Chapter 9: Privacy,


22 Φεβ 2014 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 2 μήνες)

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Chapter 9: Privacy,
Crime, and Security

Privacy in Cyberspace

Privacy: an individual’s ability to restrict or
eliminate the collection, use and sale of
confidential personal information

The problem: collection of information
without consent

Anonymity: the ability to convey a
message without disclosing your name or

Privacy in Cyberspace

Cookies: small files that are written to your
computer’s hard disk by many of the Web
sites you visit

Global Unique Identifier (GUID): an
identification number that is generated by
a hardware component or a program

Protecting Your Privacy

Browse anonymously by surfing from

Disable cookies on your Web browser

Use a free e
mail address to place on Web
pages, mailing lists, chat rooms, or other public
Internet spaces

Do not fill out site registration forms unless you
see a privacy statement indicating that the
information gathered will not be sold to 3


Types of Computer Crime

Identity Theft

Computer Virus: a hidden code within a program
that may damage or destroy infected files

Time Bomb (Logic Bomb): a virus that sits
harmlessly on a system until a certain event
causes the program to become active

Worm: a program that can spread from one
computer to another and can propagate over a
computer network

Trojan Horse: a rogue program disguised as a
useful program but contains hidden instructions
to perform a malicious task instead

Types of Computer Crime

Salami Shaving: a method that a programmer
alters a program to subtract a very small amount
of money from an account and divests the funds
to the embezzler’s account

Data Diddling: a method that insiders modify
data by altering accounts or database records
so that it is difficult to tell that they have stolen
funds or equipments

Forgery: a method that a user makes Internet
data appear to come from one place when it is
really coming from another



Hackers, Crackers (Black hats),
Cybergangs, Virus Authors, Ethical
Hackers (White Hats)



Cyberstalkers and Sexual Predators

Security Risks

Wireless Network

War Driving: an individual drives around with a
wireless device to look for wireless networks

Corporate Espionage: the unauthorized access
of corporate information, usually to the benefit of
a competitor

Information Warfare: the use of information
technologies to corrupt or destroy an enemy’s
information and infrastructure

Security Loophole Detection Program: a
program that automatically search for
unprotected or poorly protected computers

Protecting Computer Systems

Related Problems: by using
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

Controlling Access: by using password
authentication, know
have authentication, or
biometric authentication

Firewall: a computer program or device that
permits an organization’s internal computer
users to access the external Internet but
severely limits the ability of outsiders to access
internal data

Avoiding Scams

Preventing Cyberstalking


Encryption: a coding or scrambling process that renders
a message unreadable by anyone except the intended

Public Key Encryption

Encryption Key (Public Key)

Decryption Key (Private Key)

Digital Signature: a technique that guarantees a
message has not been tampered with

Digital Certificate: a technique for validating one’s

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): a uniform set of
encryption standards that specify how public key
encryption, digital signatures, digital certificates should
be implemented in computer systems and on the Internet