Appendix I - IPX

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Page I - 1 Appendix I - IPX IPX/SPX Novell based on Xerox’s Network System, XNS, and Internet Datagram Protocol (IDP) developed IPX/SPX, the Internet Packet Exchange/Sequence Packet Exchange. It provides services that include printing, file sharing, and host - to - h ost communication. Netware Applications such as NCP, SAP and NetBIOS APPLICATION PRESENTATION SESSION TRANSPORT NETWORK DATALINK PHYSICAL OSI MODEL Copper, Fiber, Wireless Ethernet, Token Ring, Token Bus, FDDI, ATM,Frame Relay, ISDN, X.25 IPX Novell SPX
Page I - 2 An IPX Packet At the transport layer IPX/SPX provides two user/system protocols. The two protocols are the Internet Packet Exchange or IPX, and the Sequence Packet Exchange or SPX. IPX is also a network layer pro tocol. At the network layer IPX works as in the transport layer. IPX is a connectionless oriented protocol based on the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) - Internet Datagram Protocol (IDP) developed by the Xerox Corporation. IPX does not guarantee delivery of packets and supports broadcasts. SPX operates at the transport layer and is encapsulated by IPX. SPX provides connection - oriented services, i.e. it creates a VC and guarantees delivery. The IPX packet header is 30bytes long. The maximum packet is 65,53 5 Bytes though most frame sizes are limited by the underlying technology. Frames carrying an IPX packet have a protocol identifier of 0x8137. Below is the format of the packet along with field explanations. An IPX packet DLC: ----- DLC Header ----- DLC: DLC: FS: Addr recognized indicators: 00, Frame copied indicators: 00 DLC: AC: Frame priority 0, Reservation priority 0, Monitor count 1 DLC: FC: LLC frame, PCF attention code: None DLC: Destination = Station 0000836C4139 DLC: Source = Station 0000832C1B07 DLC:LLC: ----- LLC Header ----- LLC: LLC: DSAP Address = E0, DSAP IG Bit = 00 (Individual Address) LLC: SSAP Address = E0, SSAP CR Bit = 00 (Command) LLC: Unnumbered frame: UI LLC:IPX: ----- IPX Header ----- IPX: IPX: Checksum = 0xFFFF IPX: Length = 48 IPX: Transport control = 00 IPX: 0000 .... = Reserved IPX: .... 0000 = Hop count IPX: Packet type = 4 (IPX) IPX: IPX: Dest network.node = F156.0000836C4139, socket = 1109 (NetWare NetBIOS) IPX: Source network.node = F156.0000832C1B07, socket = 1109 (NetWare NetBIOS) IPX:NET: ----- NETBIOS Session ACK ----- NET: NET: Connection Control Flag = C0 NET: 1... .... = System Packet NET: .1.. .... = Send ACK NET: ..0. .... = Not Attention NET: ...0 .... = Not End Of Message NET: .... 0... = No Resend Needed NET: Datastream Type = 6 (Session Data) NET: Source Connection ID = 29AA NET: Destination Connection ID = 226F NET: Send Sequence = 0004 NET: ACK Sequence = 0005 NET:ADDR HEX ASCII0000: 08 40 00 00 83 6c 41 39 00 00 83 2c 1b 07 e0 e0 | .@..ƒlA9..ƒ,....0010: 03 ff ff 00 30 00 04 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 6c 41 | ....0.....V..ƒlA0020: 39 04 55 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 2c 1b 07 04 55 c0 | 9.U...V..ƒ,...U.0030: 06 aa 29 6f 22 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 00 0a | ..)o"...........0040: 00Checksum16 BitsLength16 BitsTransportControl8 BitsPacketType8 BitsDestinationAddress96 BitsSourceAddress96 BitsDataUp to 65,505 Bytes08 40 00 00 83 6c 41 39 00 00 83 2c 1b 07 e0 e003 ff ff 00 30 00 04 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 6c 4139 04 55 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 2c 1b 07 04 55 c006 aa 29 6f 22 04 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 05 00 0a00 Checksum  Used by NW4.0 or better, for older versions of NW it must be set to 0xFFFF Packet Length  Length in bytes of the complete packet. Transport Control  Number of hops, routers, this packet has traversed. Maximum is 16. Packet Type  Type of service that the packet is using: 0x00 = Unknown, 0x01 = RIP, 0x02 = Echo, 0x03 = Error handling, 0x04 = SAP, 0x05 = SPX, 0x11 = NCP, 0x14 = other encapsulated protocols such as NetBIOS, 0x16 = Experimental, and 0x17 = NCP.
Page I - 3 IPX Addressing IPX uses the MAC address burned in to a NIC. Therefore, a host that has two NICs would have two IPX addresses. IPX uniquely identifies an IPX server, an IPX network, and an IPX process. The IPX address is 12 - byte hexadecimal number broken down as follows: 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 2c 1b 07 04 55 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 2c 1b 07 04 55 Network Address 32 Bits Host Address 48 Bits Socket Address 16 Bits  A 4 - byte network number. The ne twork number is unique to the entire IPX network but the same to all hosts on the same segment/VLAN. In addition, on Servers, there is a unique internal network number, which is used by the NCP, NetWare Core Protocol. NCP do not have a MAC addresses, therefore the full address of the NCP is formatted as follows: internal-network-number:00:00:00:00:00:01.  A 6-byte node number. Usually the MAC or LAA of the machine.  A 2-byte socket number. Uniquely identifies a process on a machine. The 12 byte hexadecimal number can be expressed with leading zeros, though they are usually left off. For example: 0x0099 and 0x99 are the same hexadecimal numbers. The network numbers can range from 00000000 to FFFFFFFF, with the following exceptions: 00000000 is reserved and designates the local network FFFFFFFF is reserved and designates an all routes request FFFFFFFE is reserved and designates a default route All IPX nodes are at least 1 hop away from any IPX NCP due to the fact that an IPX server has a unique IPX NCP identifier. IPX nodes are only unique with in the same IPX network. LAA muse be used in order to locally administer the IPX node address. An IPX host generates a GNS, Get Nearest Server, request to ascertain its network identifier. A GNS is a special broadcast from a host that requests the full address of the nearest network on a server or router.
