will
work with the objective of designing viable quantum computing schemes based on condensed matter
systems. This line of research will unite researchers from quantum optics with those from condensed
matter physics, and is consider
ed worldwide as the most promising path towards the realization of the
quantum computer. Due to the importance of this topic, and the quantity of groups dedicated to this goal,
the coordination of research efforts by the INCT

IQ will have a large positive
impact. The realization of
a topical meeting in this field is scheduled. The INCT

IQ identifies this field as being of great interest,
and recognizes the deficiency of national experimental work devoted to this topic. The INCT

IQ will
stimulate experim
ental work in this field by sponsoring technical visits and student exchange. A new
laboratory dedicated to experimental work in this field is a candidate for the reserve funding of the INCT

IQ.
9.
Quantum Computation with Superconducting Devices.
In
accord with international opinion, the INCT

IQ considers superconducting circuits as promising candidates for the construction of quantum
processors. In these systems, quantum information is physically encoded in charge qubits and flux qubits.
The group
s GTDFMC

UNICAMP, GIQ

UFABC and GIQ

UEPG will investigate these architectures,
with the objective of synthesizing devices which are capable of implementing basic operations in
quantum computation. These groups will consider also the possibility of coupli
ng other systems, such as
quantum dots, with superconducting wires. The principal goal is the development of a candidate
architecture as well as the training of professionals in this field. The INCT

IQ identifies this field as
being of great interest, an
d recognizes the deficiency of national experimental work devoted to this topic.
The INCT

IQ will stimulate experimental work in this field by sponsoring technical visits and student
exchange. A new laboratory dedicated to experimental work in this field
is a candidate for the reserve
funding of the INCT

IQ.
10.
Quantum Optics in Semiconductors, including single photon sources
. Another example of a promising
application of semiconductor devices in the field of Quantum Information is the controlled ge
neration of
photon pairs and single photons. Recent experimental results lead to the conclusion that these devices
will form the next generation of photon sources, and are thus of great importance to laboratories
specializing in Quantum Information with
photons (LTIQ

UFC, ENLIGHT

UFMG, GOIQ

UFF, LOQ

UFRJ, LMCAL

USP e GOM

UFAL). With this interest in mind, the study of the generation of photons
with semiconductor materials is an objective of the INCT

IQ and will involve the collaboration of the
groups ENLI
GHT

UFMG, GOIQ

UFRJ, GTMC

UFRJ,GIQ

UFABC. The INCT

IQ will stimulate
experimental work in this field, given its importance for applications and the cutting edge of basic science
research.
11.
Quantum Correlations in atomic systems of “twin atoms”
. T
he objective of work on twin atoms is to
study, both theoretically and experimentally, the production of two correlated atoms through the
fragmentation of H
2
molecules, and to verify the quantum aspect of this correlation through Stern

Gerlach
interferomet
ry. This experiment, which is the atomic analog to the production of twin photons, will be set
up in the laboratory LACAM

UFRJ. A long term goal is the exact realization of the famous EPR

Bohm
gedankenexperiment, and the experimental verification of the
violation of Bell’s inequality. This
experimental technique could open many possibilities of research for members of the INCT

IQ, which
will encourage exchange and collaboration. As possible topics of interest, we can mention the study of
decoherence in
this system and quantum communication with atoms.
12.
Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.
This system was used extensively to study phenomena of quantum
mechanics and quantum information. New developments in the field originate from the construction of
mic
ro

cavities and extremely high

quality cavities. Due to its central role in Quantum Information
research, the INCT

IQ will coordinate theoretical research in this field, which will be conducted
principally by the groups ENLIGHT

UFMG, GIQT and GIQ

UEPG. T
he majority of the theory groups
associated to the INCT

IQ have worked in this field, which allows for collaboration on a grand scale.
13.
Entanglement and Properties of Entangled States, Dynamics of Entanglement and Decoherence, and
Measures of En
tanglement.
The study and use of entanglement is one of the principal objectives of
Quantum Information. Members of the INCT

IQ have made important contributions to this goal,
witnessed by the publication of research papers in important scientific journa
ls such as Nature, Science
and Physical Review Letters. Many of these publications evolved as part of a strong collaboration
between theorists and experimentalists. The INCT

IQ will stimulate this line of research, conducted by
the groups: LOQ

UFRJ, GOI
Q

UFRJ, GOIQ

UFF, GIQ

UFABC, ENLIGHT

UFMG, GCQIQ

CBPF e
GTDFMC

UNICAMP, with a strong emphasis on experiment. Due to the large scope and interest of this
topic, it is a likely candidate for a topical meeting, as well as an ample opportunity for student ex
change
and technical visits among members of the institute.
14.
Quantum Information Theory:
a.
Algorithms and Models for Quantum Computation, Quantum Error Correction.
The success of the
quantum computer dpends upon the possibility of developing
a model for quantum computation, as well
as an adequate architecture with which to implement this model. On the other hand, in order to
implement quantum operations on a large scale using any model of quantum computation, it is essential
that there exists
methods for quantum error correction. In addition, the development of new quantum
algorithms is extremely important. Researchers working primarily in the groups GOIQ

UFRJ, CC

UNICAMP, GOIQ

UFF, GIQFC

UFF, GIQ

UFABC, under organization of the INCT

IQ, wi
ll confront
these problems from different angles, in agreement with the multidisciplinary nature of Quantum
Information. Techniques from Quantum Optics, Computer Science, Statistical Physics and Electrical
Engineering will be employed.
b.
Basic The
ory of Quantum Information: Classical vs. Quantum Correlations, Entropy of Information,
Quantum State and Process Tomography, Quantum Information in Phase Space.
The question: “What is
quantum correlation?” is currently the focus of a debate between res
earchers in the field. It was believed
that entanglement was necessary in order to obtain the speed up of the quantum computer. Recently,
researchers in the United States have shown that separable quantum states which exhibit “Quantum
Dischord”, present
computational speed up in relation to classical computers in a particular set of
algorithms. This has given rise to a theoretical effort to understand the role of entanglement and of
quantum and classical correlations in quantum information protocols. Du
e to its important and
fundamental character, the INCT

IQ will support research in this direction, which will be realized by the
groups GOIQ

UFRJ, ENLIGHT

UFMG, GIQ

UFABC, CC

UNICAMP, GTDFMC

UNICAMP, GIQ

UEPG. Another topic of interest from the fundamenta
l and practical points of view is quantum state and
quantum process tomography. Tomography is the technique which is used to obtain information about a
quantum state or process. The current algorithms, which are used to reconstruct the quantum state from
the actual measurement results, are not optimal. The group CC

UNICAMP, with its experience in
mathematical methods of optimization and minimization, will work in collaboration with experimetnal
groups (such as LOQ

UFRJ) of the INCT

IQ to develop better
tomographic methods. This topic is of
great general interest, since one of the current limits of quantum information experiments with many
qubits is the amount of classical processing required in state reconstruction.
A detailed account of the specifi
c objectives and goals of each group/laboratory can be found in Appendix
I.
c) detailed account of the principle lines of research to be developed, which should be cutting edge and of
high

quality, at a level which is competitive on an international sca
le, or involve a strong contribution
towares the development of technology and innovation in a field of strategic interest to the country;
General Research Topics of the Institute
The INCT

IQ will develop high

level research involving the fundamental asp
ects of Quantum
Information. The results are expected to have a strong impact on the development of new technology
based on the quantum properties of matter and radiation. One important advantage of this
multidisciplinary field is the exchange of ideas thr
ough the unification of common concepts. For instance,
the use of a quantum optics approach in condensed matter physics, to design new architectures for
quantum computation. The general research lines of the Institute were discussed in item b) above. The
d
etails concerning the research lines of each group/laboratory, can be found in Appendix II.
d) detailed account of the training program of professionals, through graduate programs, training in a
business environment, courses of short and long duration, tr
aining in specialized techniques, among
others, which ermit the institute to educate scientific researchers and also personnel for businesses with a
technological or innovative base, when pertinent to its theme;
Education program:
1. Undergraduate and g
raduate students will directly participate in the research, topical courses will be
given in undergraduate and graduate programs.
2 . Post

docs will also participate in the research, improving theoretical and experimental skills.
3. Professionals and s
tudents will be involved with the electronic, mechanical and computational tasks,
and as such will benefit from the experience in the high level research programs.
4. Realization of Quantum Information schools/workshops to educate and provide exposure to
new
topics, and an environment of scientific exchange.
5. Student exchange within participating groups in an effort not only to strengthen the education and
training of the student, but to facilitate collaboration.
6. Student exchange and internship w
ith leading international groups.
7. Extended research visits to leading international groups by participation researchers, in an effort to
intensity development of new experimental techniques which are currently inexistent in the country, such
as quan
tum optics in semiconductors, single photon sources and superconducting devices.
e) detailed account of the activities of transfer of knowledge to society, utilizing instruments other than
publication of scientific publications, especially education pr
ograms and knowledge diffusion programs;
Quantum Information is based on quantum mechanical concepts, such as quantum entanglement, the
superposition principle, and quantum measurement, which are not present in our everyday intuition. It is
exactly beca
use of this counter

intuitive nature that the dissemination of these concepts by researchers in
the field can be of great benefit to the public. Moreover, responsible presentation of the promising
applications and technological advances involving quantum
computation and teleportation, for example,
is an additional contribution. Lectures and presentations given by members of the Millennium Institute of
Quantum Information at SBPC meetings, inaugural and other events, have been met with great public
intere
st.
In addition to scientific diffusion to general society, diffusion among researchers of other fields is
very important. This fact originates from the strong interdisciplinary character of the field, which requires
the contribution of different k
inds of approaches. With these concerns in mind, we intend to implement
the following diffusion methods:
1. Construction of a website, containing information and tutorials for the non

specialist. The tutorials will
concern the main topics of information
, computation and communication, quantum mechanics, quantum
information and computation, using texts, figures, animations and videos. The advantage of using this
kind of media, is that it can be made available to a large part of the society and remain acti
ve after the end
of the project.
2. The website will have a ``press room´´ where the main achievements obtained by participants of the
Institute as well as key developments in the field can be posted.
3. Diffusion through public scientific talks. The o
rganizers of the Paraty 2007 “Quantum Information
School and Workshop”, implemented parallel diffusion activities during the event. They sponsored the
demonstration of basic physics experiments in the local public school and a public lecture by Prof. Luiz
Davidovich entitled “O Mundo Quântico (The Quantum World)”. These activities were an enourmous
success and the present idea is to repeat and expand both the workshop and the diffusion activities.
4. Realization of activities involving high schools, whi
ch are centered around quantum physics and
information. These activities include visits to participating laboratories, and the development of
educational kits and lectures directed towards high school students.
f) detailed account, when pertinent, of a
ctivities concerning the transfer of knowledge to the business
sector or formation of public politics;
Even in the current embryonic stage, it is possible to anticipate contemporary technology based on
Quantum Information. This technology is under develop
ment at the commercial level in some countries,
including the establishment of businesses involved in quantum computing [DWAVE], as well as quantum
cryptography systems and quantum random number generators [IDQUANTIQUE, MAGICQ,
SMARTQUANTUM]. The particip
ating group LCQ

PUC currently maintains a strong connection with
the industrial sector, in particular Petrobras, through its activities concerning optical fiber technology.
We believe that the research activities of the institute could produce as strong i
mpact on public politics,
given the great interest which the federal government has shown regarding the development of
communication security and cryptography. On the other hand, research in this cutting

edge field will be
of key strategic importance, put
ting the country in conditions to develop technology based on quantum
information and computation, which could be pivotal in the next decade.
g) detailed description of the proposing group emphasizing the qualification of the researchers. The
resear
ch team should have at minimum eight persons with doctorate degree, whose names should be
related to the body of the project, with indication of a coordinator and vice

coordinator;
COORDINATOR:
Name: Amir Ordacgi Caldeira (membro permanente)
Degree: PhD
(University of Sussex, UK, 1980)
Position: Professor Titular
Researcher CNPq: 1A
CPF: 347.787.137

53
Nacionality: Brazilian
Birth Date: 06/10/1950
VICE

COORDINATOR:
Name: Luiz Davidovich
Degree: Doutor
Position: Professor Titular
Researcher CNPq: 1A
CP
F: 532487597

04
Nacionality: Brazilian
Birth Date: 25/06/1946
List of Participating Researchers
The highly

qualified team is composed by 66 researchers with permanent positions in Brazilian
institutions. 52 are CNPq research fellows, including 29 resear
chers level 1 in the CNPq hierarchy,
broken down as: 9 researchers level 1A, 5 researchers level 1B, 7 researchers level 1C, 8 researchers
level 1D and 23 level 2. In addition to the researchers with permanent positions, the institute includes
more than 1
00 graduate students and post

docs. The list of permanent researchers is presente below, along
with their affiliation and classification as a CNPq fellow. The full list of participants including all
pertinent information can be seen in Appendix III.
CNPq
research fellows level 1
Coordinator

Amir Ordacgi Caldeira

UNICAMP
–
1A
Vice

coordinator

Luiz Davidovich

UFRJ
–
1A
Alfredo Miguel Ozorio de Almeida
–
CBPF
–
1A
Jean Pierre von der Weid
–
PUCRJ
–
1A
Mahir Saleh Hussein
–
USPSP
–
1A
Maria Carolina
Nemes
–
UFMG
–
1A
Nicim Zagury

UFRJ
–
1A
Belita Koiller

UFRJ
–
1A
Reginaldo Palazzo Júnior
–
UNICAMP 1A
Carlos Henrique Monken
–
UFMG
–
1B
Marcus Aloizio Martinez de Aguiar
–
UNICAMP
–
1B
Nelson Velho de Castro Faria

UFRJ
–
1B
Raimundo Rocha dos
Santos

UFRJ
–
1B
Tito José Bonagamba
–
USP SC
–
1B
Kyoko Furuya
–
UNICAMP
–
1C
Luis Gustavo Marcassa
–
USP SC
–
1C
Mauricio Porto Pato
–
USPSP
–
1C
Miled Hassan Youssef Moussa
–
UFSCAR
–
1C
Paulo Henrique Souto Ribeiro

UFRJ

1C
Salomon S. Mizrahi
–
UFSCAR
–
1C
Sebastião de Pádua
–
UFMG
–
1C
Cláudio Lenz Cesar

UFRJ
–
1D
Ginette Jalbert de Castro Faria

UFRJ
–
1D
Ivan dos Santos Oliveira Júnior
–
1D
José Antonio Roversi
–
UNICAMP
–
1D
Jose Wellington Rocha Tabosa
–
UFPE
–
1D
Paulo Alberto Nussen
zveig
–
USPSP
–
1D
Raul Oscar Vallejos
–
CBPF
–
1D
Sandra Sampaio Vianna
–
UFPE
–
1D
CNPq research fellows level 2
Antonio Vidiella Barranco
–
UNICAMP
Antonio Zelaquett Khoury
–
UFF
Arnaldo Gammal

USPSP
Augusto Miguel Alcalde Milla
–
UFU
Carlile Campos
Lavor
–
UNICAMP
Celso Jorge Villas Boas
–
UFSCAR
Daniel Felinto Pires Barbosa

UFPE
Dilson Pereira Caetano
–
UFAL
Eduardo Ribeiro de Azevedo
–
USP SC
Fabricio Toscano
–
UFRJ
Kaled Dechoum
–
UFF
Marcelo França Santos

UFMG
Marcelo Martinelli
–
USPSP
Marc
elo Silva Sarandy
–
UFF
Marcos Cesar de Oliveira
–
UNICAMP
Norton Gomes de Almeida
–
UFSCAR
Qu Fanyao
–
UFU
Roberto Menezes Serra
–
UFABC
Roberto Silva Sarthour Júnior

CBPF
Ruynet Lima de Matos Filho
–
UFRJ
Stephen Patrick Walborn
–
UFRJ
Tatiana Gabriela
Rappoport
–
UFRJ
Thereza Cristina de Lacerda Paiva
–
UFRJ
Researchers
Antonio Sergio Magalhães de Castro
–
UEPG
Carlos Renato de Carvalho
–
UFRJ
Daniel Jonathan
–
UFF
Eduardo Inácio Duzzioni
–
UFU
Eduardo J. S. Fonseca

UFAL
Emerson Jose Veloso de Pass
os
–
USPSP
Ernesto Fagundes Galvão
–
UFU
Fernando Luis Semião da Silva

UEPG
Giuliano Gadioli La Guardiã
–
UNICAMP
Guilherme Penello Temporão
–
PUCRJ
Jair Carlos Checon de Freitas

CBPF
José Geraldo Peixoto de Faria
–
CEFETMG
Liliana Sanz de la Torre
–
U
FU
Marcelo de Oliveira Terra Cunha

UFMG
Rubens Viana Ramos
–
UFC
h) specification of the activities to be performed by each member of the team, informing previous
experience in similar activities, as well as a description of networking activities;
The
activities to be carried out by each group/laboratory, within the general structure of the institute, are
described in item k), while the forms of integration are described in detail in items i) and j). The list of
activities of each member of the instit
ute is provided in Apendix IV.
i) mechanisms that will be used to promote the interaction between participating research groups of the
projetct and with other research groups, including those not participating in the institute (national
collaboration);
The mechanisms of integration between participants of the INCT

IQ and between INCT

IQ members and
external researchers are listed below and described in detail in what follows. The concept which we
intend to implement is based on the objective of stimul
ating interaction without creating unnecessary
internal bureaucracy. Our collective experience with national and international collaboration has shown
that the format and regulations of the exchange programs at times severely limits participation, which h
as
a negative effect on exchange and collaboration, and inhibits success of the interaction. In addition, the
present proposal has an objective that on the one hand is much larger than simply stimulating interaction,
while on the other had is much more s
pecific than a general topic of research.
In this fashion, we propose a structural hierarchy of events, which will privilege actions which serve
specific results, but may take on a wide variety of forms. For example, theoretical or experimental gro
ups
might be in search of solutions for a specific problem, which may allow for a variety of technical
approaches. This kind of situation is typical in Quantum Information, given its interdisciplinary nature.
In this case, an interaction in the form of a
meeting or workshop would be the most adequate. In another
situation, we might envision two or more groups interested in the practical implementation of some
system, such as a prototype of a quantum key distribution system. In this case, the interaction
would take
the format of fieldwork and should occur within a previously established schedule and format. Currently,
there is no available funding in Brazil which allows for this type of dynamic flexibility.
The management and organization of this typ
e of structure is of course a challenge. We believe that the
present proposal unites several ingredients, which will have a decisive role in the success of the institute.
One of these is the amount and flexibility of funding via the INCT, with which to p
romote scientific
events and to allow for the purchase of necessary equipment and infrastructure. The other component is
the existence of an operational center, which will localize the events with a scientific format. To this end
the CIFMC in Brasília wi
ll participate in the INCT

IQ, providing adequate infrastructure and efficiency
with which to realize the primary forms of interaction organized by the INCT

IQ.
In what follows is a detailed account of each of the proposed mechanisms.
1
–
National
Quantum Information meetings;
These are annual meetings, at which it will be possible to obtain a general vision of the advances attained
by the institute. This is the most traditional and conventional form of interaction. Although, from the
point of vi
ew of intensifying internal collaborations, these meetings have an effective yet restricted
impact, this type of meeting is extremely important from the point of view of strategic planning of the
institute.
2
–
Topical meetings;
The administrative co
mmittee will promote topical meetings, based on the strategic plan of the institute
and the principal research activities. With this initiative, we intend to avoid unnecessary or counter

productive overlap in theoretical and experimental effort. Some pos
sible themes are: quantum
computing with photons, quantum communication, quantum algorithms, entanglement and decoherence
theory, and quantum computing with solid state devices.
3
–
Conferences and workshops sponsored by the institute.
Two internati
onal events were recently held in Brazil: in 2003, an edition of the PASI school
–
The
Physics of Information, in Búzios, RJ, and in 2007 an international school/workshop on quantum
information in Paraty, RJ. These events were an enormous success and wer
e sponsored by the Millenium
Institute for Quantum Information. We intend to sponsor this type of event and encourage the realization
of others with the same type of format.
4
–
Graduate student exchange program.
The administrative committee will enc
ourage students exchange within the participating groups. The
INCT

IQ will pay for travel and stay of the students, in particular for those students who are members of
recently established groups and have arranged to visit larger, more established groups,
preferably
experimental in nature. The visits will be of various forms, in accordance with the necessity of each case.
We judge that the aforementioned flexibility in funding will be of fundamental importance in this type of
initiative.
5
–
Visits an
d seminars by laboratory/group leaders.
The participating groups and institutions will be able to solicit funds with which bring group/laboratory
leaders from other institutions for technical visits and seminars.
6
–
Review visits.
The groups and labora
tories directly funded by the INCT

IQ will receive periodic visits from the
representatives of the administrative committee, in an effort to accompany the application of financial
resources and the results obtained with these funds. The evaluation of the
committee will influence future
funding and purchase of new equipment.
j) forms of interaction with cutting

edge international groups (international collaboration);
The INCT

IQ intends to invite international researchers to actively participate in a
variety of events. In
addition, funds will be available for the participating groups and laboratories to invite leading
international researchers for short technical visits.
Under judgment of the administrative committee, leading international researc
hers will be invited to
administer short courses in topics which are as of yet inexistent in Brazil, such as quantum optics in
semiconductors, single photon sources and superconducting devices, and to even assist in the creation of a
new laboratory.
k
) definition of the specific tasks of each partipating group, with emphasis on the points of integration;
The topical objectives, presented above in item b), are built around the collaboration and participation of
all the participating groups of the INCT

IQ. The specific tasks of each group reflect the activities
necessary to realize these topical objectives. The points of integration and collaboration are emphasized
specifically in item b).
Laboratory of Quantum Information in Atomic Systems

UFPE
Realization of experiments involving quantum memory and synchronizable single

photon sources.
Optics and Materials Group

UFAL
Development of sources of high

dimensional entangled photons, realization of quantum imaging
experiments, implementation of
Quantum Information protocols with photons.
Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology

UFC
Construction and study of a quantum cryptography system, development of photon detectors, realization
of cryptography protocols in fiber optics.
Enli
ght
–
UFMG
Realization of experiments and studies of entangled photons: study of the effects of anisotropy in the
generation of spatial and polarization entanglement, production of heralded photons, production and study
of beams with fourth order polariz
ation, production of high

dimensional entangled states and realization
of quantum information protocols. Theoretical study of entanglement and decoherence, with the goal of
future experiments.
Quantum Information and Computation Group

UFU
Investigat
ion of physical aspects related to the implementation of quantum information processing based
on semiconductor quantum dots, elaboration of quantum error correction protocols using Bose

Einstein
condensates in optical lattices and formulation of one and tw
o

qubit phase gates in condensates.
Quantum Optics Laboratory
–
UFRJ
Realization of studies of entanglement and decoherence, development of photon

number sensitive
detectors, implementation of quantum cryptography and communication protocols in optical
fibers and
free space, implementation of photonic quantum computing.
Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Collisions
–
UFRJ
Generation of twin atoms and their utilization in studies related to Quantum Information.
Laboratory of Cold Atoms of Rio de J
aneiro
–
UFRJ
Experimental study of qubits encoded in the atomic degrees of freedom of cold atoms, studies of one and
two

qubit gates in this system.
Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Group
–
UFRJ
Studies of decoherence in multi

qubit states, det
ailed development of a quantum computer architecture
based in impurities implanted in silicon photonic crystal cavities, identification of entanglement
measurements and quantifiers which identify entanglement in subgroups of a given multidimensional
quant
um state, detailed investigation of the propagation of transverse correlations of twin photons in
spontaneous parametric down conversion.
Condensed Matter Theory Group
–
UFRJ
Development of quantum computing devices in condensed matter systems, studies
of macropscopic
entanglement.
Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Group
–
UFF
Implementation of quantum cryptography protocols, study of the transfer of spatial properties between
fields in optical parametric oscillation, studies of fundamental aspe
cts of quantum computation and
information, development of cryptography protocols based on parametric oscillators.
Quantum Information and Critical Phenomena Group
–
UFF
Studies of the impact of decoherence in adiabatic quantum computation, development
of theories of
quantum computation based on the theory of invariants, studies of entanglement and critical phenomenon
in condensed matter systems, studies of decoherence in general quantum computation.
Quantum Information and Quantum Chaos Group
–
CBPF
Construction of semi

classical theories and application to the search for entangled states with slow
decoherence times, analysis of the problem of equilibrium relaxation of generic pure bipartite states.
Quantum Information Processing with Nuclear Magn
etic Ressonance Group
–
CBPF/USP

SC/UFES
Implementation of quantum algorithms and quantum simulations using nuclear magnetic resonance,
studies of entanglement in spin chains, studies of architectures and materials for quantum computation.
Laboratory of
Quantum Communication
–
PUC

Rio
Realization of quantum communication experiments in optical fibers, implementation of quantum
cryptography in optical fibers.
Quantum Information Group
–
UFABC
Study of quantum computation via continuous evolution, inve
stigation of quantum information
processing in solid state devices, search for alternative entanglement measurements of entangled states
subject to decoherence.
Computer Science
–
Unicamp
Development of novel mathematical methods of quantum state and p
rocess estimation via state and
process tomography.
Quantum Optics Group
–
Unicamp
Theoretical investigation of cavity quantum electrodynamics and trapped ions and applications to
quantum information, study of the implications of decoherence, developmen
t of quantum cryptography
protocols using coherent states (continuous variables).
Theory Group
–
DFMC
–
Unicamp
Study of entanglement and Quantum Information in continuous variables, research and development of
physical systems for quantum information
processing and design of architectures.
Quantum Coding Theory Group
–
Unicamp
Sistematization of the description of maximally entangled pure states using the basic classical coding
methods, analysis, construction and study of topological quantum codes.
Laboratory of Atomic Interactions
–
USP

SC
Experimental trapping of Rydberg atoms, construction of atom trapping system, realization of photo

association of the KRb molecule and detection of molecule via photo

association, study of the Stark effect
in
potentials between Rydberg atoms through the study of atomic collisions.
Quantum Information Theory Group
–
UFSCAR/USP

SC/UCG
Theoretical studies of manipulation and processing of quantum information in cavity quantum
electrodynamics.
Laboratory of
Coherent Manipulation of Atoms and Light
–
USP
Experimental studies of quantum communication, amplification of quantum images and multi

particle
entanglement in continuous variables using optical parametric oscillators (OPO), studies of coherent
processe
s in cold atoms, with the aim of generating non

classical states with long life times suitable for
quantum memory, production of a one

dimensional optical lattice for the preparation and characterization
of non

classical atomic states.
Theory Group
–
USP
Investigation of the physics of Bose

Einstein condensates (BEC) and quantum chaos, investigation of
confinement of BECs of neutral atoms in free space using quantum reflection, investigation of the
Bogoliubov spectrum of condensates with the aim of bette
r understanding of the order

chaos transition.
Quantum Information Group

UEPG
Studies of Quantum Mechanics with emphasis on geometric and algebraic aspects of Hilbert space, study
of the dynamical properties of cavity quantum electrodynamics, coupled b
osonic fields (including linear
optics), trapped ions and superconducting qubits.
l) analysis of the actual situation with the expected situation, demonstrating the unequivocal benefit that
will be provided by the project;
Enormous progress has been m
ade in Quantum Information research in Brazil over the last eight years
since the creation of the Millennium Institute for Quantum Information as part of the Millennium Institute
Program. The initial level of research was practically null, consisisting of
a few groups active in different
areas which were advancing toward the field. Currently, there are more than ten consolidated
laboratories, dedicated exclusively to the experimental study of Quantum Information, and obtaining
results that are outstanding
on an international level. More than a dozen theoretical groups have been
established and are active in the field. Many of these groups began as part of the initiatives of the
Millennium Institute, and are obtaining excellent results. Therefore, it can
be said that Brazil is currently
“on the world map” of the international community of Quantum Information, and has the potential to
occupy an even more important role, given proper and adequate investment.
By means of the National Institutes of
Science and Technology program, the brazilian Quantum
Information community will be able to evolve to a new phase in which the search for more concrete
objectives and applications are adequately associated to fundamental research in a coherent and organize
d
manner. The financial resources provided by this program are sufficient to maintain and modernize the
associated laboratories as well as establish new ones. Several new or recently established laboratories
will benefit greatly from this support: a new
laboratory specializing in the study of quantum memory and
quantum repeaters at UFPE in Recife, a new quantum cryptography laboratory at UFC in Fortaleza, two
new twin photon laboratories at UFAL in Maceió, a new laboratory to be equipped with an optical
p
arametric oscillator at UFF

Volta Redonda, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a new cold atoms and
molecules laboratory specializing in quantum computation at USP

São Carlos in the state of São Paulo,
and a quantum communications laboratory at PUC
–
Rio de Ja
neiro. In addition, taking full benefit from
the possibility of postponing the allocation of funds provided by the National Institute program, a new
laboratory specializing in a to

be

determined experimental technique and location will be inaugurated as
p
art of the INCT

IQ.
From the point of view of theoretical research, several new groups have recently been established at
institutions such as the recently inaugurated UFABC in Santo André, São Paulo, UFU in Uberlândia,
Minas Gerais, UFPG in Ponta Gro
ssa, Paraná, and the UFF campus in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro. In
addition, several well

established researchers from solid state physics community have joined the
institute. In this form, it is our goal to create a national research environment in wh
ich a large part of
these theoretical groups work in consonance with the experimental techniques pursued by the institute’s
laboratories, and in collaboration with other theoretical groups engaged in similar research. An additional
part of the research ef
fort will be directed towards the study of physical systems that the institute does not
investigate experimentally, with the expectation that this will build incentive for the creation of new
laboratories and new lines of research. Finally, a part of the
researchers will work with fundamental
aspects of Quantum Information and the design of new algorithms. The implementation of this elevated
level of production and network of collaboration will only be possible with the help of the resources
solicited for
travel technical visits and computational resources.
With the National Institute for Science and Technology
–
Quantum Information, we will witness
consistent theoretical and experimental activity of an elevated level, resulting in a strong contri
bution
towards the development of new technology based in the transmission and processing of quantum
information.
m) adequate and justified budget. The budget should include importation and service costs (custeio),
costs of material (capital) and gran
ts in accordance with the items indicated in the Proposal Form. The
proposal should indicate the allocation of at least 70% of the funds (excluding the grants) among the
associated groups and laboratories, reserving the remaining value for future allocatio
n following
posterior decisions of the administrative committee of the institution.
Budget
The budget for this project is R$ 9.000.000,00. The majority (R$ 5.600.000,00) of these funds will be
invested in the associate laboratories, including R$ 4.000
.000,00 for equipment, R$ 700.000,00 for
improvements and installation of existing laboratories in new spaces and R$ 900.000,00 for a future
investment which will be used to develop a new line of experimental investigation, to be defined by the
Institute m
embers under the coordination of the administration committee, among the research lines
considered to be of priority. This new line of experimental research will be among the most promising
for the development of a quantum computer and will be an area whi
ch is not currently under experimental
development in Brazil. The new equipment will upgrade the existing experimental approaches in the
active laboratories and begin the operation of new ones outside the already well established institutions.
Besides prov
iding support to the experimental investigation of new physical processes, to be used in
systems for quantum computation and communication, the new laboratories will have a positive impact in
their local institutions.
The amount of R$ 700.000,00 will be u
sed to install the three laboratories of the Institute of Physics of
UFRJ, in a new area provided by the Institute administration (please see attached letter from UFRJ
institute director). The installation will include a high quality electrical system, wit
h a ground network,
phone and internet communication infra

structure, supply of compressed air and other fluids like nitrogen
and water, ambient temperature and humidity control, in addition to the transport and installation of
heavy equipment such as the
optical tables. This institution will invest in the project providing this new
area, which will allow the expansion and improvement of the experimental activity performed at the
UFRJ, as described in detail in the present proposal. The UFRJ laboratories c
ontribute significantly to the
experimental research in the framework of the Institute and they have potential for considerable
expansion. This expansion is currently constrained by the lack of physical space. These new installations
will relieve this pro
blem, and allow for increased experimental activities.
We will allocate R$ 2.000.000,00 for travels and living expenses, including the funding of the scientific
events outlined in the present proposal. These funds will be used by nearly 70 researchers,
graduate
students, as well as brazilian and foreign visitors. In order obtain an authentic research network, we
propose to actively stimulate the interaction between participants and strong interaction with the leading
researchers and research groups in t
he world. This will require considerable investment in travel. On top
of this consistent investment, we will implement mechanisms that will ensure the focus of the interaction
and collaboration. These mechanisms will be described in detail below.
We p
ropose R$ 1.000.000,00 for investment in computational resources. This is a relatively low
investment, if one considers the number of researchers and students involved. However, it is known that
many of them have access to computational resources through o
ther funding sources. Mechanisms will be
implemented to ensure that the focus of the research is in direct connection to the objectives of the present
proposal.
The number of participants and the administration complexity of this institute require a proper
administration structure. Through the FUNCAMP foundation at UNICAMP, we will hire two people to
take care of the secretarial and budget activities, including the management of the importation processes
contained within the framework of the Institute. We a
lso propose the eventual employment of
professional services concerning the realization of scientific events, and the design and maintenance of a
web site, among others. The amount of R$ 400.000,00 designated towards these issues is slightly lower
than the
reference value of 5%, according to the funding regulations of the INCT program. We present
below, the global budget of the institute, followed by a detailed description and justification.
Global budget:
Item
Value in US$
Value in R$
(CAPITAL)
Import f
ees
(CUSTEIO)
Total in R$
Equipment
1.406.871,00
3.483.910,00
522.585,00
4.006.495,00
Investment
460.000,00
782.000,00
118.000,00
900.000,00
Installation
0,00
350.000,00
343.505,00
693.505,00
Travel expenses
0,00
0,00
2.000.000,00
2.000.000,00
Comp
utational
resources
0,00
1.000.000,00
0,00
1.000.000,00
Administration
0,00
0,00
400.000,00
400.000,00
TOTAL
1.866.871,00
5.615.910,00
3.384.090,00
9.000.000,00
Mechanisms for funding travel and computational resources
We will allocate a maximum amo
unt of R$ 10.000,00 for national and international travel expenses
during the first year of the project. These funds can only be used for visiting other research groups within
INCT

IQ, participation in national and international scientific events that incl
ude at least one Quantum
Information session or funding visitors with recognized activity in the field of Quantum Information,
under approval of the administrative committee.
At the end of the first year, the remaining travel funds will be cancelled and a
new maximum amount will
be allocated to each researcher, according to the remaining resources. The goal here is to encourage the
immediate initiation of interactions and collaborations.
For the computational resources, we will also allocate a maximum a
mount of R$ 10.000,00 per
participant during the first year. However, in order to be able to use these resources, the participant should
present at least one publication in the field of Quantum Information, under approval of the administration
committee.
At the end of the first year, the remaining funds will be cancelled and a new maximum amount will be
allocated to each researcher, according to the remaining resources. The goal is to encourage the
immediate application of the funds followed by activity in
the field.
Budget for the associate laboratories
(Conversion rate = R$ 1,70 import expenses 15%)
Item
Value US$
Value in R$
(CAPITAL)
Import fees
(CUSTEIO)
Total in R$
UFRJ 1
125.000,00
212.500,00
31.875,00
244.375,00
UFRJ 2
114.000,00
193.800,00
29
.070,00
222.870,00
UFRJ 3
91.300.00
155.210,00
23.282,00
178.492,00
UFMG
384,000.00
561.51000
98.100,00
752.100,00
USP SP
150.000,00
255.000,00
38.250,00
293.250,00
UFF
194.000,00
329.800,00
49.470,00
379.270,00
UFC
95.00
0,00
161.500,00
24.225,00
185.725,00
PUC RJ
241.000,00
409.700,00
61.455,00
471.155,00
UFPE
258.800,00
439.980,00
65.997,00
505.977,00
USP SC
141.000,00
239.700,00
35.955,00
275.655,00
UFAL 1
166,470.00
282.999,00
42.450,00
3254.49,00
UFAL 2
88.071,00
149.721,00
22.456,00
172.177,00
TOTAIS
1.406.871,00
3.483.910,00
522.585,00
4.006.495,00
Overall justification:
Nearly R$ 1.400.000,00 will be invested in laboratories working with entangled photons. Two of these
are well established and there will b
e two new laboratories created. This approach contributed strongly for
the success of the last two versions of the Millennium Institute for Quantum Information, obtaining
international visibility. Therefore, the investment in the existing laboratories is w
ell justified by the
results obtained so far. The new laboratories will be installed in Maceió

AL and will have a positive local
impact, in a region where research activity is still incipient.
Another approach that obtained excellent results is concerned
with Optical Parametric Oscillators,
allowing applications of continuous variable systems in Quantum Information. The proposed budget is
nearly R$ 700.000,00 for maintaining the existing laboratories and to contribute to the installation of a
new laborato
ry at the UFF in Volta Redonda, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Once again, we stress the
support to developing research centers.
Nearly R$ 1.300.000,00 will be invested in laboratories working with atomic systems, two of them well
established and two of
them to be created, one in Recife

PE and another in São Carlos

SP. Atomic
systems have an important role in the field of quantum memories and have been investigated for the
employment in quantum repeaters. This investment has a strong fundamental appeal,
besides the
applications to Quantum Information.
The remaining R$ 600.000,00 will be invested directly in quantum cryptography with optical fibers,
including a well established laboratory at the PUC

RJ and a new laboratory which is being installed at the
UFC in Fortaleza

CE, both of them located in Engineering departments. Besides the fiber based quantum
cryptography, the twin photon laboratories will also develop cryptography based in free space
propagation and studies for using new degrees of freedom of
the photon. In this Institute, we will have for
the first time, a concentrate effort towards the creation of a secure communication network, based on
quantum cryptography, following the example of other countries like USA, Austria, Germany and
Switzerland
. Therefore this investment is of a strategic character for telecommunication.
Detailed budgets and justifications for each laboratory can be found in Appendix V.
n) explanation of any potential for the generation of patents, prototypes and technologica
l products, of
mechanisms for the transfer of technology and of institutional support for this activity;
Despite the fundamental character of the research to be performed in the framework of this Institute, we
observe a potential for the generation of pa
tents and or technological products, mainly connected to
quantum communication systems and the development of new photon detectors. In the following we
present the details about this potential, for each one of the laboratories.
Laboratory of Quantum Info
rmation in Atomic Systems
–
UFPE
Potential for patent generation
–
Group of Quantum Information with Atomic Systems
–
UFPE
We expect that the development of a reliable, synchronizable source of photon will generate patents.
Potential for technology pro
duction
–
Group of Quantum Information with Atomic Systems
–
UFPE
The development of the field of quantum networks, with all its applications to quantum information,
relies crucially in the development of a robust source of synchronizable single photons
, specially for
networks completely based on linear optics. This may be the basis then for a new series of products to
process quantum information locally using a larger number of quantum bits.
Optics and Materials Group
–
UFAL
Generation of Patents:
To experimentally perform a quantum teleportation exploiting the momentum entangled states of
down converted photons. This is an original idea of a quantum protocol quite fundamental for
quantum information, which may open new doors to the long distance qu
antum communication.
Therefore, the propose present here has a great potential to be patented.
To experimentally perform a method able to exploit the de Broglie wavelength reduction in three
dimensions applied for quantum lithography. This subject h
as already generated some patents.
However, none exploiting the 3D quantum lithography. We have already theoretically shown that
this idea is possible to be implemented using Bessel beams quantum interference with down
converted photons. We are already in
business to see if our idea is eligible to be patented.
Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology
–
UFC
Potential generation of patent
–
LATIQ
–
UFC
We are working in a new single

photon detector prototype operating within the microwave band, whi
ch
may originate a patent.
Potential production of technology
–
LATIQ
–
UFC
The quantum key distribution systems will be implemented aiming at a direct compatibility with currently
existing optical network in the city of Fortaleza, having in considerati
on physical and logical aspects
(layers OSI

ISO), with a potential to be commercialized. Moreover, the produced single

photon detectors
can be easily adapted to other optical windows, making possible their use in other applications as, for
instance, metrol
ogy.
Enlight
–
UFMG
Potential generation of patents

Enlight

UFMG
We will be developing a system of quantum keys distribution for the spatial qudits so that we will may be
able to originate a patent.
Potential of technological production

Enligh
t

UFMG
The system of quantum distribution of keys could be mounted in a compact and integrated form to be
commercialized.
Quantum Optics Laboratory
–
UFRJ
Potential generation of patent
–
Quantum Optics Laboratory
–
UFRJ
1
–
We are working on quan
tum key distribution systems involving transverse spatial degrees of freedom
that may generate a patent.
2
–
We plan on developing a photon

number resolving detector, whichmay generate a patent.
Potential production of technology
–
Quantum Optics Labo
ratory
–
UFRJ
1
–
The quantum key distribution system could be built in a compact device, facilitating
commercialization.
2
–
The development of a photon

number resolving detector may generate a commercializable product.
Quantum Optics and Quantum Inf
ormation Group
–
UFF
Potential patent generation
–
Quantum Optics and Information Group
–
UFF.
We are working in a quantum cryptographic key distribution system using polarization and orbital angular
momentum of single photons. This could generate a pat
ent.
Potential technological production
–
Quantum Optics and Information Group
–
UFF.
The quantum cryptographic key distribution system could be mounted in a compact and integrated way
in order to be commercialized.
Laboratory of Coherent Manipulat
ion of Atoms and Light
–
USP
Potencial for patents
–
Laboratory for Coherent Manipulation of Atoms and Light

IF/USP
The development of tools for quantum cryptography may lead to patents for secure communications
channels.
Technological development
–
L
aboratory for Coherent Manipulation of Atoms and Light

IF/USP
Patents may be shared with businesses interested in developing commercial products.
o) list of research projects funded over the last 5 years (active or expired) involving members of the
ins
titute, including titles, values, period and funding agencies, indicating in what form related to the
present proposal;
Due to the large number and the intense scientific activity of the participants of INCT

IQ, we have a long
list of projects funded by m
any different agencies in the last few years. We would like to emphasize the
participation in projects involving a larger amount of resources like the Millennium Institutes, PRONEX,
TEMÁTICO FAPESP and PENSA

RIO FAPERJ. The full list can be found in Append
ix VI.
q) commitment of eventual institutional infra

structure for the executution of the projetct, such as new
construction or modernization of installations, contract of new technical, scientific or administrative
personnel, possibility of absorbption o
f researchers trained by the program, support for administration
and management, exemption or partial cover of operational or administrative expenses indicate in item
1.8.4.2 of the program announcement;

Equipment and infra

structure for experime
ntal research in the seven established laboratories: LOQ

UFRJ, LACAM

UFRJ, LAFRJ

UFRJ, UFMG, USP SP, UFF(Niterói) e PUC RJ;

Basic infra

structure and space for the installation of five laboratories: UFF(Volta Redonda), UFC,
UFAL1, UFAL2 e USP SC;

A new
area for the expansion and improvement of three laboratories at the IF

UFRJ.