Page I - 4 IPX Addressing on DOS and Windows The NetWare Requestor must be used to configure an IPX address on DOS or Windows. In DOS, this requestor is called the NetWare client. The drivers for the NetWare client are loaded using a BAT file. In Windows use the Nwlink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport protocol and the “ Client Service for Netware ”. No host address configuration is requir ed, in DOS or Windows, due to the fact that IPX uses the NIC address as the host address. All machines participating in a NetWare environment must not only run the protocol IPX/SPX but, must also have a NetWare redirector loaded. In DOS this is called e ither, NETX, or VLM. In NT and other platforms, the redirector is called “Client Services for NetWare”. In early versions of Windows NT, there were other services that allowed users on a NetWare to use NT Servers. These services were called FPNW or “Fil e and Print Services for NetWare” and NWGW or NetWare Gateway service. FPNW made an NT server look like a NetWare 3.12 server. While NWGW was used to allow users to access a NetWare file system as though it was mounted on the NT server. The DOS IPX configuration
Page I - 5 Below is a screen capture of the Windows NT 4.x, Windows 2000, and Windows XP IPX protocol configuration and client service configuration. Novell also makes a client called NetWare Client32 for Windows. NWC32 is installed as a t hird party software suite on to Windows. Windows 9.x has a similar configuration to the Windows NT family. Configuring IPX on the Unix Family OS Unlike the Windows or DOS family of OS, Unix requires a Kernel that was compiled with the IPX/SP X protocol as well as two sets of libraries and files. The first is called IPXUTILS. This library contains files that allow the user to configure IPX on interfaces. The second is called NCPFS, which allows a UNIX server to mount a NetWare file system mu ch like TCP/IP NFS. The only frame type supported by this software is 802.2 LLC.
Page I - 6 Configuring IPX on the Apple Macintosh Family OS IPX/SPX on Apple computers requires third party client software called: NetWare Client for Mac. The installation is s imilar to the NetWare client for windows. The login is also similar. The software is made by Prosoft Engineering and is commercially available. Accessing NetWare volumes requires using the Apple Mac OS Chooser to mount the volume as though it was pa rt of the local file system. This is similar to how a UNIX box would access a NetWare volume. Once mounted the volume is seen as an icon on the desktop. This process is shown below.
Page I - 7 Configuring IPX Addresses on the OS/2 Family OS Similar to Wi ndows and the Mac OS, OS/2 requires a requester to be installed. The requester software comes with OS/2 Warp 3.x and higher. Earlier versions of OS/2 require the requester be downloaded and installed after installation. Below is a caption showing the OS/2 Warp client. Servers are discovered by their SAP broadcasts and listed in the Network – NetWare folder, as shown below. TestSrv1 TestSrv1 TestSrv1 TestSrv1 TestSrv1 TestSrv1
Page I - 8 Configuring IPX Addresses on NetWare Family OS As with configuring TCP/IP the IPX configurations are kept in the “Autoexec.ncf” file on a NetWare Server. This file is executed when the SYS volume is mounted; it is located in the directory sys:\system. The “Autoexec.ncf” file is a plain ASCII text file and can be edited from a workstation using any ASCII text editor or from the server console using the command line “load edit sys:\system\autoexec.ncf” or by “load install” and following the prompts. The IPX network addresses can be edited there, for Netware 2.x - > 4.10 Native, or by using “INETCFG” NLM at th e command console, Netware 4.11 - > 6.0. Other IPX options can be controlled by “INETCFG” such as routing protocols and other network layer protocols such as AppleTalk. Below is an example of the NetWare Auotexec.ncf file SET TIME ZONE = EST5EDT SET DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME OFFSET = 1:00:00 SET START OF DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME = (APRIL SUNDAY FIRST 2:00:00 AM) SET END OF DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME = (OCTOBER SUNDAY LAST 2:00:00 AM) SET TIMESYNC TYPE = SINGLE SET DEFAULT TIME SERVER TYPE = SINGLE # SET THE BINDARY CONTEXT OF THE SERVER # SET BINDERY CONTEXT = O=MYGIRONA # SET THE SERVER NAME, MUST BE UNIQUE IN ENTIRE NETWORK FILE SERVER NAME NWFS1 # SET THE SERVERID OR THE INTERNAL IPX NETWORK NUMBER SERVERID 431FF3E # CONFIGURE FRAME TYPES ON THE ETHERNET CARD LOAD 3C90X NAME=IPXNET SLOT=2 FRAME=ETHERNET_802.2 LOAD 3C90X NAME=TCPNET SLOT=2 FRAME=Ethernet_II # LOAD THE IPX ROUTER AND DENOTE C0A86400 AS THE EXTERNAL NET LOAD IPXRTR LOAD IPXRTRNM BIND IPX IPXNET NET=c0a86400 # LOAD THE IP ROUTER SET RIP OFF, DENOTE SUBNET AS 192.168.100.0/24 LOAD Tcpip RIP=No Static=Yes LoadSharing=No Forward=No BIND IP TCPNET ARP=Yes Mask=FF.FF.FF.0 Address=192.168.100.252 # Load the NTP for Time Synchronization NTP # Load all the console monitoring program IPXCON TCPCON MONITOR # Load the CDROM control NLM CDROM
Page I - 9 Configuring IPX Addresses on Cisco Family OS Configuring a router for IPX networks is even simpler than TCP/IP. Enable the router. Go to configuration mode and enable IPX routing. Please note: IPX routin g is required on all IPX servers and routers due to the fact that all IPX hosts are at least 1 hop from each NCP. Then go to the interface and type the command: “ ipx network # encap <frametype> ”, where # is the IPX number and <frametype> is the type of fra me used in the network. IPX does not require an address resolution protocol because it uses the MAC address of the NIC. Up to 4 IPX networks in this manner, each of a different frame type, on an interface.
Page I - 10 Subinterfaces The sam e IPX configuration can be completed using sub - interfaces. A sub - interface is a CIOS implementation of a virtual interface mapped to a physical interface. A virtual interface looks like a real interface but are actually software simulations of an interfa ce. It should be noted that the virtual interfaces act as real interfaces and one can have as many virtual interfaces, or as Cisco likes to call them sub - interfaces, mapped to any one specific adapter. The only requirement that must be adhered to is to n ame the virtual interface after the physical adapter it is to be associated with. For example: Ethernet0 is a real physical adapter, but Ethernet0.1 and Ethernet0.99 are virtual interfaces mapped to Ethernet0. There can be up to 4292967295 virtual interfa ces per physical interface. Below is the complimentary configuration to the IPX configuration on the preceding page. IPX and Cisco Framing Cisco uses pneumonic to represent different frame types. When using the ENCAP statement with IPX the frame type must be specified in terms of the pneumonic. The Cisco Frame types are matched to the standard frame types as follows: Interface Type Frame Type Cisco Frame Type Ethernet 802.3 Novell-ether (default) 802.2 Sap Ethernet II Arpa Ethernet SNAP Snap When a frame type is not specified the default frame type is used.
Page I - 11 SPX/IPX, Sequence Packet Exchange over IPX SPX is IPX/SPX’s version of TCP. It provides connection - oriented services. It provides guaranteed delivery and sequencing through th e use of packet acknowledgements. Connection - oriented programs such as RCONSOLE and RPRINTER use SPX. The packet has a 12 - byte header. The packet format and field definitions are shown below. SPX Packet DLC: ----- DLC Header ----- DLC: DLC: FS: Addr recognized indicators: 00, Frame copied indicators: 00 DLC: AC: Frame priority 0, Reservation priority 0, Monitor count 1 DLC: FC: LLC frame, PCF attention code: None DLC: Destination = Station 00003012C318 DLC: Source = Station 0000836BBA6A DLC:LLC: ----- LLC Header ----- LLC: LLC: DSAP Address = E0, DSAP IG Bit = 00 (Individual Address) LLC: SSAP Address = E0, SSAP CR Bit = 00 (Command) LLC: Unnumbered frame: UI LLC:IPX: ----- IPX Header ----- IPX: IPX: Checksum = 0xFFFF IPX: Length = 42 IPX: Transport control = 01 IPX: 0000 .... = Reserved IPX: .... 0001 = Hop count IPX: Packet type = 5 (SPX/SPX II) IPX: IPX: Dest network.node = E168.000083236306, socket = 16426 (Unknown) IPX: Source network.node = 384BE4F6.1, socket = 8064 (Unknown) IPX:SPX: ----- Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = 80 SPX: 1... .... = System packet SPX: .0.. .... = No acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...0 .... = Not end of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0x00 SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0xF7FF SPX: Dest connection ID = 0x032F SPX: Sequence number = 2682 SPX: Acknowledge number = 1702 SPX: Allocation number = 1717 SPX:ADDR HEX ASCII0000: 08 40 00 00 30 12 c3 18 00 00 83 6b ba 6a e0 e0 | .@..0.....ƒk.j..0010: 03 ff ff 00 2a 01 05 00 00 e1 68 00 00 83 23 63 | ....*.....h..ƒ#c0020: 06 40 2a 38 4b e4 f6 00 00 00 00 00 01 1f 80 80 | .@*8K...........0030: 00 f7 ff 03 2f 0a 7a 06 a6 06 b5ConnectionControl8 BitsDataStreamType8 BitsSource ConnectionID16 BitsDestination ConnectionID16 BitsSequence Number16 BitsAcknowledgeNumber16 BitsAllocation Number16 BitsSPX Data08 40 00 00 30 12 c3 18 00 00 83 6b ba 6a e0 e003 ff ff 00 2a 01 05 00 00 e1 68 00 00 83 23 6306 40 2a 38 4b e4 f6 00 00 00 00 00 01 1f 80 8000 f7 ff 03 2f 0a 7a 06 a6 06 b5 Connection Control  indicates whether the packet is meant for an application or the system and controls the flow of data: 0x10 = End-Of-Message, 0x20 = Attention, 0x40 = Acknowledgement required, 0x80 = System packet. Data stream Type  Used to designate type of data in the data/payload area. When set to 0xFE indicates End-Of-Connection packet. When set to 0xFF indicates End-Of-Connection acknowledgement. All other values are ignored. Source/Destination id  Source/Destination Port Sequence Number  Used to control the sequence in which packets arrive. Correct values range from 0x0 to 0xffff. Values wrap once 0xffff is reached. Acknowledge Number  This is the number of the next packet SPX expects to receive. Any packet whose sequence number is less than the acknowledge number indicates a duplicate packet has been received. Allocation Number  This is basically used to control flow of packets. Similar to sliding windows, SPX keeps sending packets until the number of packets sent is equal to the allocation number. Data/Payload  The data carried by SPX packet.