Computational resources already available with the theoretical groups.

Funding from other sources, listed in section o) and funding of the type CNPq “Produtividade em
Pesquis
a” grant, as well as ``Jovem cientista” and ``Cientista do nosso estado” (FAPERJ).
The full list of the facilities available for the execution of the project can be found in Appendix VII.
r) detailed timetable of activities for the first two years, and
abbreviated timetable for the following three
years;
Schedule for the activities of the Institute INCT

IQ
The Institute will promote interaction and cooperation through national meetings, bi

annual schools and
thematic meetings.
Year 1
–
Promotion of
a school/workshop directed to graduate and under graduate students, including the
participation of foreign renowned researchers, the first technical meeting of the Institute, thematic
meetings proposed by the participants and administration committee and m
anaged by the administration
committee.
Year 2
–
Second technical meeting, thematic meetings proposed by the participants and administration
committee and managed by the administration committee. Presentation of reports by the groups and
laboratories, and
evaluation meeting for the administration committee. Visit to the associate laboratories
by the administration committee.
Years 3,4 and 5
–
Technical meetings each 12 months, thematic meetings proposed by the participants
and administration committee an
d managed by the administration committee. Second and third
school/workshop on Quantum Information. Second evaluation meeting for the administration committee.
The specific research schedule for each group and laboratory is presented in Appendix VIII.
s) indication of the administrative committee of the institute;
The administration committee will be composed of the project coordinator and vice

coordinator, and a
sub

coordination in charge of administration aspects and a scientific council.
Administr
ation Committee:
Project coordinator: Prof. Amir O. Caldeira(UNICAMP)
Vice

coordinator: Prof. Luiz Davidovich(UFRJ)
Local sub

coordination
–
Prof. Marcelo O. Terra Cunha (Estado de Minas Gerais), Prof. Ruynet L. De
Matos Filho(Estado do Rio de Janeiro),
Prof. Paulo Nussenzveig (Estado de São Paulo), José W. Tabosa
(Região nordeste
–
Pernambuco, Ceará e Alagoas)
Scientific sub

coordination

Prof. Amir O.
Caldeira(UNICAMP), Prof. Luiz Davidovich(UFRJ) and
Prof. Belita Koiller(UFRJ)
Sub

coordination fo
r importation
–
Prof. Paulo Henrique Souto Ribeiro(UFRJ)
Sub

coordination for project and report
–
Prof. Stephen Patrick Walborn (UFRJ)
Sub

coordination for scientific diffusion
–
Prof. Marcos César de Oliveira (UNICAMP)
Sub

coordination for events
–
P
rof. Marcelo P. França Santos (UFMG)
List of researcher responsible for each group/laboratory:
Group/Laboratory
Researcher Responsible
Institution of
Responsible
Laboratory of Quantum Information in Atomic
Systems
Daniel Felinto
UFPE
Optics and Materi
als Group
Eduardo Jorge da Silva
Fonseca
UFAL
Laboratory of Quantum Information Technology
Rubens Viana Ramos
UFC
Enlight
Carlos H. Monken
UFMG
Quantum Information and Computation Group
Eduardo Inácio Duzzioni
UFU
Quantum Optics Laboratory
Paulo H. Sou
to Ribeiro
UFRJ
Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Collisions
Nelson Velho de Castro Faria
UFRJ
Laboratory of Cold Atoms of Rio de Janeiro
Cláudio Lenz Cesar
UFRJ
Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Group
Ruynet L. Matos Filho
UFRJ
Condensed Matter
Theory Group
Belita Koiller
UFRJ
Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Group
Antônio Zelaquett Khoury
UFF; UFF

VR
Quantum Information and Critical Phenomena
Group
Marcelo Sarandy
UFF
Quantum Information and Quantum Chaos Group
Alfredo Miguel Ozorio de
Almeida
CBPF
Quantum Information Processing with Nuclear
Magnetic Ressonance Group
Ivan dos Santos Oliveira Jr.
CBPF
Laboratory of Quantum Communication
Jean Pierre von der Weid
PUC

Rio
Quantum Information Group
Roberto M. Serra
UFABC
Computer Science
Carlile Campos Lavor
Unicamp
Quantum Optics Group
José Antonio Roversi
Unicamp
Theory Group
–
DFMC
Amir Ordacgi Caldeira
Unicamp
Quantum Coding Theory Group
Reginaldo Palazzo Júnior
Unicamp
Laboratory of Atomic Interactions
Luis Gustavo Marcassa
USP/S
ão
Carlos
Quantum Information Theory Group
Salomon Sylvain Mizrahi
UFSCAR;US
P/São Carlos;
UCG
Laboratory of Coherent Manipulation of Atoms and
Light
Paulo A. Nusssenzveig
USP
Theory Group
Mahir Saleh Hussein
USP
Quantum Information Group
Fernando Luis
Semião da
Silva
UEPG
t) organizational and functional structure of the institute
The administrative committee will be responsible for both the scientific and general administration of the
Institute. The central coordination, in the charge of the proje
ct coordinator, will designate tasks to sub

coordinators that will make propositions for solving administration problems and to develop scientific
programs. Due to the participation of research groups from several states of the country, we have created
one
sub

coordination for each region. They will collect information from these regions and propose
activity, observing specific aspects concerned to each one of them, keeping permanent connection with
the central coordination and other sub

coordination. The s
cientific sub

coordination will take care of
decisions involving subject evaluation. The funding mechanisms depend on a scientific evaluation of the
proposed action, taking into account the main purpose of the institute. For instance, the institute will on
ly
fund participation in Quantum Information scientific events. Another kind of scientific evaluation will be
the realization of visits to the associate laboratories.
A great source of problems during the execution of any project in Brazil, including expe
rimental activity,
is the importation of equipment. This problem has been addressed by the brazilian government, which
realized its strong strategic character. There has been recent progress, but however there are still many
points to be improved. In view
of this situation, we created a sub

coordination for importation, that will
work to make the process of importation of equipment as fast as possible.
A project and report sub

coordination will be in charge of collecting and organizing the information abou
t
the advances obtained in the framework of the Institute. Providing organized and recent information to the
administrative committee, decisions can be made to influence the evolution of the research of the
Institute.
We will also have a sub

coordination
for diffusion, which will take care of the propagation of the basic
aspects of several research lines, using many of the available media resources, and especially the internet.
They will also take care of the propagation of the results obtained among the d
ifferent participating
research groups. This is another interaction mechanism proposed for this institute.
The sub

coordination for scientific events will organize and encourage meetings. Working together with
the scientific sub

coordination, they will
propose and organize scientific visits, as well as thematic,
national and international meetings.
In this way, the administration committee will be agile and effective from the scientific and
administration point of view. The institute will work for the i
mmediate initiation of experimental activity.
Theoretical groups potentially connected to some experimental investigation will be identified.
Collaboration and interaction among them will be stimulated by the administrative committee through
topical meetin
gs and visits. Theoretical research groups whose activities are connected to experimental
investigations that are not performed or incipient in Brazil, will also be identified. In this case, interaction
with foreign groups will be encouraged. All scientifi
c effort in the framework of the institute will be
dictated by the objectives described at item b).
References
[ABANTO08] ABANTO M,
KOILLER B, DAVIDOVIC
H L, AND DE MATOS RL
; SUBMITTED FOR PUBL
ICATION.
[ABREU06] ENTANGLING
POWER OF BAKER’S MAP
: ROLE OF SYM
METRIES, R. F. ABREU
E R. O. VALLEJOS, PH
YS. REV. A 73,
052327 (2006);
[ABREU07] STATISTICA
L BOUNDS ON THE DYNA
MICAL GENERATION OF
ENTANGLEMENT, R. F.
ABREU E R. O. VALLEJ
OS,
PHYS. REV. A 75, 062
335 (2007); [ALCARAZ
08] ALCARAZ FC, SARA
NDY MS FINITE SIZE C
ORRECTIONS TO ENTANG
LEMENT
IN QUANTUM CRITICAL
SYSTEMS PHYSICAL REV
IEW A (2008)
–
ACCEPTED FOR PUBLICA
TION
[ALEXANDER06] A. L.
ALEXANDER ET AL., PH
OTON ECHOES PRODUCED
BY SWITCHING ELECTRI
C FIELDS. PHYS. REV.
LETT. 96 043602 (200
6).
[ALMEIDA04] A.C.A. A
LME
IDA AND R. PALAZZO J
R., A CONCATENATED [
(4,1,3)] QUANTUM CON
VOLUTIONAL CODE, 200
4
IEEE INFORMATION THE
ORY WORKSHOP, SAN AN
TONIO, TEXAS, USA.
[ALMEIDA05] A.C.A. A
LMEIDA AND R. PALAZZ
O JR.
COMMENTS ON: QUANTUM
CONVOLUTIONAL ERROR
CORRECTING
CODES, PHYS. REV.
A, 64(2), 234

235, 2005.
[ALMEIDA05] ALMEIDA
MP, WALBORN SP AND R
IBEIRO PHS; EXPERIME
NTAL INVESTIGATION O
F QUANTUM KEY
DISTRIBUTION WITH PO
SITION AND MOMENTUM
OF PHOTON PAIRS ; PH
YSICAL REVIEW A 72,
022313 (2005)
[ALMEIDA06] M. P. AL
MEIDA, S. P. WALBORN
, AND P. H. SOUTO RI
BEIRO; SIMULTANEOUS
OBSERVATION OF
CORRELATIONS IN POSI
TION

MOMENTUM AND POLARIZ
ATION VARIABLES ; P
HYS. REV. A

RAPID COMMUNICATION
73,
040301(R) (2006)
[ALMEIDA07] M. P. AL
MEIDA, F. MELO, M. H
OR

MEYLL, A. SALLES, S.
P. WALBORN, P.H.
SOUTO RIBEIRO AND L.
DAVIDOVICH; ENVIRONM
ENT INDUCED SUDDEN D
EATH OF THE ENTANGLE
MENT; SCIENCE 316,
579

582 (2007)
[ALTEPETER03] ALTEPE
TER J.B., BRANNING D
., JEFFREY E., ET AL
.; ANCILLA

ASSISTED QUANTUM PRO
CESS
TOMOGRAPHYPHYSICAL R
EVIEW LETTERS 90, 19
360
1P1

193601P4, 2003
[AMICO08] AMICO L ET
AL., ENTANGLEMENT IN
MANY

BODY SYSTEMS, REV MO
D PHYS. 80, 517 (200
8)
[ANFOSSI2005] ANFOSS
I, A; GIORDA, P; MON
TORSI, A, ET AL., TW
O

POINT VERSUS MULTIPA
RTITE ENTANGLEMENT I
N
QUANTUM PHASE TRANSI
TIONS, PHYS. REV. LE
TT
. 95, 056402 (2005)
[ANGELO01] RECOHER
ENCE IN THE ENTANGLE
MENT DYNAMICS AND CL
ASSICAL ORBITS IN T
HE N

ATOM JAYNES

CUMMINGS MODEL, R.M
. ANGELO, K. FURUYA,
M.C. NEMES AND G.Q.
PELLEGRINO.
PHYSICAL REVIEW E 60
(5) (1999) 5407
[AOLITA08] AOLITA L,
CHAVES
R, CAVALCANTI D, ACÍ
N C, AND DAVIDOVICH
L, PHYS. REV. LETT.
100, 080501 (2008).
[ARMENGON2008] J. AR
MENGOL ET AL., ACTA
ASTRONAUTICA 63, 165
, (2008).
[ARNESEN01] ARNESEN
MC, BOSE S, VEDRAL V
NATURAL THERMAL AND
MAGNETIC ENTANGLEMEN
T IN THE 1D
HEISENBERG M
ODEL PHYSICAL REVIEW
LETTERS 87 (1): ART.
NO 017901 JUL 2 2001
.
[AUCCAISE08] AUCCAIS
E R, TELES J, SARTHO
UR RS, ET AL.
A STUDY OF THE RELAX
ATION DYNAMICS IN A
QUADRUPOLAR NMR SYST
EM USING QUANTUM STA
TE TOMOGRAPHY, JOURN
AL OF MAGNETIC RESON
ANCE
VOLUME:
19
2
ISSUE: 1
PAGES: 17

26
[BARANGER01] SEMICLA
SSICAL APPROXIMATION
S IN PHASE

SPACE WITH COHERENT
STATES, M. BARANGER,
M.A.M. DE
AGUIAR, F. KECK H.J.
KORSCH AND B. SCHELL
AAS

J. PHYS. A: MATH. GE
N. 34 (2001) 7227

7286
[BARENCO95]BARENCO A
ET AL., ELEM
ENTARY GATES FOR QUA
NTUM COMPUTATION, PH
YSICAL REVIEW A 52,
3457 (1995)
[BARRETT04] BARRETT
MD, CHIAVERINI J, SC
HAETZ T, ET AL., DET
ERMINISTIC QUANTUM T
ELEPORTATION OF ATOM
IC
QUBITS, NATURE 429 (
6993): 737

739 JUN 17 2004
[BATES58] D. R. BATE
S AND R. MCCAR
ROL, PROC. ROY. SOC.
A 245, 175 (1958).
[BAUDON04] J. BAUDO
N, R. MATHEVET AND J
. ROBERT, ATOMIC INT
ERFEROMETRY, J. PHYS
. B: AT. MOL. OPT. P
HYS. 32,
R173

R195 (1999); J. BAUD
ON ET J. ROBERT,
: INTERFÉROMÉTRIE AT
OMIQUE, ADCS, PARIS,
2004.
[BELL64] J. S. BEL
L, PHYSICS 1, 195 (1
964).
[BENHELM08] JAN BENH
ELM, GERHARD KIRCHMA
IR, CHRISTIAN F. ROO
S, RAINER BLATT, TOW
ARDS FAULT

TOLERANT
QUANTUM COMPUTING WI
TH TRAPPED ÍONS, NAT
URE PHYSICS 4, 463

466 (01 JUN 2008),
[BENNETT00] CHARLES
H. BENNETT, DAVID P.
DIVINCENZ
O, QUANTUM INFORMATI
ON AND COMPUTATION,
NATURE 404,
247

255 (16 MAR 2000)
[BENNETT92] CHARLES
H. BENNETT AND STEPH
EN J. WIESNER, COMMU
NICATION VIA ONE

AND TWO

PARTICLE
OPERATORS ON EINSTEI
N

PODOLSKY

ROSEN STATES, PHYS.
REV. LETT. 69, 2881
(1992)
[BENNET
T96] C.H. BENNETT, D
.P. DIVINCENZO, J.A.
SMOLIN, AND W.K. WOO
TTERS, PHYS. REV. A
54, 3824 (1996); M.
HORODECKI, P. HORODE
CKI, E R. HORODECKI,
PHYS. REV. LETT. 84,
2014 (2000); F. MINT
ERT, M. KU, AND A. B
UCHLEITNER,
PHYS. REV. LETT. 92,
167902 (2004).V. VED
RAL, M. B. PLENIO, M
. A. RIPPIN, AND P.
L. KNIGHT, PHYS. REV
. LETT. 78, 2275
(1997); CARVALHO : A
. R. R. CARVALHO, F.
MINERT, AND A. BUCHL
EITNER, PHYS. REV. L
ETT. 93, 230501 (200
4).
[BERRY79] M. V. BERR
Y AND N. L. BALAZS,
J. PHYS. A 12, 625 (
1979).
[BERRY8
4] M. V. BERRY PROC.
R. SOC.
A 392, 45 (1984).
[BIANUCCI02] P. BIAN
UCCI, J. P. PAZ, AND
M. SARACENO, PHYS. R
EV. E 65, 046226 (20
02).
[BLATT08] RAINER BLA
TT, DAVID WINELAND,
ENTANGLED STATES OF
TRAPPED ATOMIC ÍONS,
NATURE 453, 1008

1015 (18
JUN 2008)
[BLO
CH08] IMMANUEL BLOCH
, QUANTUM COHERENCE
AND ENTANGLEMENT WIT
H ULTRACOLD ATOMS IN
OPTICAL
LATTICES, NATURE 453
, 1016

1022 (18 JUN 2008)
[BOMBIN07] H. BOMBIN
AND M. A. MARTIN

DELGADO, HOMOLOGICAL
ERROR CORRECTION: CL
ASSICAL AND QUANTUM
CODES, JOURNAL OF MA
THEMATICAL PHYSICS 4
8, 052105 (2007).
[BONK05] BONK FA, DE
AZEVEDO ER, SARTHOUR
RS, BULNES JD, FREIT
AS JCC, GUIMARAES AP
, OLIVEIRA IS, BONAG
AMBA
TJ QUANTUM LOGICAL O
PERATIONS FOR SPIN 3
/2 QUADRUPOLAR NUCLE
I MONITORED BY QUANT
UM STATE
TOMOGRAPHY, JOURNAL
OF
MAGNETIC RESONANCE 1
75 (2): 226

234;
[BONK06] BONK FA, SA
RTHOUR RS, DEAZEVEDO
ER, BULNES JD, MANTO
VANI GL, FREITAS JCC
, BONAGAMBA TJ,
GUIMARAES AP, OLIVEI
RA IS QUANTUM

STATE TOMOGRAPHY FOR
QUADRUPOLE NUCLEI AN
D ITS APPLICATION ON
A
TWO

QUBIT SYSTEM
PHYSICA
L REVIEW A 69 (4): A
RT. NO. 042322.
[BORN27 M. BORN ET J
. R. OPPENHEIMER, AN
N. PHYS. (LEIPZIG) 8
4, 457 (1927).
[BORN54] M. BORN AND
K. HUANG, DYNAMICAL
THEORY OF CRYSTAL LA
TTICES, OXFORD UNIV.
PRESS, NEW YORK (195
4).
[BOURIANOFF03] G. BO
URIANOFF, “THE FUTU
RE OF NANOCOMPUTING”
, COMPUTER 36, 44 (2
003).
[BOUSTIMI00] M. BOUS
TIMI, V. BOCVARSKI,
B. VIARIS DE LESEGNO
, K. BRODSKI, F. PER
ALES, J. BAUDON AND
J. ROBERT;
PHYS. REV. A 61, 033
602 (2000).
[BOUWMEESTER00] BOUW
MEESTER, D.; EKERT,
A.; ZEILINGER, A. (E
DS.) TH
E PHYSICS OF QUANTUM
INFORMATION:
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
, QUANTUM TELEPORTAT
ION, QUANTUM COMPUTA
TION.
SPRINGER, 2000.
[BOUWMEESTER97] BO
UWMEESTER D, PAN JW,
MATTLE K, ET AL.
EXPERIMENTAL QUANTUM
TELEPORTATION;
NATURE
390 (6660): 575