Page I - 12 SPX Handshake Similar to the TCP handshake, SPX connections start with a 5 - way handshake that establishes the connection. Most applications that use SPX, such as NPRINTER or RCONSOLE, are initiated at the client side. The connection begins with the client requesting an SPX connection. The client does this by setting the Connection Control byte in the SPX header to 0xC0 indicating that an SPX connection is requested. The destination port in the packet is kept invalid, 0xFFFF, until t he server assigns one from the ephemeral range. Netware Client NW Server C o n C t r l = C 0, S y s Pkt =1, Ack Req=1, Src=0x2346, Dst=0xFFFF, Seq=0, Ack=0, Alloc=6SPX: -----Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = C0 SPX: 1... .... = System packet SPX: .1.. .... = Acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...0 .... = Not end of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0x00 SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0x2346 SPX: Dest connection ID = 0xFFFF SPX: Sequence number = 0 SPX: Acknowledge number = 0 SPX: Allocation number = 6 SPX: `
Page I - 13 The Server then responds to the request with an Acknowledgement packet. The header of the SPX contains the control byte set to 0x80 or Acknowledge Request. NW Server ConCtrl = 80, SysPkt = 1, DataSteam = 0 x 00, Src = 0 x 01 C 8, Dst = 0 x 2346, Seq=0, Ack=0, Alloc=0SPX: -----Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = 80 SPX: 1... .... = System packet SPX: .0.. .... = No acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...0 .... = Not end of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0x00 SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0x01C8 SPX: Dest connection ID = 0x2346 SPX: Sequence number = 0 SPX: Acknowledge number = 0 SPX: Allocation number = 0 SPX: `Netware Client
Page I - 14 The next p acket, 3 rd in order, is a packet sent from the client requesting a connection on the allocated port. In this packet the Connection Control Byte is set to 0x40 indicating that the server is ready to receive data. The data stream byte is set to 0x00, or a pplication data. NW Server ConCtrl = 40, Ack Req = 1, DataStream = 0 x 00, Src = 0 x 2346, Dst =0x01C8, Seq=0, Ack=0, Alloc=6SPX: -----Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = 40 SPX: 0... .... = Non-system packet SPX: .1.. .... = Acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...0 .... = Not end of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0x00 SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0x2346 SPX: Dest connection ID = 0x01C8 SPX: Sequence number = 0 SPX: Acknowledge number = 0 SPX: Allocation number = 6 SPX: `Netware Client
Page I - 15 The next packet is sent by the server and begins the packet id acknowledgements. This packets’ Connection Control byte is set to 0x80 indicating. At this point the application on the server is awaiting data. NW Server ConCtrl = 80, SysPkt = 1, DataStream = 0 x 00, Src = 0 x 01 C 8, Dst = 0 x 2346, Seq=0, Ack=1, Alloc=1SPX: -----Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = 80 SPX: 1... .... = System packet SPX: .0.. .... = No acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...0 .... = Not end of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0x00 SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0x01C8 SPX: Dest connection ID = 0x2346 SPX: Sequence number = 0 SPX: Acknowledge number = 1 SPX: Allocation number = 1 SPX: `Netware Client
Page I - 16 The fifth and final SPX negotiation packet is a packet of data acknowledged by either the server or the client. In the case in the example the server is returning data from an RCONSOLE connection. At this time the SPX connection is consi dered open and complete. The SPX conversation ensues. NW Server C o n C t r l = 4 0, A c k R e q = 1, D a taStream=0x00, Src=0x01C8, Dst=0x2346, Seq=0, Ack=1, Alloc=1SPX: -----Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = 40 SPX: 0... .... = Non-system packet SPX: .1.. .... = Acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...0 .... = Not end of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0x00 SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0x01C8 SPX: Dest connection ID = 0x2346 SPX: Sequence number = 0 SPX: Acknowledge number = 1 SPX: Allocation number = 1 SPX: `Netware Client
Page I - 17 SPX Disconnect The SPX disconnection process is a two - step process where one side requests disconnect and the other side acknowledges the disconnect request. Set Datastream fie ld is set to 0xFE, End - Of - Message, in both packets. Netware Client NW Server ConCtrl=40, Ack Req=1, DataStream = 0xFE, Src=0x2346, Dst=0x01C8, Seq=124, Ack=429, Alloc=435 SPX: ----- Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = 40 SPX: 0... .... = Non-system packet SPX: .1.. .... = Acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...0 .... = Not end of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0xFE (End-of-connection notification) SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0x2346 SPX: Dest connection ID = 0x01C8 SPX: Sequence number = 124 SPX: Acknowledge number = 429 SPX: Allocation number = 435 SPX:` NW ServerConCtrl=10, End Of Msg=1, DataSteam=0xFF, Src=0x01C8, Dst=0x2346, Seq=429, Ack=125, Alloc=125SPX: ----- Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) ----- SPX: SPX: Connection control = 10 SPX: 0... .... = Non-system packet SPX: .0.. .... = No acknowledgement requested SPX: ..0. .... = Reserved for attention indication SPX: ...1 .... = End of message SPX: .... 0... = SPX packet SPX: .... 0000 = Reserved SPX: SPX: Datastream type = 0xFF (End-of-connection acknowledge) SPX: SPX: Source connection ID = 0x01C8 SPX: Dest connection ID = 0x2346 SPX: Sequence number = 429 SPX: Acknowledge number = 125 SPX: Allocation number = 125 SPX:`Netware Client
Page I - 18 IPX Ports and Sockets Much like TCP/IP, IPX/SPX uses ports to designate applications. For IPX the Ports between 8000 and FFFF are well known ports. Ports between 4000 and 7FFF are dynamic ports used by workstations to communicate with network devices. Some of the well - known socket numbers: Socket Number Use 0x0002 Echo 0x0003 Error Handler 0x0451 NCP 0x0452 SAP 0x0453 RIP 0x0455 NetBIOS 0x456 Diagnostic 0x457 Serialization 0x9001 NLSP 0x9004 IPXWAN NetWare Application/Session Layer Protocols NetWare is basically a database system used to store files on hard drives in a distributed environment. Because of this, the NetWare application must use some “Application Layer” protocols to interface with the network. Of these, the two most important to us at this time are SAP or Service Advertising Protocol and NCP or NetWare Core Protocol. The first provides a name resolution mechanism while the latter provides for control messaging and file access. Netware Applications such as NCP, SAP andNetBIOSAPPLICATIONPRESENTATIONSESSIONTRANSPORTNETWORKDATALINKPHYSICALOSI MODELCopper, Fiber, WirelessEthernet, Token Ring, Token Bus, FDDI, ATM,Frame Relay, ISDN, X.25 IPXNovellSPX
Page I - 19 NCP/IPX, NetWare Core Protocol over IPX Session layer operations, such as login, password encryption, and server communications, are handled by NCP. NCP is sometimes, and most often erroneously, compare d to NFS. NCP handles all aspects of communication between server and client, even though NetWare’s communication is file system oriented. NCP works on a series of requests and responses. NCP/IPX Packet DLC: ----- DLC Header ----- DLC: DLC: FS: Addr recognized indicators: 00, Frame copied indicators: 00 DLC: AC: Frame priority 0, Reservation priority 0, Monitor count 1 DLC: FC: LLC frame, PCF attention code: None DLC: Destination = Station 0000836BBA6A DLC: Source = Station 00003012C318 DLC:LLC: ----- LLC Header ----- LLC: LLC: DSAP Address = E0, DSAP IG Bit = 00 (Individual Address) LLC: SSAP Address = E0, SSAP CR Bit = 00 (Command) LLC: Unnumbered frame: UI LLC:IPX: ----- IPX Header ----- IPX: IPX: Checksum = 0xFFFF IPX: Length = 64 IPX: Transport control = 03 IPX: 0000 .... = Reserved IPX: .... 0011 = Hop count IPX: Packet type = 17 (Novell NetWare) IPX: IPX: Dest network.node = 384BE4F6.1, socket = 1105 (NetWare Server) IPX: Source network.node = 8722746.0060B0FB6C16, socket = 16864 (Unknown) IPX:NCP: ----- Novell Advanced NetWare ----- NCP: NCP: Request type = 0x2222 (Request) NCP: Seq no=7 Conn low no=14 Conn high no (v3.11+)=0 Task no=255 NCP:NCP: ----- Read Property Value Request ----- NCP: NCP: Request/sub-function code = 23,61 NCP: NCP: Object type = 0x0004 (file server) NCP: Object name = "NYEX9001" NCP: Segment number = 1 NCP: Property name = "NET_ADDRESS" NCP: NCP: [Normal end of NetWare "Read Property Value Request" packet.] NCP:ADDR HEX ASCII0000: 08 40 00 00 83 6b ba 6a 00 00 30 12 c3 18 e0 e0 | .@..ƒk.j..0.....0010: 03 ff ff 00 40 03 11 38 4b e4 f6 00 00 00 00 00 | ....@..8K.......0020: 01 04 51 08 72 27 46 00 60 b0 fb 6c 16 41 e0 22 | ..Q.r'F.`.ûl.A."0030: 22 07 0e ff 00 17 00 19 3d 00 04 08 4e 59 45 58 | ".......=...NYEX0040: 39 30 30 31 01 0b 4e 45 54 5f 41 44 44 52 45 53 | 9001..NET_ADDRES0050: 53 | SRequest Type16 BitsSequenceNumber8 BitsConnectionNumber (low Order Bits)8 BitsTask Number8 BitsConnectionNumber (High Order Bits)8 BitsNCP DATA08 40 00 00 83 6b ba 6a 00 00 30 12 c3 18 e0 e003 ff ff 00 40 03 11 38 4b e4 f6 00 00 00 00 0001 04 51 08 72 27 46 00 60 b0 fb 6c 16 41 e0 2222 07 0e ff 00 17 00 19 3d 00 04 08 4e 59 45 5839 30 30 31 01 0b 4e 45 54 5f 41 44 44 52 45 5353 Request Type  Designates connection type: 1111 = create an NCP connection, 2222 = general service request, 5555 = terminate NCP connection, 7777 = burst mode transfer request. Sequence Number  contains the sequence number of this message. Connection Number (low order bits)  the service number assigned the connection. Task Number  When set to 0 = signals server that all task are complete and resources may be deallocated. Connection Number (High order bits)  Not used with versions 3.11 and higher. Burst Mode Transfers Burst mode transfers were created to overcome the 1 request to 1 acknowledgement requirement of NCP. In burst mode many NCP packets can be acknowledged with 1 acknowledgement packet.
Page I - 20 SAP/IPX, Service Advertisement Protocol over IPX SAP allows users to find what services a re available on a network by the use of periodic broadcasts. Each NetWare device advertises itself to the network, using SAP broadcasts, which is received by the NetWare client interface called the NetWare redirector. SAP uses IPX socket 0x0452. Hosts a dvertising their services generate most SAP traffic, however, there is a special SAP called a “Get Nearest Server” query, which is initiated by a client. The first server or router that receives the query acknowledges the GNS or Get Nearest Server. Below is the SAP/IPX packet anatomy with field definitions. There are many different types of SAP broadcasts. Here is a small list of them: Service Type Description 0x03 Print Queue 0x04 File Server 0x07 Print Server 0x010F NetWare SNA Gateway SAP/IPX Packet DLC: ----- DLC Header ----- DLC: DLC: FS: Addr recognized indicators: 00, Frame copied indicators: 00 DLC: AC: Frame priority 0, Reservation priority 0, Monitor count 1 DLC: FC: LLC frame, PCF attention code: None DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, All Fs Broadcast DLC: Source = Station 00008361BBF4 DLC:RI: ----- Routing Indicators ----- RI: RI: Routing control = C2 RI: 110. .... = Single-route broadcast, all-routes broadcast return RI: ...0 0010 = RI length is 2 RI: Routing control = 70 RI: 0... .... = Forward direction RI: .111 .... = Largest frame is 41600 RI: .... 000. = Extended frame is 0 RI: .... ...0 = Reserved RI:LLC: ----- LLC Header ----- LLC: LLC: DSAP Address = E0, DSAP IG Bit = 00 (Individual Address) LLC: SSAP Address = E0, SSAP CR Bit = 00 (Command) LLC: Unnumbered frame: UI LLC:IPX: ----- IPX Header ----- IPX: IPX: Checksum = 0xFFFF IPX: Length = 96 IPX: Transport control = 00 IPX: 0000 .... = Reserved IPX: .... 0000 = Hop count IPX: Packet type = 4 (IPX) IPX: IPX: Dest network.node = F156.FFFFFFFFFFFF, socket = 1106 (NetWare Service Advertising) IPX: Source network.node = F156.00008361BBF4 (W156ISG493D), socket = 16472 (Unknown) IPX:NSAP: ----- NetWare General Service Response ----- NSAP: NSAP: Service type = 0640 (Unknown service) NSAP: Server name = "W156ISG493D" NSAP: Network = 0000F156, Node = 00008361BBF4, Socket = E885 NSAP: Intermediate networks = 1 NSAP:ADDR HEX ASCII0000: 08 40 ff ff ff ff ff ff 80 00 83 61 bb f4 c2 70 | .@........ƒa...p0010: e0 e0 03 ff ff 00 60 00 04 00 00 f1 56 ff ff ff | ......`.....V...0020: ff ff ff 04 52 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 61 bb f4 40 | ....R...V..ƒa..@0030: 58 00 02 06 40 57 31 35 36 49 53 47 34 39 33 44 | X...@W156ISG493D0040: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................0050: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 | ................0060: 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 61 bb f4 e8 | ........V..ƒa...0070: 85 00 01Packet Type2 BytesServiceType2 BytesServerName48 BytesNode Address12 BytesHop Count2 Bytes08 40 ff ff ff ff ff ff 80 00 83 61 bb f4 c2 70e0 e0 03 ff ff 00 60 00 04 00 00 f1 56 ff ff ffff ff ff 04 52 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 61 bb f4 4058 00 02 06 40 57 31 35 36 49 53 47 34 39 33 4400 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0000 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0000 00 00 00 00 00 00 f1 56 00 00 83 61 bb f4 e885 00 01 Packet Type  set to the value of 0x01 for General Service Query, 0x02 for a General Service Broadcast, 0x03 for a Nearest Service Query, or 0x04 for a Nearest Server Response. Server Type  indicator for the type of server that generated the SAP. If response to GNS it is set to the same type as the SAP Query Packet. Server Name Contains the text name of the server. Node Address  Full address of the server. Hop Count  Number of router hops to get to the server.