579 DEC 11 1997
[BOW
EN02] W.P. BOWEN ET
AL, PHYS. REV. LETT.
89, 253601 (2002).
[BOYER08] ENTANGLED
IMAGES FROM FOUR

WAVE MIXING BOYER, V
; MARINO, AM; POOSER
, RC, ET AL.SCIENCE
VOLUME: 321
ISSUE: 5888
PAGES: 544

547 (2008).
[BRAUNSTEIN03] S. BR
AUNSTEIN E A.K. PATI
, QU
ANTUM INFORMATION WI
TH CONTINUOUS VARIAB
LES, KLUWER (2003).
[BRAUNSTEIN05]QUANTU
M INFORMATION WITH C
ONTINUOUS VARIABLES,
BRAUNSTEIN SL, VAN L
OOCK P REVIEWS OF
MODERN PHYSICS
VOL.77
ISS.2
PAGES: 513

577 (2005).
[BRAUNSTEIN08], PIRA
NDOLA S., ET AL., CO
NTINUO
US

VARIABLE QUANTUM CRY
PTOGRAPHY USING TWO

WAY
QUANTUM COMMUNICATIO
NS, NATURE PHYSICS,
4, 726 (2008).
[BRIEGEL01] H. J. BR
IEGEL AND R. RAUSSEN
DORF, PHYS. REV. LET
T. 86, 910 (2001).
[BRIKMAN05] K .A. BR
IKMAN ET AL., IMPLEM
ENTATION OF GROVER’S
QUANTUM SEARC
H ALGORITHM IN A SCA
LABLE
SYSTEM. PHYS. REV. A
72 (2005) 050306(R).
[BRITO05] BRITO F. B
. AND CALDEIRA A.O.N
OPRELO; NEW JOURNAL
OF PHYSICS (VOLUME E
SPECIAL SOBRE
“UNCONVENTIONAL ENVI
RONMENTS”) 2008
[BRODIER08] O. BRODI
ER E A.M. OZORIO DEA
LMEIDA, ARXIV:0808
.2258
[BRUSS2000] D. BRUSS
, PHYS. REV. LETT. 8
1, 3018 (1998); H. B
ECHMANN

PASQUINUCCI, AND A.
PERES, PHYS. REV. LE
TT. 85,
3313 (2000);
[BURKARD99] G.BURKAR
D, D.LOSS, AND D.P.D
I VINCENZO, COUPLED
QUANTUM DOTS AS QUAN
TUM GATES, PHYSICAL
REVIEW B 59, 2070 (1
9
99)
[BURNHAM70] BURNHAM
DC, WEINBERG DL OBSE
RVATION OF SIMULTANE
ITY IN PARAMETRIC PR
ODUCTION OF OPTICAL
PHOTON PAIRS;
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS 25 (2): 84& 1970
[CAETANO02] D. P. CA
ETANO AND P. H. SOUT
O RIBEIRO; OPT. COM
M. 211, 265 (2002).
[CAETANO03]
D.P. CAETANO, P.H. S
OUTO RIBEIRO, J.T.C.
PARDAL AND A.Z. KHOU
RY; PHYS. REV.
A 68, 023805 (2003).
[CALARCO00] T. CALA
RCO, ET AL. PHYS. R
EV. A 61, 022304 (20
00).
[CALARCO02] T. CAL
ARCO, ET AL. J. OPT.
B:QUANTUM SEMICLASS.
OPT. 4, S430 (2002).
[CALDEIRA8
5] CALDEIRA AO, LEGG
ETT AJ PHYSICAL REVI
EW A 31, 1059 (1985)
.
[CALDERBANK96] A. R.
CALDERBANK AND P. W.
SHOR, GOOD QUANTUM E
RROR

CORRECTING CODES EXI
ST, PHYSICAL
REVIEW A 54, 1098 (1
996).
[CALDERON08] M.J. C
ALDERÓN, B. KOILLER,
S. DAS SARMA, MODEL
OF VALL
EY INTERFERENCE EFFE
CTS ON A DONOR
ELECTRON CLOSE TO A
SI/SIO2 INTERFACE, P
HYSICAL REVIEW B 77,
155302 (2008)
[CAMPARGUE70] R. CAM
PARGUE, THÈSE D’ETAT
, PARIS, 1970.
[CARVALHO01] A. R.
R. CARVALHO ET AL. P
HYS. REV. LETT. 86,
4988 (2001).
[CARVALHO01] A. R
. R. CARVALHO, P. MI
LMAN, R. L. DE MATOS
FILHO E L. DAVIDOVIC
H, PHYS. REV.
LETT. 86, 4988 (2001
).
[CARVALHO03] C. R. C
ARVALHO, GINETTE JAL
BERT, A. B. ROCHA, A
ND H. S. BRANDI, “LA
SER INTERACTION WITH
A PAIR
OF TWO

DIMENSIONAL COUPLED
QUANTUM DOTS”, J. AP
PL.
PHYS. 94, 2579 (2003
).
[CARVALHO07] C. R. C
ARVALHO, E. S. GUERR
A, GINETTE JALBERT A
ND J. C. GARREAU, J.
PHYS. B. 40, 1271 (2
007)
[CARVALHO08] C. R. C
ARVALHO, E. S. GUERR
A AND GINETTE JALBER
T, OPT.
COMMUN. 281, 2149, (
2008)
[CASTRO01] DE CASTRO
, ASM, DODON
OV, VV QUANTUM COUPL
ED OSCILLATORS VERSU
S FORCED OSCILLATOR
JOURNAL
OF OPTICS B

QUANTUM AND SEMICLAS
SICAL OPTICS 3 (4):
228

237 2001
[CASTRO02] DE CASTRO
, ASM , DODONOV, VV
SQUEEZING EXCHANGE A
ND ENTANGLEMENT BETW
EEN RESONANTLY
COUPLED MODES JOURNA
L OF R
USSIAN LASER RESEARC
H 23 (2): 93

121 2002
[CASTRO03] DE CASTRO
, ASM, DODONOV, VV C
OVARIANCE MEASURES O
F INTERMODE CORRELAT
IONS AND
INSEPARABILITY FOR C
ONTINUOUS VARIABLE Q
UANTUM SYSTEMS JOURN
AL OF OPTICS B

QUANTUM AND
SEMICLASSICAL OPTICS
5 (6): S593

S608
2003
[CASTRO03] DE CASTRO
, ASM, DODONOV, VV,
MIZRAHI, SS QUANTUM
STATE EXCHANGE BETWE
EN COUPLED MODES
JOURNAL OF OPTICS B

QUANTUM AND SEMICLAS
SICAL OPTICS 4 (3):
S191

S199 2002
[CASTRO05] DE CASTRO
, ASM, PERUZZO, JF,
DODONOV, VV QUANTUM
STATE EXCHANGE BET
WEEN INDIRECTLY
COUPLED MODES PHYSIC
AL REVIEW A 71 (3):
032319 2005
[CASTRO06] DE CASTR
O, ASM , DODONOV, VV
PURITY AND SQUEEZING
EXCHANGE BETWEEN COU
PLED BOSONIC MODES
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 73
(6): 065801 2006
[CASTRO07] DE CASTR
O, ASM, SIQUEIRA, RA
N, DODON
OV, VV EFFECT OF DI
SSIPATION AND RESERV
OIR TEMPERATURE
ON SQUEEZING EXCHANG
E AND EMERGENCE OF E
NTANGLEMENT BETWEEN
TWO COUPLED BOSONIC
MODES PHYSICS
LETTERS A 372: 367

374 2008
[CAVALVANTE05] R. G.
CAVALCANTE, H. LAZAR
I, J. D. LIMA AND R.
PALAZZO JR., A N
EW APPROACH TO THE D
ESIGN OF
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIO
N SYSTEMS, IN DISCRE
TE MATHEMATICS AND T
HEORETICAL COMPUTER
SCIENCE
–
DIMACS
SERIES, EDITORS A. A
SHIKHIMIN AND A. BAR
G, AMERICAN MATHEMAT
ICAL SOCIETY, VOL. 6
8, 145
–
177 (2005).
[CELERE08] CÉLERI, L
. C., DE
PONTE, M. A., VILLAS

BOAS, C. J., MOUSSA,
M. H. Y., J. PHYS.
B

ATOM. MOL. OPT. PHYS
. 41,
085504 (2008)
[CESAR01] C. L. CESA
R, “TECHNIQUE FOR LO
CKING A SECOND

HARMONIC GENERATION
CAVITY WITH AN ELECT
RO

OPTIC
ACTIVE NONLINEAR CRY
STAL”, JOSA B, 18, 1
161(2
001)
[CESAR08] C. L. CESA
R, F. ROBICHEAUX AND
N. ZAGURY, “PROPOSAL
FOR MICROWAVE COOLIN
G OF TRAPPED
ANTIHYDROGEN”, SUBMI
TTED J.PHYS.B (2008)
[CHAGAS08] ENTANGLEM
ENT, QUANTUM PHASE T
RANSITION AND FIXED

POINT BIFURCATION I
N THE $N

$ ATOM
JAYNES CUMMINGS MO
DEL WITH ADDITIONAL
SYMMETRY BREAKING TE
RM, E.A. CHAGAS AND
K. FURUYA, PHYS.LETT
.
A, 372, (34) (2008)
5564.
[CHAN07] CHAN KW, TO
RRES JP, AND EBERLY
JH;PHYS. REV. A 75,
050101 (2007).
[CHAU98] H.F. CHAU,
QUANTUM CONVOLUTIONA
L ERROR CORRECTING C
ODES, PHYS.
REV. A, 58(2), 905

909, 1998.
[CHAU99] H.F. CHAU,
GOOD QUANTUM CONVOLU
TIONAL ERROR CORRECT
ION CODES AND THEIR
DECODING ALGORITHM
EXIST, PHYS. REV. A,
60(3), 1966

1974, 1999.
[CHEN08] YU

AO CHEN, SHUAI CHEN,
ZHEN

SHENG YUAN, BO ZHAO,
CHIH

SUNG CHUU, JORG SC
HMIEDMAYER, JIAN

WEI
PAN, MEMORY

BUILT

IN QUANTUM TELEPORTA
TION WITH PHOTONIC A
ND ATOMIC QUBITS, NA
TURE PHYSICS 4, 103

107
(01 FEB 2008)
[CHIAVERINI04] CHIAV
ERINI J, LEIBFRIED D
, SCHAETZ T, ET AL.,
REALIZATION OF QUANT
UM ERROR CORRECTION,
NATURE 432 (70
17): 602

605 DEC 2 2004
[CHIORESCU04] CHIORE
SCU I, BERTET P, SEM
BA K, ET AL., COHERE
NT DYNAMICS OF A FLU
X QUBIT COUPLED TO A
HARMONIC OSCILLATOR,
NATURE 431 (7005): 1
59

162 SEP 9 2004
[CHOI08] K. S. CHOI,
H. DENG, J. LAURAT,
H. J. KIMBLE, MAPPIN
G PHOTONIC
ENTANGLEMENT INTO AN
D OUT OF A
QUANTUM MEMORY, NATU
RE 452, 67

71 (06 MAR 2008)
[CHOU05] C. W. CHOU,
H. DE RIEDMATTEN, D.
FELINTO, S. V. POLYA
KOV, S. J. VAN ENK,
H. J. KIMBLE, MEASUR
EMENT

INDUCED ENTANGLEMENT
FOR EXCITATION STORE
D IN REMOTE ATOMIC E
NSEMBL
ES, NATURE 438, 828

832 (08 DEC
2005)
[CHOU07] CHIN

WEN CHOU, JULIEN LAU
RAT, HUI DENG, KYUNG
SOO CHOI, HUGUES DE
RIEDMATTEN, DANIEL F
ELINTO,
AND H. JEFF KIMBLE,
FUNCTIONAL QUANTUM N
ODES FOR ENTANGLEMEN
T DISTRIBUTION OVER
SCALABLE QUANTUM
NETWORKS, SCIENC
E 1 JUNE 2007
[CHUANG98] I.L. CHUA
NG ET AL., EXPERIMEN
TAL REALIZATION OF A
QUANTUM ALGORITHM. N
ATURE 393 (1998) 143
.
[CIRAC93] J. I. CIR
AC, A. S. PARKINS, R
. BLATT E P. ZOLLER,
PHYS. REV. LETT. 70,
556 (1993).
[CIRAC97] J. I. CIRA
C, P. ZOLLER, H. J.
KIMBL
E E H. MABUCHI, PHYS
. REV. LETT. 78, 322
1 (1997).
[CLARKE08] JOHN CLAR
KE, FRANK K. WILHELM
, SUPERCONDUCTING QU
ANTUM BITS, NATURE 4
53, 1031

1042 (18 JUN
2008)
[CORMICK06] C. CORMI
CK, E. F. GALVÃO, D.
GOTTESMAN, J. P. PAZ
, D. GOTTESMAN E A.
PITTENGER, PHY
S. REV. A 73,
012301 (2006).
[CORY98] D.G. CORY E
T AL., EXPERIMENTAL
ERROR CORRECTION, PH
YS. REV.
LETT. 81 (1998) 2152
.
[COUTINHO08] B. COUT
INHO DOS SANTOS, J.
A. O. HUGUENIN E A.
Z. KHOURY, OPTICS L
ETTERS, SUBMETIDO (2
008).
[CRUZ07] LASER

NOISE

INDUCED
CORRELATIONS AND ANT
I

CORRELATIONS IN ELEC
TROMAGNETICALLY INDU
CED
TRANSPARENCY, CRUZ L
S, FELINTO D, GOMEZ
JGA, ET AL.EUROPEAN
PHYSICAL JOURNAL D V
OL.41 ISS.3
PAGES: 531

539
(2007).
[DE CARVALHO 08] J.
X. DE CARVALHO, M. S
. HUSSEIN, WEIBIN LI
QUANTUM REFL
ECTION: THE INVISIBL
E QUANTUM
BARRIER ARXIV: 0804.
3022, PHYSICAL REVIE
W A, IN PRESS.
[DE CARVALHO 08] PER
TURBATION TREATMENT
OF SYMMETRY BREAKING
WITHIN RANDOM MATRIX
THEORY PHYSICS
LETTERS A, VOLUME 37
2, ISSUE 29, 7 JULY
2008, PAGES 4898

4901 J.X. DE CARV
ALHO, M.S. HUSSEIN,
M.P. PATO, A.J.
SARGEANT
[DEIGLMAYR08] J. DEI
GLMAYR, A. GROCHOLA,
M. REPP, K. MÖRTLBAU
ER, C. GLÜCK, J. LAN
GE, O. DULIEU, R. WE
STER, M.
WEIDEMÜLLER, FORMATI
ON OF ULTRACOLD POLA
R MOLECULES IN THE R
OVIBRATIONAL GROUND
STATE,
ARXIV:0807.327
2V1 [QUANT

PH], (2008).
[DELARA07] DE LARA,
LS, DE CASTRO, ASM E
XCITAÇÃO PARAMÉTRICA
QUÂNTICA EM MODOS AC
OPLADOS
DISSERTAÇÃO DE MESTR
ADO (MESTRADO EM CIÊ
NCIAS) UEPG 2007
[DELOS81] J. B. DELO
S, REV. MOD. PHYS. 5
3, 287 (1981).
[DEMARCO02] B. DEM
ARCO ET AL.
, PHYS. REV. LETT.
89, 267901 (2002).
[DEMARTINI02] DEMART
INI ET AL., NATURE
419, 815 (2002).
[DEMILLE02] D. DEMIL
LE, “QUANTUM COMPUTA
TION WITH TRAPPED PO
LAR MOLECULES”, PHYS
. REV.
LETT. 88, 067901
(2002); SEE ALSO: P.
RABL, D. DEMILLE, J
M. DOYLE, MD. LU
KIN, RJ. SCHOELKOPF,
P. ZOLLER, “HYBRID Q
UANTUM
PROCESSORS: MOLECULA
R ENSEMBLES AS QUANT
UM MEMORY FOR SOLID
STATE CIRCUITS”, PHY
S. REV. LETT. 97, 03
3003
(2006); A. ANDRÉ, D
. DEMILLE, JM. DOYLE
, MD. LUKIN, SE. MAX
WELL, P.RABL, RJ. SC
HOELKOPF, P. ZOLLER,
NA
TURE PHYS.
2, 636 (2006)
[DEUTSCH85] D. DEUTS
CH, “QUANTUM

THEORY, THE CHURCH

TURING PRINCIPLE AND
THE UNIVERSAL QUANTU
M
COMPUTER” PROC. R. S
OC. LONDON A 400, 97
(1985).
[DIAMANTI06] DIAMANT
I E, TAKESUE H, ET A
L., 100 KM DIFFERENT
IAL PHASE SHIFT QUAN
TUM KE
Y DISTRIBUTION
EXPERIMENT WITH LOW
JITTER UP

CONVERSION DETECTORS
, OPTICS EXPRESS 14(
26): 13073

13081 2006.
[DICKE54] R.H. DICK
E, PHYS. REV. 93, 99
(1954)
[DIRAC] P. A. M. DIR
AC, PRINCIPLES OF QU
ANTUM MECHANICS (OXF
ORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
, OXFORD, 1947).
[DI
VINCENZO00] D. P.
DIVINCENZO FORTSCHR.
PHYS. 48, 771 (2000)
.
[DODONOV02] DODONOV,
VV, DE CASTRO, ASM,
MIZRAHI, SS COVARIAN
CE ENTANGLEMENT MEAS
URE FOR TWO

MODE
CONTINUOUS VARIABLE
SYSTEMS PHYSICS LETT
ERS A 296 (2

3): 73

81 2002
[DOWLING2001] P. KOK
, A. N.
BOTO, D. S. ABRAMS,
C. P. WILLIAMS, S. L
. BRAUNSTEIN, AND J.
P. DOWLING, PHYS. RE
V. A 63,
063407 (2001). M. D’
ANGELO, M.V. CHEKHOV
A AND Y. SHIH, PHYS.
REV. LETT. 87, 01360
2 (2001).
[DRAZIC08] DRAZIC M.
, ET AL. . A CONTINU
OUS VARIABLE NEIGHBO
RHOOD SEARCH
HEURISTIC FOR FINDIN
G THE THREE

DIMENSIONAL STRUCTUR
E OF A MOLECULE EURO
PEAN JOURNAL OF OPER
ATIONAL RESEARCH 185
, 1265

1273, 2008
[DUAN00] DUAN LM, GI
EDKE G, CIRAC JI, AN
D ZOLLER P; PHYS. RE
V. LETT. 84, 2722 (
2000).
[DUAN01] L.