Page I - 21 RIP/IPX, Routing Info rmation Protocol over IPX IPX routing is configured similar to IP routing. RIP is, by default, activated any time IPX ROUTING is enabled on a router. IPX routes can be tested with the use of the PING utility. IPX routing commands are prefaced with the word “IPX”. For example: to add an IPX static route the following global command is used: IPX ROUTE ipx - address next - hop - ipx - address The IPX service on a Cisco router allows an administrator to statically configure SAP entries. When done, this eliminate s SAP broadcasts across routers. The syntax is similar to the static IPX route command with a few exceptions: IPX SAP sap - type node - address hop - count IPX metrics are calculated as the sum of clock TICs and hops. A TIC = 55msec. IPX/RIP updates every 60 seconds. IPX packets addressed to the RIP/IPX process use IPX port 0x0453. How IPX routes When a client host wishes to send a packet to a server host on another network it must find a router that can deliver the packet. To find the router, the client host broadcasts a RIP request for the shortest route. The router with the shortest route responds to the request. When a router receives the traffic bound for another network, it checks the Transport control field, i.e. hop count. If it is 16, it drops the packet. If not, it is forwarded toward the target host. The global command ipx maximum-hop # can be used to overcome this 16hop limitation on a Cisco router. Replace # with the limit to be imposed. IPX RIP Packet The IPX RIP packet is simpler than the IP RIP packet. It consists of a command byte and routing entries. A host that needs to reach a destination the IPX RIP packet is sent out with the command byte set to 1 or REQUEST. The response will have the same bit set to 2. Below is the packet format. Command2 ByteRouting Information Data Segments(Up to 50 Entries)IPX Network4 BytesHop Count2 BytesNumber of TICs2 Bytes
Page I - 22 Below is a trace of an IPX RIP Request… DLC: ----- DLC Header ----- DLC: DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast DLC: Source = Station 00D0BAE20F8A DLC: 802.3 length = 48 DLC: LLC: ----- LLC Header ----- LLC: LLC: DSAP Address = AA, DSAP IG Bit = 00 (Individual Address) LLC: SSAP Address = AA, SSAP CR Bit = 00 (Command) LLC: Unnumbered frame: UI LLC: SNAP: ----- SNAP Header ----- SNAP: SNAP: Type = 8137 (Novell) SNAP: IPX: ----- IPX Header ----- IPX: IPX: Checksum = 0xFFFF IPX: Length = 40 IPX: Transport control = 00 IPX: 0000 .... = Reserved IPX: .... 0000 = Hop count IPX: Packet type = 1 (RIP) IPX: IPX: Dest network.node = A.FFFFFFFFFFFF, socket = 1107 (NetWare Routing) IPX: Source network.node = A.00D0BAE20F8A, socket = 1107 (NetWare Routing) IPX: IPX: ----- Novell Routing Information Protocol (RIP) ----- IPX: IPX: Operation = 1 (request) IPX: IPX: Object network = 0xFFFFFFFF IPX: Hop count = 0 IPX: Number of ticks = 0 IPX: ADDR HEX ASCII 0000: ff ff ff ff ff ff 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 00 30 aa aa | .......кâ.Š.0ªª 0010: 03 00 00 00 81 37 ff ff 00 28 00 01 00 00 00 0a | .... 7...(...... 0020: ff ff ff ff ff ff 04 53 00 00 00 0a 00 d0 ba e2 | .......S.....кâ 0030: 0f 8a 04 53 00 01 ff ff ff ff 00 00 00 00 | .Š.S..........
Page I - 23 Sniffer trace of an IPX RIP Reply… DLC: ----- DLC Header ----- DLC: DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast DLC: Source = Station 00D0BAE20F8A DLC: 802.3 length = 80 DLC: LLC: ----- LLC Header ----- LLC: LLC: DSAP Address = AA, DSAP IG Bit = 00 (Individual Address) LLC: SSAP Address = AA, SSAP CR Bit = 00 (Command) LLC: Unnumbered frame: UI LLC: SNAP: ----- SNAP Header ----- SNAP: SNAP: Type = 8137 (Novell) SNAP: IPX: ----- IPX Header ----- IPX: IPX: Checksum = 0xFFFF IPX: Length = 72 IPX: Transport control = 00 IPX: 0000 .... = Reserved IPX: .... 0000 = Hop count IPX: Packet type = 1 (RIP) IPX: IPX: Dest network.node = A.FFFFFFFFFFFF, socket = 1107 (NetWare Routing) IPX: Source network.node = A.00D0BAE20F8A, socket = 1107 (NetWare Routing) IPX: IPX: ----- Novell Routing Information Protocol (RIP) ----- IPX: IPX: Operation = 2 (response) IPX: IPX: Object network = 0x0000000F IPX: Hop count = 1 IPX: Number of ticks = 2 IPX: Object network = 0x0000000E IPX: Hop count = 1 IPX: Number of ticks = 2 IPX: Object network = 0x0000000D IPX: Hop count = 1 IPX: Number of ticks = 2 IPX: Object network = 0x0000000C IPX: Hop count = 1 IPX: Number of ticks = 2 IPX: Object network = 0x0000000B IPX: Hop count = 1 IPX: Number of ticks = 2 IPX: ADDR HEX ASCII 0000: ff ff ff ff ff ff 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 00 50 aa aa | .......кâ.Š.Pªª 0010: 03 00 00 00 81 37 ff ff 00 48 00 01 00 00 00 0a | .... 7...H...... 0020: ff ff ff ff ff ff 04 53 00 00 00 0a 00 d0 ba e2 | .......S.....кâ 0030: 0f 8a 04 53 00 02 00 00 00 0f 00 01 00 02 00 00 | .Š.S............ 0040: 00 0e 00 01 00 02 00 00 00 0d 00 01 00 02 00 00 | ................ 0050: 00 0c 00 01 00 02 00 00 00 0b 00 01 00 02 | ..............
Page I - 24 Configuring IPX RIP on Cisco Routers Configuring the IPX network and encapsulation type on an interface is enough to configure IPX routing. Bel ow is an example IPX RIP configuration. Caveats on IPX RIP 1. When a router starts up it sends out RIP updates. 2. When a router starts up it requests RIP updates from other routers. 3. When a router is properly “downed” it sends out a RIP update. 4. There are a maximum of 50 route entries per packet. When a router sends RIP updates it uses the BIA or Best Information Algorithm. BIA ensures that routes are: 1. Not advertised back on to the network from which they were received. 2. Not advertised on the network, which they belong too. Use the global command: “show ipx route”, to view the IPX routing table, as shown below.
Page I - 25 NLSP – NetWare Link - Services Protocol NLSP was developed by Novell to overcome the disadvantages of RIP/IPX. NLSP is based on IS - IS and has a three tier hierarchical routing scheme. Routers are said to be level one, level two, or level three. Level One Routers  connects subnets together within an area. Level Two Routers  connects areas together and act as Level One Routers with in their s pecified area. Level Three Routers  connects Autonomous areas together and act as Level Two Routers with in their specified area. The illustration below shows the location and hierarchy of NLSP routers. IPX Backbone Segment NLSP Packet Format Much like OSPF, NLSP uses hello packets and password authentication; and, keeps a topology database, by means of adjacencies. Each NLSP router keeps track of his neighbor’s databases and watches for link state changes. Just like OSPF, the DR is elected when all the routers are brought up. The DR is elected by its “priority”; when the “priority” is equal on all routers the router with the highest MAC address wins the election. NLSP uses LSA similar to IS-IS. All topological, link state advertisements, changes are acknowledged, therefore, delivery is guaranteed. NLSP area numbers are 32bit, written in hexadecimal format, followed by a mask. Much like IP, the mask is used to identify what parts of the network address will be used in the database as routable to and from. NLSP supports 127 hops. Below is a NLSP Packet’s format and a Sniffer trace of a NLSP CSNP update.
Page I - 26 NLSP Packet Format DLC: ----- DLC Header ----- DLC:DLC: Destination = BROADCAST FFFFFFFFFFFF, Broadcast DLC: Source = Station 00D0BAE20F8A DLC: 802.3 length = 282 DLC:LLC: ----- LLC Header ----- LLC:LLC: DSAP Address = AA, DSAP IG Bit = 00 (Individual Address) LLC: SSAP Address = AA, SSAP CR Bit = 00 (Command) LLC: Unnumbered frame: UI LLC:SNAP: ----- SNAP Header ----- SNAP:SNAP: Type = 8137 (Novell) SNAP:IPX: ----- IPX Header ----- IPX:IPX: Checksum = 0xFFFF IPX: Length = 273 IPX: Transport control = 00 IPX: 0000 .... = Reserved IPX: .... 0000 = Hop count IPX: Packet type = 0 (Novell) IPX:IPX: Dest network.node = 0.FFFFFFFFFFFF, socket = 36865 (Novell NLSP) IPX: Source network.node = A.00D0BAE20F8A, socket = 36865 (Novell NLSP) IPX:NLSP: ----- NLSP Level 1 CSNP ----- NLSP:NLSP: Protocol ID = 131 NLSP: Length Indicator = 33 NLSP: Minor Version = 2 NLSP: Reserved = 0 NLSP: Reserved, PacketType: = 18 NLSP: 000. .... = Reserved NLSP: ...1 1000 = Packet Type 24(NLSP Level 1 CSNP) NLSP: Major Version = 1 NLSP: Reserved = 0 NLSP: Packet length = 243 NLSP: Sending Router's ID = 0x00D0BAE20F8A NLSP: Extra ID byte = 0 NLSP: NLSP: Start LSP ID:NLSP: Originator Router ID = 0x000000000000 NLSP: Pseudonode ID = 0 (Non-pseudonode) NLSP: LSP Number = 0 NLSP: End LSP ID:NLSP: Originator Router ID = 0xFFFFFFFFFFFF NLSP: Pseudonode ID = 255 (Pseudonode) NLSP: LSP Number = 255 NLSP:NLSP: Code = 9 (List of LSP entries) NLSP: Length = 208 NLSP: List of LSP entries: NLSP: LSP Entry #1:NLSP: Hour Flag = 0, Remaining LSP Lifetime = 7421 (secs) NLSP: LSP ID:NLSP: Originator Router ID = 0x00000C8DACAFNLSP: Pseudonode ID = 0 (Non-pseudonode)NLSP: LSP Number = 0NLSP: LSP Sequence Number = 7NLSP: LSP Checksum = 0xC718 NLSP:<***** More LSP's listed, not shown *****>ADDR HEX ASCII0000: ff ff ff ff ff ff00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a01 1aaa aa | .......кâ.Š..ªª0010: 03 00 00 0081 37ff ff01 11000000 00 00 00 | ....7..........0020: ff ff ff ff ff ff90 0100 00 00 0a 00 d0 ba e2 | ............кâ0030: 0f 8a90 0183210200180100 0000 f300 d0 | .Š.ƒ!.......ó.Ð0040: ba e2 0f 8a0000 00 00 00 00 000000ff ff ff | ºâ.Š............0050: ff ffffffff09 d01c fd00 00 0c 8d ac af00 | .....Ð.ý...¬¯.0060: 00 00 00 0007c7 181c fd 00 00 0c 8d ac af 01 | .....Ç..ý...¬¯.0070: 00 00 00 00 04 e4 02 1c 58 00 00 0c 8d ac af 02 | .....ä..X...¬¯.0080: 00 00 00 00 01 f4 ee 1c 58 00 00 0c 8d ac af 03 | .....ôî.X...¬¯.0090: 00 00 00 00 01 0d d3 1c 58 00 00 0c 8d ac af 04 | ......Ó.X...¬¯.00a0: 00 00 00 00 01 25 b8 1c 57 00 00 0c 8d ac af 05 | .....%¸.W...