M. DUAN, M. D. LUKIN
, J. I.
CIRAC, P. ZOLLER, LO
NG

DISTANCE QUANTUM COM
MUNICATION WITH ATOM
IC
ENSEMBLES AND LINEAR
OPTICS, NATURE 414,
413

418 (22 NOV 2001)
[DWAVE] WWW.DWAVESYS
.COM
[ECKART34] ECKART,
C., THE KINETIC ENER
GY OF POLYATOMIC MOL
ECULES, PHYS. REV. 4
6, 383 (1934).
[EIS
ERT03] EISERT, J, PL
ENIO, M INTRODUCTION
TO THE BASICS OF ENT
ANGLEMENT THEORY IN
CONTINUOUS

VARIABLE
SYSTEMS INTERNATIONA
L JOURNAL OF QUANTUM
INFORMATION 1: 479

506 (2003).
[EISERT03] J. EISERT
E M.B. PLENIO, INT.
J. Q. INFO 1, 479 (2
003).
[EKERT2000] A. E
KERT, AND A. ZEILING
ER, EDS.
THE PHYSICS OF QUANT
UM INFORMATION (SPRI
NGER, BERLIN, 2000).
[EKERT91] EKERT AK
QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
BASED ON BELL THEORE
M;
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS 67 (6): 661

663
AUG 5 1991
[ELZERMAN04] ELZERMA
N JM, HANSON R, VAN
BEVEREN LH
W, ET AL., SINGLE

SHOT READ

OUT OF AN INDIVIDUAL
ELECTRON SPIN IN A Q
UANTUM DOT, NATURE 4
30 (6998): 431

435 JUL 22 2004
[FANO85] U. FANO, R
EV. MOD. PHYS. 55, 8
55 (1985).
[FARHI01] E. FARHI,
J. GOLDSTONE, S. GUT
MANN, J. LAPAN, A. L
UNDGREN, AND D. PRED
AA QU
ANTUM ADIABATIC
EVOLUTION ALGORITHM
APPLIED TO RANDOM IN
STANCES OF AN NP

COMPLETE PROBLEMSCIE
NCE 292, 472 (2001).
[FARIA08] VILELA DE
FARIA, G.; XAVIER, G
. B.; FERREIRA, J.;
TEMPORAO, G. P.; VON
DER WEID, J. P.; POL
ARISATION
CONTROL SCHEMES FOR
FIBER OPTIC
S QUANTUM COMMUNICAT
IONS USING POLARIZAT
ION ENCODING. ELECTR
ONICS
LETTERS, VOL. 44, NO
. 3 (2008).
[FELINTO06] D. FELIN
TO, C. W. CHOU, J. L
AURAT, E. W. SCHOMBU
RG, H. DE RIEDMATTEN
, H. J. KIMBLE, COND
ITIONAL
CONTROL OF THE QUANT
UM STATES OF REMOTE
ATOMIC MEM
ORIES FOR QUANTUM NE
TWORKING, NATURE PHY
SICS 2,
844

848 (01 DEC 2006)
[FERRARO2008]A. FERR
ARO, D. CAVALCANTI,
A. GARCIA

SAEZ, A. ACIN, THERM
AL BOUND ENTANGLEMEN
T IN
MACROSCOPIC SYSTEMS
AND AREA LAWS , PHYS
. REV. LETT. 100, 08
0502 (2008)
[FEYNMAN82] R. P.
FEYNMAN,“SIMULATING
PHYSICS WITH COMPUTE
RS”, INT. J. THEOR.
PHYS. 21, 467 (1982)
.
[FONESECA99] E.J.S.
FONSECA, C.H. MONKEN
AND S. PADUA., PHYS.
REV.
LETT. 82, 2868 (1999
).
[FONSECA2001] E. J.
F. FONSECA, Z. PAUL
INI, P. NUSSENZVEIG
, ET AL., PHYS. REV.
A
63, 043819 (2001);
[FRANSON89] J.D. FRA
NSON, PHYS. REV. LE
TT. 62 , 2205 (198
9).
[FREEDMAN98] M. H. F
REEDMAN AND D. A. ME
YER, PROJECTIVE PLAN
E AND PLANAR QUANTUM
CODES,
WWW.ARXIV.ORG/QUANT

PH/9810055 (1998).
[FREEMAN97] R. FREEM
AN, SPIN CHOREOGRAPH
Y. (OX
FORD UNIVERSITY PRES
S, 1997).
[FUNG04] B.M. FUNG;
V. L. ERMAKOV, “A SI
MPLE METHOD FOR THE
PREPARATION OF PSEUD
OPURE STATES IN NUCL
EAR
MAGNETIC RESONANCE Q
UANTUM INFORMATION P
ROCESSING”, J. OF CH
EM. PHYS. 121, 8410
(2004); V. L. ERMAK
OV, B. M.
FUNG, “NUCLE
AR MAGNETIC RESONANC
E IMPLEMENTATION OF
THE DEUTSCH

JOZSA ALGORITHM USIN
G DIFFERENT
INITIAL STATES”, J.
OF CHEM. PHYS. 118,
10376 (2003).
[FURUSAWA98] A. FURU
SAWA, J. L. SØRENSEN
, S. L. BRAUNSTEIN,
C. A. FUCHS, H. J. K
IMBLE, AND E. S. POL
ZIK,
UNCONDITIONAL
QUANTUM TELEPORTATIO
N, SCIENCE 23 OCTOBE
R 1998 282: 706

709
[FURUYA98] QUANTUM
DYNAMICAL MANIFESTAT
ION OF CHAOTIC BEHAV
IOR IN THE PROCESS O
F ENTANGLEMENT K.
FURUYA, M. C. NEMES
AND G.Q. PELLEGRINO,
PHYS. REV. LETT. 80
(25), 5524 (1998).
[FUSHMAN08] ILY
A FUSHMAN, DIRK ENGL
UND, ANDREI FARAON,
NICK STOLTZ, PIERRE
PETROFF, AND JELENA
VUCKOVIC, CONTROLLED
PHASE SHIFTS WITH A
SINGLE QUANTUM DOT,
SCIENCE 9 MAY 2008
[GALINDO02] GALINDO
A. AND MARTÍN

DELGADO M.A., INFORM
ATION AND COMPUTATIO
N; CLASSICAL AND QUA
NT
UM
ASPECTS, REV. MOD. P
HYS. 64, 347 (2002).
[GAMMAL08] A. GAMMAL
AND A. PATTANAYAK, P
HYS. REV.
E 75, 036221 (2008).
[GAMMAL08] V.P. BARR
OS, A. GAMMAL, CH.
MOSELEY, A. GAMMAL,
K.ZIEGLER, PHYS. REV
.
A 78, 013642 (2008)
[GASPARONI04] S. GA
SPARONI, ET AL. PHY
S. REV. LETT. 93, 02
0504 (2004).
[GATTI2006] A. GATTI
, M. BACHE, D. MAGAT
TI, E. BRAMBILLA, F.
FERRI, L. A. LUGIATO
, JOURNAL OF MODERN
OPTICS 53,
739 (2006).
[GERRY97] C. C. GERR
Y, S.

C. GOU E J. STEINBAC
H, PHYS. REV. A 55,
630 (1997).
[GISIN02] GISIN N.,
RIBORDY G., TITTEL W
., AND ZBINDEN H., Q
UANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY,
REV. MOD. PHYS. 74,
145 (2002).
[GOTTESMAN96] D. GOT
TESMAN, CLASS OF QUA
NTUM ERROR

CORRECTING CODES SAT
URATING THE QUANTUM
HAMMING BOUND, PHYSI
CAL REVIEW A 54, 186
2 (1996).
[GOU96A] S.

C. GOU, J.
STEINBACH E P. L. KN
IGHT, PHYS. REV. A 5
4, R1014 (1996).
[GOU96B] S.

C. GOU, J. STEINBACH
E P. L. KNIGHT, PHYS
. REV. A 54, 4315 (1
996).
[GOU97] S.

C. GOU, J. STEINBACH
E P. L. KNIGHT, PHYS
. REV. A 55, 3719 (1
997).
[GRAJCAR08] M. GRAJC
AR, S. H. W. VAN DER
PLOEG, A. IZMALKOV,
E. IL'ICHEV, H.

G. MEYER, A. FEDOROV
, A. SHNIRMAN,
GERD SCHAN, SISYPHUS
COOLING AND AMPLIFIC
ATION BY A SUPERCOND
UCTING QUBIT, NATURE
PHYSICS 4, 612

616 (01
AUG 2008)
[GRANGIER03] GROSSHA
NS F. ET AL., QUANTU
M KEY DISTRIBUTION U
SING GAU
SSIAN

MODULATED COHERENT S
TATES,
NATURE 238, 431 (200
3).
[GRANGIER07] LODEWYC
K L. ET AL., QUANTUM
KEY DISTRIBUTION OVE
R 25KM WITH AN ALL

FIBER CONTINUOUS

VARIABLE SYSTEM, PHY
S. REV A 76, 042305
(2007).
[GREENBAUM05] B. D.
GREENBAUM, S. HABIB,
K. SHIZUME,
AND B. SUNDARAM, CHA
OS 15, 033302 (2005)
.
[GREENBAUM07] B. D.
GREENBAUM, S. HABIB,
K. SHIZUME, AND B. S
UNDARAM, ARXIV:QUANT

PH/0610004V2.
[GREILICH06] A. GREI
LICH, D. R. YAKOVLEV
, A. SHABAEV, AL. L.
EFROS, I. A. YUGOVA,
R. OULTON, V. STAVAR
ACHE, D.
REUTER,
A. WIECK, AND M. BAY
ER, MODE LOCKING OF
ELECTRON SPIN COHERE
NCES IN SINGLY CHARG
ED QUANTUM
DOTS, SCIENCE 21 JUL
Y 2006
[GREINER05] GREINER
M, MANDEL O, ESSLING
ER T, HÄNSH TW AND B
LOCH I NATURE 415, 3
9 (2005)
[GROBLACHER07] S. GR
ÖBLACHER ET AL., NAT
URE, 446
, 871 (2007)
[GROSSHANS03] GROSSH
ANS F, VAN ASSCHE G,
WENGER RM, ET AL., Q
UANTUM KEY DISTRIBUT
ION USING GAUSSIAN

MODULATED COHERENT S
TATES, NATURE 421 (6
920): 238

241 JAN 16 2003
[GUILLOT07A] O. GUIL
LOT

NOËL ET AL., HYPERFI
NE STRUCTURE, OPTICA
L DEPHASING,
AND SPECTRAL

HOLE LIFETIME
OF SINGLE

CRYSTALLINE PR3+:LA2
(WO4)3 . PHYS. REV.
B 75, 205110 (2007).
[GUILLOT07B] O. GUIL
LOT

NOËL ET AL., DIRECT
OBSERVATION OF RARE

EARTH

HOST INTERACTIONS IN
ER:Y2SIO5.
PHYS. REV. B 76, 180
408(R) (2007).
[GULDE03] GULDE S. E
T
AL., IMPLEMENTATION
OF THE DEUTSCH

JOZSA ALGORITHM IN A
ION

TRAP QUANTUM
COMPUTER, NATURE 42
1, 48 (2003).
[GULDE03] STEPHAN GU
LDE, MARK RIEBE, GAV
IN P. T. LANCASTER,
CHRISTOPH BECHER, JA
RGEN ESCHNER, HARTMU
T
HAFFNER, FERDINAND S
CHMIDT

KALER, ISAAC L. CHU
ANG, RAINER BLATT, I
MPLEMENTATION OF THE
DEUTSCH

JOZSA
ALGORITHM ON AN ION

TRAP QUANTUM COMPUTE
R, NATURE 421, 48

50 (02 JAN 2003)
[GUO08] GUO

PING GUO, HUI ZHANG,
YONG HU, TAO TU, AND
GUANG

CAN GUODISPERSIVE CO
UPLING BETWEEN THE
SUPERCONDUCTING TRAN
SMISS
ION LINE RESONATOR A
ND THE DOUBLE QUANTU
M DOTSPHYS. REV. A 7
8, 020302(R)
(2008).
[GUO08] ZHAO Y.

B. ET AL., COMPUTATI
ONAL COMPLEXITY OF C
ONTINUOUS VARIABLE Q
UANTUM KEY DISTRIBUT
ION,
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON
INFORMATION THEORY,
54, 2803 (2008).
[HAFFNER05] H. H
AFFNER, W. HANSEL, C
. F. ROOS, J. BENHEL
M, D. CHEK

AL

KAR, M. CHWALLA, T.
KARBER, U. D. RAPOL,
M. RIEBE, P. O. SCHM
IDT, C. BECHER, O. G
AHNE, W. DAR, R. BLA
TT, SCALABLE MULTIPA
RTICLE ENTANGLEMENT
OF
TRAPPED ÍONS, NATURE
438, 643

646 (01 DEC 2005)
[HARROW0
8] A. HARROW E R. LO
W, ARXIV: 0802.1919V
1 [QUANT

PH]
[HARUNA07A] HARUNA
LF, DE OLIVEIRA MC,
RIGOLIN GG PHYSICAL
REVIEW LETTERS 98, 1
50501 (2007)
[HARUNA07B] HARUNA
LF, DE OLIVEIRA MC J
OURNAL OF PHYSICS A:
MATHEMATICAL AND THE
ORETICAL 44, 14195 (
2007)
[HA
STING06] S .R. HASTI
NG

SIMON ET AL., CONTRO
LLED STARK SHIFTS IN
ER3+

DOPED CRYSTALLINE AN
D AMORPHOUS
WAVEGUIDES FOR QUANT
UM STATE STORAGE. OP
T. COMMUN. 266 716 (
2006).
[HIJLKEMA07] M. HIJL
KEMA, B. WEBER, H. P
. SPECHT, S. C. WEBS
TER, A. KUHN E G. RE
MPE, NAT
URE PHYSICS 3, 253 (
2007).
[HINES05] A. P. HINE
S,
R. H. MCKENZIE AND G
.J. MILBURN, PHYS. R
EV.
A 71, 042303 (2005).
[HOWELL04] HOWELL J
C, ET AL. REALIZATIO
N OF THE EINSTEIN

PODOLSKY

ROSEN PARADOX USING
MOMENTUM

AND
POSITION

ENTANGLED PHOTONS FR
OM SPONT
ANEOUS PARAMETRIC DO
WN CONVERSION;
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS
92 (21): ART. NO. 21
0403 MAY 28 2004
[HUGUENIN05] J. A. H
UGUENIN, M. P. ALMEI
DA, P.H. SOUTO RIBEI
RO, AND A. Z. KHOURY
; MOIRE FRINGE PATTE
RNS IN
SPATIAL QUANTUM CORR
ELATIONS OF TWIN PHO
TONS; PHYS.
REV. A 71, 43818 (20
05)
[HURT2005] D HURT, E
ODABASHIAN, W PICKET
T, RT SCALETTAR, F M
ONDAINI, T PAIVA E R
R DOS SANTOS, DESTRU
CTION
OF SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
BY IMPURITIES IN THE
ATTRACTIVE HUBBARD M
ODEL, PHYS REV B 72,
144513 (2005).
[IDQUANTIQUE] WWW.ID
QUAN
TIQUE.COM
[INTALLURA07] INTALL
URA PM, WARD MB, ET
AL., QUANTUM KEY DIS
TRIBUTION USING A TR
IGGERED QUANTUM DOT
SOURCE, APPLIED PHYS
ICS LETTERS 91: 1611
103 2007.
[JAKSCK00] D. JAKSCH
ET AL., FAST QUANTUM
GATES FOR NEUTRAL AT
OMS, PHYS. REV. LETT
. 85, 2208 (20
00).
[JALBERT06] JALBERT,
GINETTE, SILVA, L.,
WOLFF, W., MAGALHÃES
, S. D., MEDINA, ALI
NE, SANT’ANNA, M. M.
AND DE
CASTRO FARIA, N.V.,
PHYS. REV.
A, 74, 042703 (2006)
.
[JALBERT07] JALBERT,
GINETTE, MEDINA, ALI
NE, M., MAGALHÃES, S
. D., WOLFF, W., BAR
ROS, A.L
.F., CARRILHO, P.,
ROCHA, A.B. AND DE C
ASTRO FARIA, N.V., J
. OF PHYS.
CS, 88, 012024(2007)
.
[JALBERT08] JALBERT,
GINETTE, WOLFF, W.,
MAGALHÃES, S. D., DE
CASTRO FARIA AND N.V
., PHYS. REV. A, 77,
012722
(2008).
[JAMES01] JAMES D.F.
V., KWIAT P.G., MUNR
O W.J.
, AND WHITE A.G. MEA
SUREMENT OF QUBITS P
HYSICAL REVIEW A 64,
052312P1

052312P15, 2001
[JENNEWEIN00] T. JEN
NEWEIN, ET AL.; PHYS
. REV.
LETT. 84 4729 (200
0)
[JONES00] A. J. JONE
S ET AL., GEOMETRIC
QUANTUM COMPUTATION
USING NUCLEAR MAGNET
IC RESONANCE. NATURE
403 (2000) 869.
[JONES98] A. J. JONE
S, M. MOSCA E R. H.
HANSEN, IMPLEMENTATI
ON OF A QUANTUM SEAR
CH ALGORITHM ON A
QUANTUM COMPUTER. NA
TURE 393 (1998) 1998
.
[JOOS03] JOOS E, ZEH
HD, KIEFER C, GIULIN
I D, KUPSCH J, STAMA
TESCU I.

O DECOHERENCE AND TH
E APPEA
RANCE OF A
CLASSICAL WORLD IN Q
UANTUM THEORY 2ND E
DITION (SPRINGER

VERLAG, BERLIN 2003)
[KAJI04]KAJI R, YOSH
IZAWA A, ET AL., EVA
LUATION OF KEYRATES
IN UNCONDITIONALLY S
ECURE QUANTUM KEY
DISTRIBUTION TAKING
ACCOUNT OF THE AFTER
PULSE EFFECT OF SING
LE

PHOTO
N DETECTORS, ELECTRO
NICS AND
COMMUNICATIONS IN JA
PAN 87(9): 38

44 2004.
[KAMINSKY05] W. M. K
AMINSKY, S. LLOYD, A
ND T. P. ORLANDO, NO
ISE RESISTANCE OF AD
IABATIC QUANTUM
COMPUTATION USING RA
NDOM MATRIX THEORYE

PRINT QUANT

PH/0403090; M. GRAJC
AR, A. IZMALKOV,
AND E.
IL’ICHEV, POSSIBLE I
MPLEMENTATION OF ADI
ABATIC QUANTUM ALGOR
ITHM WITH SUPERCONDU
CTING FLUX QUBITS,
PHYS. REV. B 71, 144
501 (2005).
[KANE00] B. E. KANE,
“ SILICON

BASED QUANTUM COMPUT
ATION”, FORTSCHR. PH
YS. 48, 1023 (2000).
[KANE98] KANE BE, A
SILIC
ON

BASED NUCLEAR SPIN Q
UANTUM COMPUTER, NAT
URE 393 (6681): 133

137 MAY 14 1998
[KAPULKIN08] A. KAPU
LKIN AND A. PATTANAY
AK, PHYS. REV. LETT.
101, 074101 (2008).
[KHVESHCHENKO2003] E
NTANGLEMENT AND DECO
HERENCE IN NEAR

CRITICAL QUBIT CHAIN
S, KHVESHCHENKO DV,
PHYSICAL REVIEW B 68
(19), 193307 (2003)
.
[KIELPINSKI02] KIELP
INSKI D, MONROE C, W
INELAND DJ, ARCHITEC
TURE FOR A LARGE

SCALE ION

TRAP QUANTUM
COMPUTER, NATURE 417
(6890): 709

711 JUN 13 2002
[KIMBLE08] H. J. KIM
BLE, THE QUANTUM INT
ERNET, NATURE 453, 1
023

1030 (18 JUN 2008)
[KIS01] Z. KIS, W. V
OGEL, L. DAVIDOVICH
E N. ZAGURY, PHYS. R
EV. A 63, 053410 (20
01).
[KITAEV03] KITAEV AY
FAULT

TOLERANT QUANTUM COM
PUTATION BY ANYONS
ANNALS OF PHYSICS 30
3, 2 (2003)
[KLAUDER85] KLAUDER
J R AND SKAGERSTAM B
S 1985 CO
HERENT STATES, APPLI
CATIONS IN PHYSICS A
ND
MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS
(SINGAPORE: WORLD SC
IENTIFIC)
[KNILL01] KNILL E, L
AFLAMME R, AND MILBU
RN GJ, NATURE 409, 4
6 (2001).
[KOILLER01] B. KOIL
LER, X. HU, S. DAS S
ARMA , EXCHANGE IN S
ILICON

BASED QUANTUM COMPUT
ER AR
CHITECTURE,
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS 88, 213118 (2001
)
[KOILLER02] KOILLER
B, HU X, AND DAS SAR
MA S; PHYS. REV. LET
T. 88, 027903 (2002)
.
[KOILLER06 B. KOILLE
R, X. HU, S. DAS SAR
MA, ELECTRIC

FIELD DRIVEN DONOR

BASED CHARGE QUBITS
IN
SEMICONDUCTORS, PHYS
ICAL
REVIEW B 73, 045319
(2006)
[KOK2002] P. KOK ET
AL., PHYS. REV. A 65
, 052104 (2002); P.
WALTHER ET AL., NATU
RE 429, 158 (2004);
M. W. MITCHELL ET
AL., NATURE 429, 161
(2004); T. NAGATA, E
T AL., SCIENCE 316,
726 (2007).
[KOLOVSKY07] A R KOL
OVSKY SEMICLASSICA
L ANALYSIS OF THE BO
GOLIUBOV SPECTRUM IN
THE BOSE

HUBBARD
MODEL PHYSICAL REVI
EW E76, 026207 (2007
).
[KOLOVSKY07] A R. KO
LOVSKY SEMICLASSICAL
QUANTIZATION OF THE
BOGOLIUBOV SPECTRUM
PHYSICAL REVIEW
LETTERS, 99, 020401
(2007)
[KOWADA08] KOWADA L.
A.B., LAV
OR C., PORTUGAL R.,
AND FIGUEIREDO C.M.H
. A NEW QUANTUM ALGO
RITHM FOR
SOLVING THE MINIMUM
SEARCHING PROBLEM IN
TERNATIONAL JOURNAL
OF QUANTUM INFORMATI
ON 6, 427

436, 2008
[KROUTVAR04] KROUTVA
R M, DUCOMMUN Y, HEI
SS D, ET AL., OPTICA
LLY PROGRAMMABLE ELE
CTRON
SPIN MEMORY
USING SEMICONDUCTOR
QUANTUM DOTS, NATURE
432 (7013): 81

84 NOV 4 2004
[KUZMICH03] GENERATI
ON OF NONCLASSICAL P
HOTON PAIRS FOR SCAL
ABLE QUANTUM COMMUNI
CATION WITH
ATOMIC ENSEMBLES , K
UZMICH A, BOWEN WP,
BOOZER AD, ET AL., N
ATURE VOL.423 ISS.69
41
PAGES: 731

734 (2003).
[KWIAT99] KWIAT PG,
WAKS E, WHITE AG, ET
AL.
ULTRABRIGHT SOURCE O
F POLARIZATION

ENTANGLED PHOTONS
;
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 60
(2): R773

R776 AUG 1999
[LAFLAMME96] LAFLAMM
E R, MIQUEL C, PAZ J
P, AND ZUREK WH PHYS
ICAL REVIEW LETTERS
77,
198 (1996).
[LAMAS

LINARES01] A. LAMAS

LINARES, J. C. HOWEL
L, D. BOUWMEESTER, S
TIMULATED EMISSION O
F POLARIZATION

ENTANGLED PHOTONS, N
ATURE 412, 887

890 (30 AUG 2001)
[LAMBO07] R. LAMBO,
C.C. RODEGHERI, D.M.
SILVEIRA AND C.L. CE
SAR, “SPECTROSCOPY O
F LOW

ENERGY ATOMS
RELEASED FROM SOLID
NOBLE

GAS MATRIX: PROPOSAL
FOR A TRAP LOADING T
ECHNIQUE”, PHYS. REV
. A. 76, 061401(R)
(2007)
[LANDRY07] O. LANDRY
, J. A. W. VAN HOUWE
LINGEN, A. BEVERATOS
, H. ZBINDEN E N. GI
SIN.
QUANTUM TELEPORTATIO
N
OVER THE SWISSCOM TE
LECOMMUNICATION NETW
ORK J. OPT. SOC. AM.
B, VOL. 24, NO. 2 (2
007)
[LANGFORD98] V. S. L
ANGFORD AND B. E. WI
LLIAMSON, "MAGNETIC
CIRCULAR DICHROISM A
ND ABSORPTION SPECTR
A
OF THE NH RADICAL IN
AN ARGON MATRIX", 24
15J. PHYS. CHEM. A 1
02, 2415 (1998)
[LAVOR07A]
LAVOR C., CARVALHO L
.M., PORTUGAL R., AN
D MOURA C.A. COMPLEX
ITY OF GROVER´S ALGO
RITHM: AN
ALGEBRAIC APPROACH I
NTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
OF APPLIED MATHEMATI
CS 20, 801

814, 2007
[LAVOR07B] LAVOR C.,
LIBERTI L., MACULAN
N., AND NASCIMENTO M
.A.C. SOLVING HARTRE
E

F
OCK SYSTEMS WITH
GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION
METHODS EUROPHYSICS
LETTERS 77, 50006P1

50006P5, 2007
[LAVOR07C] LAVOR C.,
CARDOZO T.M., AND NA
SCIMENTO M.A.C. USIN
G AN INTERVAL BRANCH
AND BOUND ALGORITHM
IN THE HARTREE

FOCK METHOD INTERNAT
IONAL JOURNAL OF QUA
NTUM CHE
MISTRY 103, 500

504, 2005
[LEIBFRIED03] LEIBFR
IED D, DEMARCO B, ME
YER V, ET AL., EXPER
IMENTAL DEMONSTRATIO
N OF A ROBUST, HIGH

FIDELITY GEOMETRIC T
WO ION

QUBIT PHASE GATE, NA
TURE 422 (6930): 412

415 MAR 27 2003
[LEIBFRIED05] D. LEI
BFRIED, E. KNILL, S.
SEIDE
LIN, J. BRITTON, R.
B. BLAKESTAD, J. CHI
AVERINI, D. B. HUME,
W. M. ITANO,
J. D. JOST, C. LANGE
R, R. OZERI, R. REIC
HLE, D. J. WINELAND,
CREATION OF A SIX

ATOM SCHROEDINGER CA
T STATE,
NATURE 438, 639

642 (01 DEC 2005)
[LEWIS67]H. R. LEWIS
, CLASSICAL AND QU
ANTUM SYSTEMS WITH T
IME

DEPENDENT HARMONIC

OSCILLATOR

TYPE
HAMILTONIANSPHYS. RE
V. LETT. 18, 510 (19
67);H. R. LEWISE AND
W. B. RIESENFELD, J.
MATH. PHYS. 10, 1458
(1969).
[LI06] G. X. LI, H.
T. TAN, S. P. WU E G
. M. HUANG, PHYS. RE
V. A 74, 025801 (200
6).
[LI08] P. LI, PHYS.
REV. A 77, 015809 (2
008).
[LLOYD00] S. LLOYD,
NATURE 406 (2000) 10
47.
[LONGDELL05] J. J. L
ONGDELL ET AL., STOP
PED LIGHT WITH STORA
GE TIMES GREATER THA
N ONE SECOND USING
ELECTROMAGNETICALLY
INDUCED TRANSPARENCY
IN A SOLID. PHYS. RE
V. LET
T. 95 063601 (2005).
[LOSS98] D. LOSS E
D. P. DIVINCENZO PHY
SICAL REVIEW A 57, 1
20 (1998).
[LOSS98] LOSS D DI V
INCENZO DP, QUANTUM
COMPUTATION WITH QUA
NTUM DOTS, PHYSICAL
REVIEW A 57, 120 (19
98)
[LOUCHET07] A. LOUCH
ET ET AL., BRANCHING
RATIO MEASUREMENT
OF A SYSTEM IN TM3+
:YAG UNDER A MAGNETI
C
FIELD. PHYS. REV. B
75, 035131 (2007).
[LU07] CHAO

YANG LU, XIAO

QI ZHOU, OTFRIED GAH
NE, WEI

BO GAO, JIN ZHANG, Z
HEN

SHENG YUAN, ALEXANDE
R
GOEBEL, TAO YANG, JI
AN

WEI PAN, EXPERIMENTA
L ENTANGLEMENT OF SI
X PHOTONS I
N GRAPH STATES, NATU
RE
PHYSICS 3, 91

95 (01 FEB 2007)
[LUKIN01] M. D. LUKI
N ET AL., DIPOLE BLO
CKADE AND QUANTUM IN
FORMATION PROCESSING
IN MESOSCOPIC ATOMIC
ENSEMBLES, PHYS. REV
. LETT. 87, 037901 (
2001).
[MACWILLIAMS77] F. J
. MACWILLIAMS AND N.
J. SLOANE
, THE THEORY OF ERRO
R

CORRECTING CODES, NO
RTH

HOLLAND
PUBLISHING COMPANY,
AMSTERDAM, 1977.
[MAGICQ] WWW.MAGICTE
CH.COM
[MAIA08] SEMICLASSIC
AL EVOLUTION OF GAUS
SIAN WAVEPACKETS, R.
N. P. MAIA, F. NICAC
IO, R. O. VALLEJOS,
F.
TOSCANO, PHYS. REV.
LETT.
100, 1
84102 (2008).
[MAIR01] MAIR A, VAZ
IRI A, WEIHS G, ET A
L. ENTANGLEMENT OF T
HE ORBITAL ANGULAR M
OMENTUM STATES OF
PHOTONS;
NATURE 412 (6844): 3
13

316 JUL 19 2001
[MALVEZZI2002] A L M
ALVEZZI, T PAIVA E R
R DOS SANTOS, MULTIP
ERIODIC MAGNETIC STR
UCTURES IN HUBB
ARD
SUPERLATTICES, PHYS
REV B 66, 064430 (20
02)
[MALVEZZI2006] A L M
ALVEZZI, T PAIVA E R
R DOS SANTOS, MODULA
TION OF CHARGE

DENSITY

WAVES BY
SUPERLATTICE STRUCTU
RES, PHYS REV B 73,
193407 (2006).
[MANCINI02] MANCINI
S, GIOVANNETTI V, VI
TALI D, AND TOMBESI
P
; PHYS. REV. LETT. 8
8, 120401 (2002).
[MANCINI04] MANCINI,
M. W., G. D. TELLES,
A. R. L. CAIRES, V.
S. BAGNATO, AND L. G
. MARCASSA, “OBSERVA
TION OF
ULTRACOLD GROUND

STATE HETERONUCLEAR
MOLECULES,” PHYS. RE
V.
LETT. 92, 133203 (20
04)
[MANDEL03] O. MANDEL
; M.
GREINER; A. WIDERA,
ET AL., NATURE 425,
937 (2003).
[MARCIKIC03] I. MARC
IKIC, H. DE RIEDMATT
EN, W. TITTEL, H. ZB
INDEN & N. GISIN LON
G

DISTANCE TELEPORTATI
ON OF
QUBITS AT TELECOMMUN
ICATION WAVELENGTHS.
NATURE, VOL. 421, 50
9 (2003)
[MARTINELLI04] M. MA
RTINE
LLI, J. A. O. HUGUEN
IN, P. NUSSENZVEIG E
A. Z. KHOURY, PHYSI
CAL REVIEW A 70, 01
3812
(2004).
[MARTINS04] A. S. MA
RTINS, R. B. CAPAZ,
AND B. KOILLER, ELEC
TRIC

FIELD CONTROL AND AD
IABATIC EVOLUTION OF
SHALLOW DONOR IMPURI
TIES IN SILICON, PHY
SICAL REVIEW B
69, 085320 (2004)
[MATOS96A] R. L. DE
MATOS FILHO AND W. V
OGEL, PHYS. REV. LET
T. 76, 608 (1996).
[MATOS96B] R. L. DE
MATOS FILHO AND W. V
OGEL, PHYS. REV.
A 54, 4560 (1996).
[MATTLE96] MATTLE K,
WEINFURTER H, KWIAT
PG, ET AL. DENSE COD
ING IN EXPERIMENTAL
QUANTUM
COMMUNICATION;
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS 76 (25): 4656

4659 JUN 17 1996
[MCCORMICK07] STRONG
RELATIVE INTENSITY S
QUEEZING BY FOUR

WAVE MIXING IN RUBID
IUM VAPOR MCCORMICK
CF, BOYER V, ARIMOND
O E, ET AL.OPTICS LE
TTERS VOL.32 ISS.2
PAGES: 178

180 (20
07).
[MEDINA08] ALINE ME
DINA, G. RAHMAT, GIN
ETTE JALBERT, C. R.
CARVALHO, N. V. DE C
ASTRO FARIA AND J. R
OBERT,
EUROPEAN GRADUATE CO
LLEGE WORKSHOP, GIF

SUR

YVETTE (2008).
[MENDONÇA08] MENDON
ÇA FA, DE BRITO DB,
ET AL., EXPERIMENTAL
IMPLEMENTATION OF B9
2 QU
ANTUM KEY
DISTRIBUTION PROTOCO
L, MICROWAVE AND OPT
ICAL TECHNOLOGY LETT
ERS 50 (1): 236

241 2008.
[MESSIAH04] A. MESSI
AHQUANTUM MECHANICS,
VOL. 2, NORTH

HOLLAND (AMSTERDAM,
1962); K.

P. MARZLIN AND B. C.
SANDERS, INCONSISTEN
CY IN THE APPLICATIO
N OF THE ADIAB
ATIC THEOREMPHYS. RE
V. LETT. 93, 160408
(2004).
[MEYER02] D. A. MEYE
R AND N. R. WALLACH,
GLOBAL ENTANGLEMENT
IN MULTIPARTITE SYST
EMS, J. MATH. PHYS.
43
(9), PP. 4273, 2002.
[MINIATURA92] CH. MI
NIATURA, J. ROBERT,
O. GORCEIX, V. LOREN
T, S. LE BOITEUX, J.
RE
INHARDT AND J. BAUDO
N, PHYS.
REV. LETT. 69, 261 (
1992).
[MONDAINI2008] F MON
DAINI, T PAIVA, RR D
OS SANTOS E RT SCALE
TTAR, DISORDERED TWO

DIMENSIONAL
SUPERCONDUCTORS: ROL
ES OF TEMPERATURE AN
D INTERACTION STRENG
TH, SUBMETIDO À PUBL
ICAÇÃO NO PHYS REV
B (20
08).
[MONKEN98]C. H. MONK
EN, P. H. SOUTO RIBE
IRO AND S. PÁDUA, PH
YS. REV. A 57 312
3 (1998).
[MONROE02] MONROE C,
QUANTUM INFORMATION
PROCESSING WITH ATOM
S AND PHOTONS, NATUR
E 416 (6877): 238

246
MAR 14 2002
[MONTEOLIVA00] D. MO
NTEOLIVA AND J. P. P
AZ, PH
YS. REV. LETT. 85, 3
373 (2000).
[MONTEOLIVA01] D. MO
NTEOLIVA AND J. P. P
AZ,PHYS. REV. E, 64,
056238 (2001).
[MUNHOZ08] MUNHOZ, P
P, SEMIÃO, FL, VIDIE
LLA

BARRANCO, A, ROVERSI
, JA CLUSTER

TYPE ENTANGLED COHER
ENT
STATES PHYSICS LETTE
RS A 372 (20): 3580

3585 2
008
[NAGATA07] TOMOHISA
NAGATA, RYO OKAMOTO,
JEREMY L. O'BRIEN, K
EIJI SASAKI, AND SHI
GEKI TAKEUCHI, BEATI
NG
THE STANDARD QUANTUM
LIMIT WITH FOUR

ENTANGLED PHOTONS, S
CIENCE 4 MAY 2007 31
6: 726

729
[NAMEKATA03] NAMEKAT
A N, MAKINO Y, ET AL
., SINGLE

PHOTON DET
ECTOR FOR LONG

DISTANCE QUANTUM
CRYPTOGRAPHY, ELECTR
ONICS AND COMMUNICAT
IONS IN JAPAN 86(5):
10

15 2003.
[NASCIMENTO08] V. A.
NASCIMENTO, L. L. CA
LIRI, A. SCHWETTMANN
, J.P. SHAFFER, AND
L.G. MARCASSA, ELECT
RIC FIELD
EFFECTS IN COLD RYDB
ERG ATOM PAIR EXCITA
TION, SUBMETIDO PHYS
. REV. LETT. (2008).
[NELSON07]IMAGING SI
NGLE ATOMS IN A THRE
E

DIMENSIONAL ARRAY NE
LSON KD, LI X, WEISS
DS NATURE PHYSICS
VOL. 3
ISS. 8
PAGES: 556

560 (2007)
[NEMES06] QUANTUM E
NTANGLEMENT AND FIXE
D POINT HOPF BIFURCA
TION, M. C.
NEMES, K. FURUYA, G.
Q.
PELLEGRINO, A. C. OL
IVEIRA, M. REIS, AND
L. SANZ, PHYS. LETT.
A, 354, (1

2), 60

66 (2006).
[NEVES2005] L NEVES
ET AL PHYS. REV. L
ETT. 94, 100501 (200
5)
[NEVES2007] L. NEVES
, G. LIMA, E. J. S.
FONSECA, L. DAVIDOVI
CH, E S. PÁDUA, PH
YS. REV.
A, 76, 032314 (2007)
;
[NIELSEN00] M.A. NIE
LSEN AND I.L. CHANG,
QUANTUM COMPUTATION
AND QUANTUM INFORMAT
ION, CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS, 20
00.
[NIELSEN01] M. A. NI
ELSEN E I. L. CHUANG
, QUANTUM COMPUTATIO
N AND QUANTUM INFORM
ATION. (CAMBRIDGE
PRESS,
2001).
[NIELSEN98] M. A. NI
ELSEN, E. KNILL E R.
LAFLAMME, COMPLETE Q
UANTUM TELEPORTATION
USING NUCLEAR
MAGNETIC RESONANCE.
NATURE 396 (1998) 52
.
[NOGUEIRA04] W. A. N
OGUEIRA, S. P. WALBO
RN, S. PÁDUA, AND C.
H. MONKEN, GENERATIO
N OF A TWO

PHOTON SINGLET
BE
AM, PHYS. REV. LETT.
92, 043602 (2004).
[OBRIEN03] J. L. O'B
RIEN, G. J. PRYDE, A
. G. WHITE, T. C. RA
LPH, D. BRANNING, DE
MONSTRATION OF AN AL
L

OPTICAL
QUANTUM CONTROLLED

NOT GATE, NATURE 42
6, 264

267 (20 NOV 2003)
[OBRIEN07] JEREMY L.
O'BRIEN, OPTICAL QU
ANTUM COMPUTING, SCI
ENCE 7 DECEMBER 2007
[OLIVEIRA03] A. L. O
LIVEIRA, M. W. MANCI
NI, V. S. BAGNATO, L
.G. MARCASSA, RYDBER
G COLD COLLISIONS DO
MINATED
BY ULTRALONG RANGE P
OTENTIAL, PHYS. RE
V.
LETT. 90 (14), 14300
2 (2003).
[OLIVEIRA06A] DE OLI
VEIRA TR, RIGO
LIN G, AND OLIVEIRA
MC PHYSICAL REVIEW A
73, 010305(R) (2006)
[OLIVEIRA06B] DE OLI
VEIRA TR, RIGOLIN G,
DE OLIVEIRA MC, AND
MIRANDA E, PHYSICAL
REVIEW LETTERS 97, 1
70401
(2006)
[OLIVEIRA07] I. S. O
LIVEIRA ET AL., NMR
QUANTUM INFORMATION
PROCESSING. (ELSEVIE
R,2007) .
[OLIVEIRA08] DE OLIV
EIRA TR, RIGOLIN G,
DE OLIVEIRA MC, AND
MIRANDA E PHYSICAL R
EVIEW A 77, 032325 (
2008)
[OLIVEIRAM03] DE OLI
VEIRA MC PHYSICAL RE
VIEW A 67, 022307 (2
003)
[OLIVEIRAM04] DE OLI
VEIRA MC PHYSICAL RE
VIEW A 70, 034303 (2
004).
[OSTERLOH
02] OSTERLOH A ET AL
., SCALING OF ENTANG
LEMENT CLOSE TO A QU
ANTUM PHASE TRANSITI
ON, NATURE
416, 608 (2002).
[OZORIO07] A.M. OZOR
IO DE ALMEIDA, P. DE
M. RIOS E O. BRODIER
ARXIV: 0708.3988
[PAN00] JIAN

WEI PAN, DIK BOUWMEE
STER, MATTHEW DANIEL
L, HARALD WEINFU
RTER, ANTON ZEILINGE
R,
EXPERIMENTAL TEST OF
QUANTUM NONLOCALITY
IN THREE

PHOTON GREENBERGER

HORNE

ZEILINGER
ENTANGLEMENT, NATURE
403, 515

519 (03 FEB 2000)
[PAN01] JIAN

WEI PAN, CHRISTOPH S
IMON, CASLAV BRUKNER
, ANTON ZEILINGER, E
NTANGLEMENT PURIFICA
TION
FOR
QUANTUM COMMUNICATIO
N, NATURE 410, 1067

1070 (26 APR 2001)
[PAN03A] JIAN

WEI PAN, SARA GASPAR
ONI, RUPERT URSIN, G
REGOR WEIHS, ANTON Z
EILINGER, EXPERIMENT
AL
ENTANGLEMENT PURIFIC
ATION OF ARBITRARY U
NKNOWN STATES, NATUR
E 423, 417

422 (22 MAY 2003)
[PAN03B] JIAN

WEI PAN, SARA GASPAR
ONI, MARKUS ASPELMEY
ER, THOMAS JENNEWEIN
, ANTON ZEILINGER,
EXPERIMENTAL REALIZA
TION OF FREELY PROPA
GATING TELEPORTED QU
BITS, NATURE 421, 7
21

725 (13 FEB 2003)
[PARKINS06] A. S. PA
RKINS, E. SOLANO E J
. I. CIRAC, PHYS. RE
V. LETT. 96, 053602
(2006).
[PASHKIN03] PASHKIN
YA, YAMAMOTO T, ASTA
FIEV O, ET AL., QUAN
TUM OSCILLATIONS IN
TWO COUPLED CHARGE
QUBITS, NATURE 421 (
6925): 823

826 FEB 20 2003
[PASQUINI04] T. A. P
ASQUINI, Y. SHIN, C.
SANNER, M. SABA, A.
SCHIROTZEK, D. E. PR
I
TCHARD, AND W. KETTE
RLE
QUANTUM REFLECTION F
ROM A SOLID SURFACE
AT NORMAL INCIDENCE
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS 93, 223201 (2004
).
[PASQUINI06] T. A. P
ASQUINI, M. SABA, G.