¬¯.00b0: 00 00 00 00 01 3d 9d 1d 42 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 00 | .....=.B.кâ.Š.00c0: 00 00 00 00 05 26 7a 1d 4b 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 01 | .....&z.K.кâ.Š.00d0: 00 00 00 00 03 34 6b 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 02 | .....4k...кâ.Š.00e0: 00 00 00 00 01 54 69 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 03 | .....Ti...кâ.Š.00f0: 00 00 00 00 01 6c 4e 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 04 | .....lN...кâ.Š.0100: 00 00 00 00 01 84 33 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 05 | .....„3...кâ.Š.0110: 00 00 00 00 01 9c 18 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 06 | .....œ....кâ.Š.0120: 00 00 00 00 01 b4 fc 70 | .....´üpProtocl ID1 ByteLength Indicator1 ByteMinor Version1 ByteReserved1 Byte set to0x00Packet Type1 ByteMajor Version1 ByteReserved2 Bytes set to0x00Packet Length2 BytesSource Address6 BytesExtra ID Byte1 Byte1st LSP RouterID6 Bytes1st PseudonodeID1 Byte1st LSP Number1 BtyeLast LSP RouterID6 BytesLastPseudonode ID1 ByteLast LSP
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LSP Header Entries
ff ff ff ff ff ff 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 01 1a aa aa
03 00 00 00 81 37 ff ff 01 11 00 00 00 00 00 00
ff ff ff ff ff ff 90 01 00 00 00 0a 00 d0 ba e2
0f 8a 90 01 83 21 02 00 18 01 00 00 00 f3 00 d0
ba e2 0f 8a 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 ff ff ff
ff ff ff ff ff 09 d0 1c fd 00 00 0c 8d ac af 00
00 00 00 00 07 c7 18 1c fd 00 00 0c 8d ac af 01
00 00 00 00 04 e4 02 1c 58 00 00 0c 8d ac af 02
00 00 00 00 01 f4 ee 1c 58 00 00 0c 8d ac af 03
00 00 00 00 01 0d d3 1c 58 00 00 0c 8d ac af 04
00 00 00 00 01 25 b8 1c 57 00 00 0c 8d ac af 05
00 00 00 00 01 3d 9d 1d 42 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 00
00 00 00 00 05 26 7a 1d 4b 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 01
00 00 00 00 03 34 6b 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 02
00 00 00 00 01 54 69 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 03
00 00 00 00 01 6c 4e 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 04
00 00 00 00 01 84 33 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 05
00 00 00 00 01 9c 18 1c f2 00 d0 ba e2 0f 8a 06
00 00 00 00 01 b4 fc 70


Internal IPX network and AREA Mask



An “internal network” ipx identifier is required to use NLSP on a Cisc
o router. As with the
NetWare servers, this internal ipx network must be unique to the entire network. When designating an area
address the syntax is “area
-
address
area
-
number mask
”. Here is how the mask works: say one has a
network of 0xc0a86400 and wa
nts to limit all addresses up to 0xc0a8640e, the mask would be 0xfffffffE.


C
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Starting
Network in Area
Ending Network
in Area
Resulting Area
MASK


Page I - 27 The mask, when used, asserts that all the bits set to “1” are ignored and all other bits are checked. All masks must end on a “bit” boundary that will produce a stream where t he bits, from high order to low order, are sequential. That means that the possible ending values for the mask would be one of the following: 1000b(0x8), 1100b(0xC), 1110b(0xE), or 1111(0xF). The area statement for the previous example would read: area - a ddress C0A86400 FFFFFFFE Task to configure NLSP on a router The tasks to configure NLSP on a router are:  Task #1, Enable ipx routing on a router, “ ipx routing ”  Task #2, Assign an internal IPX number to the router, “ ipx internal - network #”  Task #3, Enable NLSP routing process, “ipx router nlsp”  Task #4, Assign an area id, “area-address # #”  Task #5, Disable IPX RIP, “no ipx router rip”  Task #6, Configure IPX networks on the interfaces, “network #”  Task #7, enable NLSP on each interface, “ipx nlsp enable” Do not forget to shut off IPX RIP when enabling NLSP. The command is: “no ipx router rip”. Example of an NLSP configuration… In the example above the area address is c0a86400 and the mask is fffffffe. This has the effect of configuring the routing process for all subnets within c0a86400 to c0a8640e.
Page I - 28 When configuring a Level 2 or Level 3 router, there must be an AREA entry for each interface that is not in the same area. Without that statement, the router will not be able to communi cate within that particular network. Using the example from the previous page below is an extended configuration. When configuring Level 2 or Level 3 routers to summarize routes outside an area the IPX router command is: route - aggregate <summary addr ess >
Page I - 29 Supporting Commands NLSP supporting commands on a Cisco router are: sho ipx nlsp database, and sho ipx nlsp neighbor. The output of sho ipx nlsp database… This command displays the NLSP database of the router one is cons oled to. The output of sho ipx nlsp neighbor… This command displays the status of all the neighbors of the router one is consoled to.