B. JO, Y. SHIN, W. K
ETTERLE, AND D. E. P
RITCHARD LOW VELOCIT
Y QUANTUM
REFLECTION OF BOS
E

EINSTEIN CONDENSATES
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS, 97, 093201 (200
6)
[PATTANAYAK03] A. K.
PATTANAYAK, B. SUNDA
RAM, AND B. D. GREEN
BAUM, PHYS. REV. LET
T. 90, 014103 (2003)
.
[PELLEGRINI07] PELLE
GRINI S, WARBURTON R
E, ET AL., DESIGN AN
D PERFORMANCE OF AN
INGAAS

INP SINGLE

PHOTON
AVALANCHE DIODE DETE
CTOR, INTERNAL REPOR
T HERIOT

WATT UNIVERSITY, 200
7.
[PELLIZZARI97] T. PE
LLIZZARI, PHYS. REV.
LETT. 79, 5242 (1997
).
[PERES96] PERES A, P
HYSICAL REVIEW LETTE
RS 77: 1413 (1996).
[PERES99] PERES A, F
OUND. PHYS. 29, 589
(
1999).
[PIELAWA07] S. PIELA
WA, G. MORIGI, D. VI
TALI E L. DAVIDOVICH
, PHYS. REV. LETT. 9
8, 240401 (2007).
[PIRES 08] M. O. C.
PIRES AND E. J. V. D
E PASSOS TEMPERATURE

DRIVEN COLLAPSE OF A
COHERENT BINARY MIXT
URE OF
CONDENSATES PHYSICAL
REVIEW A 77, 033606
(
2008).
[PITTENGER01] A. O.
PITTENGER, “NA INTRO
DUCTION TO QUANTUM C
OMPUTING ALGORITHMS”
, BIRKHÄUSER, BOSTON
,
2001.
[PLENIO05] PLENIO, M
B, SEMIÃO, FL HIGH E
FFICIENCY TRANSFER O
F QUANTUM INFORMATIO
N AND MULTIPARTICLE
ENTANGLEMENT GENERAT
ION IN TRANSLATION

IN
VARIANT QUANTUM CHAI
NS NEW JOURNAL OF PH
YSICS 7: 73 2005
[POLITI08] ALBERTO P
OLITI, MARTIN J. CRY
AN, JOHN G. RARITY,
SIYUAN YU, AND JEREM
Y L. O'BRIEN, SILICA

ON

SILICON
WAVEGUIDE QUANTUM CI
RCUITS, SCIENCE 2 MA
Y 2008 320: 646

649
[POSTOL01] M.S. POST
OL, OA
PROPOSED QUANTUM LOW
DENSITY PARITY

CHECK CODE, TECHNICA
L REPORT, NATIONAL
SECURITY AGENCY, FOR
T MEADE, MD, AUGUST
2001, AVAILABLE ON L
INE: WWW.ARXIV.ORG/Q
UANT

PH/0108131V1.
[POYATOS96] J. F. PO
YATOS, J. I. CIRAC E
P. ZOLLER, PHYS. REV
. LETT. 77, 4728 (19
9
6).
[PRADO06] F. O. PRAD
O, N. G. DE ALMEIDA,
M. H. Y. MOUSSA E C.
J. VILLAS

BÔAS, PHYS. REV. A 7
3, 043803 (2006).
[PRADO08] F. O. P
RADO, E. I. DUZZIONI
, M. H. Y. MOUSSA, N
. G. DE ALMEIDA E C.
J. VILLAS

BOAS, ARXIV: 0803.37
09.
[PREVEDEL07] PREVEDE
L, R.
ET AL., HIGH

SPEED LINEAR OPTICS
QUANTUM COMPUTING US
ING ACTIVE FEED

FORWARD,
NATURE 445, 65

69 (2007).
[PREVEDEL07] PREVEDE
L, R. ET AL., HIGH

SPEED LINEAR OPTICS
QUANTUM COMPUTING US
ING ACTIVE FEED

FORWARD,
NATURE 445, 65

69 (2007).
[PREVEDEL07] R. P
REVEDEL ET AL., NATU
RE 445, 65 (2007).
[PURI94] R. R. PURI,
C. K. LAW E J. H. EB
ERLY, PHYS. REV. A 5
0, 4212 (1994).
[QUAN2007] QUANTUM
CRITICAL DYNAMICS OF
A QUBIT COUPLED TO A
N ISOTROPIC LIPKIN

MESHKOV

GLICK BATH,
QUAN HT, WANG ZD , S
UN CP, PHYSICAL RE
VIEW A 76 (1) 012104
, JUL 2007
[RAMOS03] RAMOS RV E
T AL., SINGLE

PHOTON DETECTORS FOR
QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBU
TION IN 1550NM: SIMU
LATION
AND EXPERIMENTAL RES
ULTS, MICROWAVE AND
OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY L
ETTERS 37(2): 136

139 2003.
[RAPPOPORT2007] T. G
. RAPPOPORT, L
. GHIVELDER, J. C. F
ERNANDES R. B. GUIMA
RÃES, M. A. CONTINEN
TINO,
EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVA
TION OF QUANTUM ENTA
NGLEMENT IN LOW

DIMENSIONAL SPIN SYS
TEMS, PHYS. REV. B 7
5,
054422 (2007)
[RARITY90] RARITY JG
, TAPSTER PR EXPERIM
ENTAL VIOLATION OF B
ELL INEQUALITY BA
SED ON PHASE AND
MOMENTUM;
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS 64 (21): 2495

2498 MAY 21 1990
[RAUSCHENBEUTEL99]
A. RAUSCHENBEUTEL, E
T AL., PHYS. REV.
LETT. 83, 5166 (1999
).
[RAUSSENDORF01] ROBE
RT RAUSSENDORF AND H
ANS J. BRIEGEL, A ON
E

WAY QUANTUM COMPUTER
, QUANTUM
COMPUTERS AND THE ME
ASUREMENTS FORM THE
PROGRAM, PHYS. REV.
LETT. 86, 5188 (2001
)
[RAUSSENDORF01A] R.
RAUSSENDORF AND H. J
. BRIEGEL, PHYS. REV
. LETT. 86, 5188 (20
01).
[RAUSSENDORF01B] R.
RAUSSENDORF, R. BROW
N AND H. J. BRIEGEL,
J. MOD. OPT. 49, 12
99 (200
2); PHYS.
REV A. 68, 022312
(2001).
[RAUSSENDORF02] R. R
AUSSENDORF E H. BRIE
GEL, QUANT. INF. COM
P. 6, 433 (2002).
[REGIANE07] DE SIQUE
IRA, RAN, DE CASTRO,
ASM DISSIPAÇÃO EM MO
DOS ACOPLADOS DISSER
TAÇÃO DE MESTRADO
(MESTRADO EM CIÊNCIA
S), UEPG 2007
[REICHLE0
6] R. REICHLE, D. LE
IBFRIED, E. KNILL, J
. BRITTON, R. B. BLA
KESTAD, J. D. JOST,
C. LANGER, R. OZERI,
S.
SEIDELIN, D. J. WINE
LAND, EXPERIMENTAL P
URIFICATION OF TWO

ATOM ENTANGLEMENT, N
ATURE 443, 838

841 (19 OCT
2006)
[RIBEIRO04] SEMICLAS
SICAL APPROXIMATIO
NS BASED ON COMPLEX
TRAJECTORIES A.D. RI
BEIRO, M.A.M. DE AGU
IAR
AND M. BARANGER, PHY
S. REV.
E69 (2004) 66204.
[RIBEIRO94] RIBEIRO
PHS, PADUA S, DASILV
A JCM, ET AL.
CONTROLLING THE DEGR
EE OF VISIBILITY OF
YOUNGS
FRINGES WITH PHOTON
COINCIDENCE MEASUREM
ENTS
; PHYSICAL REVIEW A
49 (5): 4176

4179 PART B MAY 1994
[RIEBE04] M. RIEBE,
H. HAFFNER, C. F. RO
OS, W. HANSEL, J. BE
NHELM, G. P. T. LANC
ASTER, T. W. KARBER,
C. BECHER, F.
SCHMIDT

KALER, D. F. V. JAME
S, R. BLATT, DETERMI
NISTIC QUANTUM TELEP
ORTATION WITH ATOMS
, NATURE 429, 734

737 (17 JUN 2004)
[RIGOLIN06] RIGOLIN
G, DE OLIVEIRA TR, A
ND DE OLIVEIRA MC PH
YSICAL REVIEW A 74,
022314 (2006)
[RIPPE08] L. RIPPE E
T AL., EXPERIMENTAL
QUANTUM

STATE TOMOGRAPHY OF
A SOLID

STATE QUBIT. PHYS. R
EV. A 77,
022307 (2008).
[RO
BERT90] J. ROBERT AN
D J. BAUDON, J. PHYS
. B, ATOM MOLEC. PHY
S. 19, 171 (1986); J
. ROBERT AND J. BAUD
ON, J.
PHYSIQUE, 47, 631 (1
986); J. ROBERT AND
J. BAUDON, EUROPHYS.
LETT., 2,(5), 363 (1
986); J. ROBERT AND
J. BAUDON,
COMMENTS AT. MOL. PH
YS., 23, 271 (19
90).
[ROBLEDO08] LUCIO RO
BLEDO, JEROEN ELZERM
AN, GREGOR JUNDT, ME
TE ATATÜRE, ALEXANDE
R HÖGELE, STEFAN
FÄLT, AND ATAC IMAMO
GLU, CONDITIONAL DYN
AMICS OF INTERACTING
QUANTUM DOTS, SCIENC
E 9 MAY 2008
[ROOS06] C. F. ROOS,
M. CHWALLA, K. KIM,
M. RIEBE, R. BLATT,
DESIGNER ATOMS FOR Q
UANTUM METROLOGY, NA
TURE
443, 316

319 (21 SEP 2006)
[ROVERSI05] SEMIÃO F
.L., VIDIELLA

BARRANCO A, MUNHOZ P
.P, ROVERSI, J.A., S
PONTANEOUS EMISSION
AND
TELEPORTATION IN CAV
ITY QED. J. OF PHYSI
CS B: ATOMIC, MOLECU
LAR AND OPTICAL PHYS
ICS
38, 3875 (2005).
[ROVERSI07] NOHAMA,
F. K., ROVERSI, J. A
.; QUANTUM STATE TRA
NSFER BETWEEN ATOMS
LOCATED IN COUPLED
CAVITIES. J. MOD. O
PTICS. , 54, 1139 (2
007).
[ROVERSI08A] NOHAMA,
F. K., ROVERSI, J. A
.; J. OF PHYSICS. B
, ATOMIC, MOLECULAR
AND OPTICA
L PHYSICS. 41, 0455
03
(2008).
[ROVERSI08B] YABU

UTI, B. F. C., NOHAM
A, F. K., ROVERSI, J
. A. GENERATION OF A
N EPR PAIR OF ATOMS
IN COUPLED
CAVITIES SYSTEM VIA
AN OPTICAL FIBER. IN
T. J. OF QUANTUM INF
ORMATION, 6 NUMBER 5
(OCTOBER) 2008.
[ROVERSI08C] MUNHO
Z, P.P., SEMIÃO, F.L
., VIDIELLA

BARRANCO, A., ROVERS
I, J.A.; CLUSTER

TYPE ENTANGLED
COHERENT STATES. PHY
S. LETT. A. 372, 358
0 (2008).
[RUGAR04] D. RUGAR E
T AL., SINGLE DETECT
ION BY MAGNETIC RESO
NANCE FORCE MICROSCO
PIC. NATURE 340 (200
4) 329.
[SAGUIA07] SAG
UIA A, SARANDY MS, B
OECHAT B, CONTINENTI
NO MA ENTANGLEMENT E
NTROPY IN RANDOM QUA
NTUM
SPIN

S CHAINS PHYSICAL RE
VIEW A 75, 052329 (2
007)
[SALAH07] A. SALAH,
A. KLAPPENECKER, AND
P.K. SRAVEPALLI, ON
QUANTUM AND CLASSICA
L BCH CODES, IEEE T
RANS.
INFORM. THEORY
, 53(3): 1183

1188, MARÇO 2007.
[SALART08] DANIEL SA
LART, AUGUSTIN BAAS,
CYRIL BRANCIARD, NIC
OLAS GISIN, HUGO ZBI
NDEN, TESTING THE SP
EED
OF “SPOOKY ACTION AT
A DISTANCE”, NATURE
454, 861

864 (14 AUG 2008)
[SALLES08] SALLES A,
CAVALCANTI D, AND AC
ÍN A; PH
YS. REV.
LETT. 101, 040404 (2
008).
[SANTOS01] SANTOS MF
, MILMAN P, KHOURY A
Z, ET AL.
MEASUREMENT OF THE D
EGREE OF POLARIZATIO
N
ENTANGLEMENT THROUGH
POSITION INTERFERENC
E;
PHYSICAL REVIEW A 64
(2): ART. NO. 023804
AUG 2001
[SANTOS06] D. C. SAN
TOS, EM BUSCA
DE UM ENTENDIMENTO C
OMPLETO ACERCA DO EM
ARANHAMENTO, DISSERT
AÇÃO
DE MESTRADO, UFMG, 2
006.
[SAPIRES

FILHO04] PAS PIRES

FILHO, CLCESAR, LDAV
IDOVICH, “THEORY OF
OUTPUT COUPLING FOR
TRAPPED FERMIONIC
ATOMS”, PHYS. REV. A
69, 23615(2004)
[SARANDY05

1] SARANDY
MS, LIDAR DA ADIABA
TIC APPROXIMATION IN
OPEN QUANTUM SYSTEMS
PHYSICAL REVIEW
A 71, 012331 (2005)
[SARANDY05

2] SARANDY MS, LIDAR
DA ADIABATIC QUANTU
M COMPUTATION IN OPE
N SYSTEMS PHYSICAL
REVIEW
LETTERS 95, 250503 (
2005)
[SARANDY06] SARANDY
MS, LIDAR
DA ABELIAN AND NON

ABELIAN GEOMETRIC PH
ASES IN ADIABATIC OP
EN QUANTUM
SYSTEMS PHYSICAL RE
VIEW A 73, 062101 (2
006)
[SARANDY07] SARANDY
MS, DUZZIONI EI, MOU
SSA MHY DYNAMICAL I
NVARIANTS AND NONADI
ABATIC GEOMETRIC
PHASES IN OPEN QUANT
UM SYSTEMSPHYSICAL R
EV
IEW A 76, 052112 (20
07)
[SARANDY08] M. S. SA
RANDY, E. I. DUZZIO
NI AND R. M. SERRA,
NONADIABATIC QUANTUM
COMPUTATION BY DYNAM
IC
INVARIANTS, E

PRINT ARXIV:0801.401
4 (QUANT

PH).
[SARANDY08] SARANDY
MS, DUZZIONI EI, SER
RA RM NONADIABATIC
QUANTUM COMPUTATION
BY DYNAMIC
INVARIANTS E

PRINT ARXIV:0801.401
4 (2008).
[SARTHOUR03] SARTHOU
R RS, DEAZEVEDO ER,
BONK FA, VIDOTO ELG,
BONAGAMBA TJ, GUIMAR
AES AP, FREITAS JCC,
OLIVEIRA IS RELAXATI
ON OF COHERENT STATE
S IN A TWO

QUBIT NMR QUADRUPOLE
SYSTEM PHYSICAL REV
IEW A 6
8
(2): ART. NO. 022311
.
[SAWYER07] B. C. SAW
YER ET AL., PHYS. RE
V. LETT. 98, 253002
(2007)
[SCHMIDT

KALER03] SCHMIDT

KALER F, HAFFNER H,
RIEBE M, ET AL., REA
LIZATION OF THE CIRA
C

ZOLLER
CONTROLLED

NOT QUANTUM GATE, NA
TURE 422 (6930): 408

411 MAR 27 2003
[S
CHRÖDINGER36] E. SCH
RÖDINGER PROCEEDINGS
OF THE CAMBRIDGE PHI
LOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 3
1, 555 (1935); 32, 4
46
(1936).
[SCHUCK06] C. SCHUCK
, G. HUBER, C. KURTS
IEFER E H. WEINFURTE
R. COMPLETE DETERMI
NISTIC LINEAR OPTICS
BELL
STATE ANALYSIS. PHY
S. REV. LETT. 96,
180501 (2006).
[SCHWINGER88] J. SCH
WINGER, M. O. SCULLY
AND B.
–
G. ENGLERT, Z. PHYS.
D.
–
ATOMS, MOLECULES AND
CLUSTERS, 10,
135 (1988).
[SCOTT04] A.J. SCOTT
, MULTIPARTITE ENTAN
GLEMENT QUANTUM ERRO
R

CORRECTING CODES AND
ENTANGLING POWER
OF QUANTUM EVOLUTION
,
PHYS. REV. A 69, PP.
052330, 2004.
[SEMIAO01] SEMIÃO, F
L, VIDIELLA

BARRANCO, A, ROVERSI
, JA ENTANGLEMENT B
ETWEEN MOTIONAL STAT
ES OF A
SINGLE TRAPPED ION A
ND LIGHT PHYSICAL RE
VIEW A 64 (2): 02430
5 2001
[SEMIAO02] SEMIÃO, F
L, VIDIELLA

BARRANCO, A, ROVERS
I, JA A PROPOSAL OF
QUANTUM LOGIC GATES
USING COLD
TRAPPED IONS IN A CA
VITY PHYSICS LETTERS
A 299: 423

426 2002
[SEMIAO06] SEMIÃO, F
L, VIDIELLA

BARRANCO, A EFFECTIV
E CROSS

KERR NONLINEARITY AN
D ROBUST PHASE GATES
WITH TRAPPED IONS PH
YSICAL REVIEW A 72 (
6)
: 064305 2005
[SEMIAO08] SEMIÃO, F
L, FURUYA, K, MILBUR
N, GJ JAHN

TELLER MODELS, KERR
NONLINEARITIES, AND
NONCLASSICAL
STATES WITH SUPERCON
DUCTING QUBITS AND N
ANORESONATORS EPRIN
T ARXIV: 0808.0743 (
UNPUBLISHED)
[SERRA01]R. M. SERRA
, P. B. RAMOS, N. G.
DE
ALMEIDA, W. D. JOSÉ
AND M H. Y. MOUSSA,
PHYS. REV. A. 63, 05
3813 (2001).
[SHALASHILIN04] THE
PHASE SPACE CCS APPR
OACH TO QUANTUM AND
SEMICLASSICAL MOLECU
LAR DYNAMICS FOR
HIGH

DIMENSIONAL SYSTEMS,
DMITRII V. SHALASHIL
IN, MARK S. CHILD,
CHEMICAL PHYSICS 30
4 (2004) 103
–
120
[SHIELDS04] GOBBY C.
, YUAN Z. L., AND SH
IELDS A. J., QUANTUM
KEY DISTRIBUTION OVE
R 122KM OF STANDARD
TELECOM FIBER, APP.
PHYS. LETT. 84, 3762
(2004).
[SHIMIZU01]F. SHIMIZ
U,SPECULAR REFLECTIO
N OF VERY SLOW METAS
TABLE NEON ATOMS FRO
M A SOLID
SURFACE,
PHYSICAL REVIEW LETT
ERS, 86, 987 (2001).
[SHOR04] P. W. SHOR,
PROGRESS IN QUANTUM
ALGORITHMS. QUANT. I
NF. PROC. 3 (2004)
5.
[SHOR94] P. W. SHOR,
IN PROCEEDINGS OF TH
E 35TH ANNUAL SYMPOS
IUM ON FUNDAMENTALS
OF COMPUTER SCIENCE,
P.
124 (1994).
[SH
OR95] P. W. SHOR, SC
HEME FOR REDUCING DE
COHERENCE IN QUANTUM
COMPUTER MEMORY, PHY
SICAL REVIEW A
52, R2493 (1995).
[SILVA05] SILVA JBR
AND RAMOS RV, THEORY
OF SINGLE

PHOTON DETECTORS EMP
LOYING SMART STRATEG
IES OF
DETECTION, JOURNAL O
F MODERN OPTICS 52(1
7):
2613

2623 2005.
[SILVA06] E. B. SIL
VA, M. FIRER, S. R.
COSTA AND R. PALAZZO
JR., SIGNAL CONSTELL
ATIONS IN THE HYPERB
OLIC PLANE:
A PROPOSAL FOR NEW C
OMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
, JOURNAL THE FRANKL
IN INSTITUTE 343, 69
(2006).
[SIMON00] R. SIMON,
PHYS. REV. LETT. 8
4, 2726 (2000).
[SIMON07] SIMON, C.;
DE RIEDMATTEN, H.; A
FZELIUS, M.
; SANGOUARD, N.
; ZBINDEN, H.
; GISIN, N.
; QUANTUM
REPEATERS WITH PHOTO
N PAIR SOURCES AND M
ULTI

MODE MEMORIES. PHYS
ICAL REVIEW LETTERS
98, 190503 (2007)
[SMARTQUANTUM] WWW.S
MARTQUANTUM
.COM
[SOARES07] SOARES W
C, CAETANO DP, HICKM
ANN JM HERMITE

BESSEL BEAMS AND THE
GEOMETRICAL
REPRESENTATION OF NO
NDIFFRACTING BEAMS W
ITH ORBITAL ANGULAR
MOMENTUM OPTICS EXPR
ESS 14 , 4577 (2006
)
[SOLANO01] E. SOLANO
, C. L. CESAR, R. MA
TOS

FILHO, N. ZAGURY
”RELIABLE TELEPORTAT
ION IN TRAPPED IONS”
, EUR.
PHYS. JD 13,121

128(2001).
[SOUZA07] C. E. R. S
OUZA, J. A. O. HUGUE
NIN, P. MILMAN E A.
Z. KHOURY, PHYSICAL
REVIEW LETTERS 99, 1
60401 (2007).
[SOUZA08] C. E. R. S
OUZA, C. V. S. BORGE
S, A. Z. KHOURY, J.
A. O. HU
GUENIN, L. AOLITA E
S. P. WALBORN, PHYSI
CAL
REVIEW A 77, 032345
(2008).
[SOUZA08A] A. M. SOU
ZA ET AL., NMR ANALO
G OF BELL’S INEQUALI
TIES VIOLATION TEST.
NEW. J. PHYS. 10 (20
08) 033020.
[SOUZA08B] SOUZA AM,
REIS MS, SOARES

PINTO DO, ET AL.
EXPERIMENTAL DETE
RMINATION OF THERMAL
ENTANGLEMENT IN SPIN
CLUSTERS USING MAGNE
TIC SUSCEPTIBILITY M
EASUREMENTS PHYSICA
L REVIEW B
VOLUME:
77
ISSUE: 10 ARTICLE NU
MBER: 104402.
[SPILLER06] T. P. SP
ILLER E W.J. MUNRO,
TOWARDS A QUANTUM IN
FORMATION TECHNOLOGY
INDUSTRY. J
. PHYS.:
CONDENS. MATTER 18 (
2006) V1.
[STEANE96] A. M. STE
ANE, ERROR CORRECTIN
G CODES IN QUANTUM T
HEORY, PHYSICAL REVI
EW LETTERS 77, 793 (
1996).
[STEFFEN03] M. STEFF
EN ET AL., EXPERIMEN
TAL IMPLEMENTATION O
F AN ADIABATIC QUANT
UM OPTIMIZATION
ALGORITHM, PH
YS. REV. LETT. 90, 0
67903 (2003).
[STOLZE04] J. STOLZE
E D. SUTER, QUANTUM
COMPUTING: A SHORT C
OURSE FROM THEORY TO
EXPERIMENT. (WILEY

VCH, 2004).
[TAKESUE06] TAKESUE
H, DIAMANTI E, ET AL
., 10

GHZ CLOCK DIFFERENTI
AL PHASE SHIFT QUANT
UM KEY DISTRIBUTION
EX
PERIMENT, OPTICS EXP
RESS 14(20): 9522

9530 2006.
[TANZILLI05] S. TANZ
ILLI, W. TITTEL, M.
HALDER, O. ALIBART,
P. BALDI, N. GISIN,
H. ZBINDEN, A PHOTON
IC QUANTUM
INFORMATION INTERFAC
E, NATURE 437, 116

120 (01 SEP 2005)
[TELES07]TELES, J.,
DEAZEVEDO, E. R.,
AUCCAISE, R.,SARTHOU
R, R. S. OLIVEIRA, I
. S., BONAGAMBA, T.
J. QUANTUM STATE
TOMOGRAPHY FOR QUADR
UPOLAR NUCLEI USING
GLOBAL ROTATIONS OF
THE SPIN SYSTEM, JO
URNAL OF CHEMICAL
PHYSICS 126 (15): AR
T. NO. 154506.
[TEMPORAO08] TEMPORA
O, G. P. ; ZBINDEN,
H. ;
TANZILLI, S. ; GISIN
, N. ; AELLEN, T. ;
GIOVANNINI, M. ; FAI
ST, J. ; VON DER
WEID, J. P.; FEASIBI
LITY STUDY OF FREE

SPACE QUANTUM KEY DI
STRIBUTION IN THE MI
D

INFRARED.
QUANTUM
INFORMATION & COMPUT
ATION, VOL. 8, NO. 1
, PP. 01

11 (2008).
[TERRA

CUNHA07] MARC
ELO O. TERRA CUNHA,
NEW JOURNAL OF PHYSI
CS 9, 237 (2007).
[TOSCANO05] F. TOSCA
NO, R. L. DE MATOS F
ILHO, AND L. DAVIDOV
ICH, PHYS. REV.
A 71, 010101(R) (200
5).
[TOTH2007] TOTH, G;
KNAPP, C; GUHNE, O,
ET AL., OPTIMAL SPIN
SQUEEZING INEQUALITI
ES DETECT BOUND
ENTANGLEMENT IN SPIN
MODELS, PHYS. REV. L
ETT. 99, 250405 (20
07)
[TOWNSEND93] TOWNSEN
D PD, RARITY JG, ET
AL., SINGLE PHOTON I
NTERFERENCE IN 10 KM
LONG OPTICAL FIBRE
INTERFEROMETER, ELEC
TRONICS LETTERS 29(7
): 634

635 APR 1993.
[TREPS03] N. TREPS E
T AL, SCIE
NCE 301, 940 (2003).
[TURUKHIN02] A. V. T
URUKHIN ET AL., OBSE
RVATION OF ULTRASLOW
AND STORED LIGHT PUL
SES IN A SOLID. PHYS
.
REV. LETT. 88 023602
(2002).
[UNRUH95] UNRUH WG P
HYSICAL REVIEW A 51
, 992 (1995).
[URSIN07] R URSIN ET
AL., ENTANGLEMENT

BASED QUAN
TUM COMMUNICATION OV
ER 144 KM, NATURE PH
YSICS 3, 481

486 (2007).
[URSIN07]R. URSIN ET
AL., ENTANGLEMENT

BASED QUANTUM COMMUN
ICATION OVER 144 KM,
NATURE PHYSICS 3, 48
1

486 (2007).
[VALLEJOS06] QUANTUM
BAKER MAPS WITH CONT
ROLLED

NOT COUPLING, R. O.
VALLEJOS,
P. R. DEL SANTORO E
A. M.
OZORIO DE ALMEIDA,
J. PHYS. A 39, 5163
(2006).
[VANDERSYPEN01] L. M
. K. VANDERSYPEN ET
AL., EXPERIMENTAL RE
ALIZATION OF SHOR’S
QUANTUM FACTORING
ALGORITHM USING NUCL
EAR MAGNETIC RESONAN
CE. NATURE 414 (2001
) 883.
[VANVLECK28] J.
H. VAN VLECK, PROC.
NAC. ACAD. SCI. 14,
178 (1928).
[VEDRAL08] VEDRAL V,
QUANTIFYING ENTANGLE
MENT IN MACROSCOPIC
SYSTEMS, NATURE 453,
1004 (2008).
[VIDAL2003] VIDAL G,
LATORRE JI, RICO E,
ET AL., ENTANGLEMENT
IN QUANTUM CRITICAL
PHENOMENA , PHYS. RE
V.
LE
TT. 90 , 227902 (200
3)
[VIDAL2008A] I. VIDA
L, D. P. CAETANO, E.
J. S FONSECA, AND J.
M. HICKMANN, EUROPHY
SICS LETTERS, 82, 34
004 (2008).
[VIDAL2008B] I. VIDA
L, D.P. CAETANO, C.
OLINDO, E.J.S. FONSE
CA, AND J.M. HICKMAN
N, SOB ANÁLISE COM O
REFEREE,
PHYS. REV
. A (2008).
[VIDAL2008C] I. VIDA
L, D.P. CAETANO, E.J
.S. FONSECA, AND J.M
. HICKMANN, SOB ANÁL
ISE COM O REFEREE, O
PT. LETT.
(2008).
[VIDAL2008D] I. VIDA
L, S. B. CAVALCANTI,
E. J. S. FONSECA, AN
D J. M. HICKMANN, AC
EITO PARA PUBLICAÇÃO
PHYS. REV.
A (2008)
[V
IDIELLA05] SEMIÃO F.
L. AND VIDIELLA

BARRANCO A, EFFECTIV
E CROSS

KERR NONLINEARITY AN
D ROBUST PHASE
GATES WITH TRAPPED I
ONS, PHYS. REV. A 72
, 064305 (2005).
[VIDIELLA06] VIDIELL
A

BARRANCO A. AND, BOR
ELLI L.F.M.B., CONTI
NUOUS VARIABLE QUANT
UM KEY DISTRIBUTIO
N
USING POLARIZED COHE
RENT STATES, INT. J.
MOD. PHYS. B, 20, 12
87 (2006).
[VIDIELLA08] LOURENÇ
O, F.C. AND VIDIELLA

BARRANCO A, ENTANGLE
MENT RECIPROCATION U
SING THREE

LEVEL
ATOMS IN A LAMBDA CO
NFIGURATION, EUR. PH
YS. J. D, 47, 127 (2
008).
[VILLAR05]GENERATI
ON OF BRIGHT TWO

COLOR CONTINUOUS VAR
IABLE ENTANGLEMENT ,
VILLAR AS, CRUZ LS,
CASSEMIRO KN, ET AL.
, PHYSICAL REVIEW LE
TTERS
VOL.95
ISS.24 P. 243603 (20
05).
[VILLAR06] DIRECT PR
ODUCTION OF TRIPARTI
TE PUMP

SIGNAL

IDLER ENTANGLEMENT I
N THE ABOVE

THRESHOLD
OPT
ICAL PARAMETRIC OSCI
LLATOR , VILLAR AS,
MARTINELLI M, FABRE
C, ET AL., PHYSICAL
REVIEW
LETTERS
VOL.97
ISS.14 P. 140504 (20
06).
[VILLAS

BOAS03] C. J. VILLAS

BÔAS, N. G. DE ALMEI
DA, R. M. SERRA E M.
H. Y. MOUSSA, PHYS.
REV.
A 68, 061801® (2003)
.
[VITEAU08] M
ATTHIEU VITEAU, AMOD
SEN CHOTIA, MARIA AL
LEGRINI, NADIA BOULO
UFA, OLIVIER DULIEU,
DANIEL
COMPARAT, AND PIERRE
PILLET, OPTICAL PUMP
ING AND VIBRATIONAL
COOLING OF MOLECULES
, SCIENCE 321, 232
(2008).
[WAGNER08] ENTANGLIN
G THE SPATIAL PROPER
TIES OF LASER BEAMS,
WAGNER, K; JANOUSEK,
J; DELAUBERT, V ET A
L.,
SCIENCE
VOLUME: 321
ISSUE: 5888
PAGES: 541

543 (2008).
[WAKS02] WAKS E, INO
UE K, SANTORI C, ET
AL., SECURE COMMUNIC
ATION: QUANTUM CRYPT
OGRAPHY WITH A PHOTO
N
TURNSTILE, NATURE 42
0 (6917): 762

762 DEC 26 20
02
[WAL03]ATOMIC MEMORY
FOR CORRELATED PHOTO
N STATES VAN DER WAL
CH, EISAMAN MD, ANDR
E A, ET AL.
SCIENCE VOL.301 ISS.
5630
PAGES: 196

200 (2003).
[WALBORN03] S. P. WA
LBORN, A. N. DE OLIV
EIRA, S. PÁDUA, AND
C. H. MONKEN, MULTIM
ODE HONG

OU

MANDEL
INTERFEREN
CE; PHYS. REV. LETT.
90, 143601 (2003).
[WALBORN04] S.P. WAL
BORN ET AL.; PHYS. R
EV. A 69, 023811 (20
04).
[WALBORN05] S.P. WAL
BORN ET AL.; PHYS. R
EV. A 71, 053812 (20
05).
[WALBORN06A] S. P. W
ALBORN, P.H. SOUTO R
IBEIRO, L. DAVIDOVIC
H, F. MINTERT AND A.
BUCHL
EITNER; NATURE 440,
1022

1024 (2006).
[WALBORN06B] S. P. W
ALBORN, D. S. LEMELL
E, M. P. ALMEIDA, AN
D P. H. SOUTO RIBEIR
O ; QUANTUM KEY DIST
RIBUTION
WITH HIGHER

ORDER ALPHABETS USIN
G SPATIALLY ENCODED
QUDITS ; PHYS. REV.
LETT. 96, 090501 (20
06)
[WALBORN07
] S. P. WALBORN, D.
S. ETHER, R. L. DE M
ATOS FILHO AND N. ZA
GURY ; PHYS. REV. A
76, 033801 (2007)
[WALLRAFF04] WALLRAF
F A, SCHUSTER DI, BL
AIS A, ET AL., STRON
G COUPLING OF A SING
LE PHOTON TO A
SUPERCONDUCTING QUBI
T USING CIRCUIT QUAN
TUM ELECTRODYNAMICS,
N
ATURE 431 (7005): 16
2

167 SEP 9 2004
[WALTHER05] P. WALT
HER, K. J. RESCH, T.
RUDOLPH, E. SCHENCK1
, H. WEINFURTER3,, V
. VEDRAL, M. ASPELME
YER1 AND
A. ZEILINGER; EXPERI
MENTAL ONE

WAY QUANTUM COMPUTIN
G; NATURE 434 : 169

176 MAR 10 (2005)
[WALTHER05B] P. WAL
THER ET AL., PHYS. R
EV. LETT. 95, 020403
(2005).
[WANG04] SEMICLASSIC
AL SIMULATION OF ABS
ORPTION SPECTRA FOR
A CHROMOPHORE COUPLE
D TO AN ANHARMONIC
BATH, H WANG, M THOS
S

CHEMICAL PHYSICS 304
121 (2004)
[WESENBERG07] J. H.
WESENBERG ET AL., SC
ALABLE DESIG
NS FOR QUANTUM COMPU
TING WITH RARE

EARTH

ION
DOPED CRYSTALS. PHYS
. REV, A 75 (2007) 0
12304.
[WESTFAHL04 H. WESTF
AHL JR., A. O. CALDE
IRA, G. MEDEIROS
–
RIBEIRO AND MAYA CER
RO PHYSICAL REVIEW
B 70,
195320 (2004)
[WHITE99] WHITE AG,
JAMES DFV, EBERHARD
PH,
ET AL. NONMAXIMALLY
ENTANGLED STATES: PR
ODUCTION,
CHARACTERIZATION, AN
D UTILIZATION
PHYSICAL; REVIEW LET
TERS 83 (16): 3103

3107 OCT 18 (1999 )
[WIESIAK05] WIESIAK
M, VEDRAL V, BRUKNER
C MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIB
ILITY AS A MACROSCOP
IC ENTANGLEMENT
WITNESS
NEW J
OURNAL OF PHYSICS 7:
ART. NO. 258 DEC 29
2005.
[WILK07] T. WILK, S.
C. WEBSTER, A. KUHN,
AND G. REMPE, SCIENC
E 317, 488 (2007).
[WILK07] TATJANA WIL
K, SIMON C. WEBSTER,
AXEL KUHN, AND GERHA
RD REMPE, SINGLE

ATOM SINGLE

PHOTON
QUANTUM INTERFACE, S
CIENCE 27 J
ULY 2007 317: 488

490; PUBLISHED ONLIN
E 20 JUNE 2007
[WOOTTERS98]WOOTTERS
: W.K. WOOTTERS, PHY
S. REV. LETT. 80, 22
45 (1998).
[WU04] WU LA, SARAND
Y MS, LIDAR DA QUANT
UM PHASE TRANSITIONS
AND BIPARTITE ENTANG
LEMENT PHYSICAL
REVIEW LETTERS 93, 2
50404 (2004)
[XAVIER08] XAVIER, G
. B.; VILELA DE FARI
A, G.; TEMPORAO, G.
P.; VON DER WEID, J.
P.; FULL POLARIZATIO
N CONTROL
FOR FIBER OPTICAL QU
ANTUM COMMUNICATION
SYSTEMS USING POLARI
ZATION ENCODING. OP
TICS EXPRESS, VOL. 1
6,
ISSUE 3, PP. 1867

1873 (2008).
[YAMAMOTO03
] YAMAMOTO T, PASHKI
N YA, ASTAFIEV O, ET
AL., DEMONSTRATION O
F CONDITIONAL GATE O
PERATION
USING SUPERCONDUCTIN
G CHARGE QUBITS, NAT
URE 425 (6961): 941

944 OCT 30 2003
[YARIV89] QUANTUM EL
ECTRONICS, YARIV A,
WILEY & SONS, NEW YO
RK (1989).
[YOU05] YOU, J. Q.
& NORI, F. SUPERCOND
UCTING CIRCUITS AND
QUANTUM INFORMATION.
PHYS.TODAY 58, 42
(2005);YAMAMOTO, T.,
PASHKIN, Y. A., ASTA
FIEV, O., NAKAMURA,
Y. & TSAI, J. S.DEMO
NSTRATION OF CONDITI
ONAL GATE
OPERATION USING SUPE
RCONDUCTING CHARGEQU
BITS. NATURE 425, 94
1 (200
3);BERKLEY, A. J. ET
AL. ENTANGLED
MACROSCOPIC QUANTUM
STATES IN TWO SUPERC
ONDUCTINGQUBITS. SCI
ENCE 300, 1548 (2003
).
[YU04] T. YU E J. H
. EBERLY, PHYS. REV.
LETT. 93, 140404 (20
04).
[YUKAWA08] YUKAWA M,
UKAI R, VAN LOOCK P,
ET AL.
EXPERIMENTAL GENERAT
ION
OF FOUR

MODE CONTINUOUS

VARIABLE CLUSTER STA
TES PHYSICAL REVIEW
A
VOL.78
ISS.1 P. 012301 (200
8).
[ZANARDI99] ZANARDI
P, RASETTI M, HOLON
OMIC QUANTUM COMPUTA
TION PHYSICS LETTER
S. A 264, 94 (199
9)
[ZEH05] ZEH HD ROOTS
AND FRUITS OF DECOHE
RENCE E

PRIN
T ARXIV:QUANT

PH/0512078 (2005)
[ZHANG06] QIANG ZHAN
G, ALEXANDER GOEBEL,
CLAUDIA WAGENKNECHT,
YU

AO CHEN, BO ZHAO, TA
O YANG, ALOIS
MAIR, JORG SCHMIEDMA
YER, JIAN

WEI PAN, EXPERIMENTA
L QUANTUM TELEPORTAT
ION OF A TWO

QUBIT COMPOSITE
SYSTEM, NATURE PHYSI
CS 2,
678

682 (01 OCT 2006)
[ZIEGLER05] K. ZIEGL
ER, LASER PHYS. 15,
650 (2005).
[ZOLLER05] P. ZOLLER
ET AL., QUANTUM INFO
RMATION PROCESSING A
ND COMMUNICATION: ST
RATEGIC REPORT ON
CURRENT STATUS, VISI
ONS AND GOALS FOR RE
SEARCH IN EUROPE.
EUR. PHYS. J. D. 36
(2
005) 203.
[ZUREK03] W. H. ZURE
K, REV. MOD.
PHYS. 75, 715 (2003)
.
[ZUREK94] W. H. ZURE
K AND J. P. PAZ, PH
YS. REV. LETT. 72, 2
508 (1994).
Enter the password to open this PDF file:
File name:

File size:

Title:

Author:

Subject:

Keywords:

Creation Date:

Modification Date:

Creator:

PDF Producer:

PDF Version:

Page Count:

Preparing document for printing…
0%
Σχόλια 0
Συνδεθείτε για να κοινοποιήσετε σχόλιο