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M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
1



Master of Science in Microbiology









Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan





















M. Sc. (Microbiology) Syllabus


(With effect from June 20
11
)


M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
2


M.Sc. Microbiology CBCS Based
C
urriculum

(With effect from June 2011
)




MBEL 18

Any paper
of student
s’

choice to develop technical skill


Soft Skill



02













Paper No

Title



Credit

Semester



I

MB
-
101

Cell Biology and Genetics

Core


04

MB
-
102

Diversity of
L
ife
F
orms and
A
pplied
M
icrobiology


Core


04

MB
-
103

Biochemistry and
A
nalytical
T
echniques

Core


04

Elective

Any one elective paper
(MBEL 1 to 6)

Elective


02

P
ractical
-

I

Practical based on MB 101 to 103 and selected elective paper



06


Semester



II

MB
-
201

Molecular Genetics of Bacteria and Bacteriophages

Core


04

MB
-
202

Research
M
ethodology &Professional Practices

Core


04

MB
-
203

Bioprocess
and Bioche
mical Engineering

Core


04

Elective

Any one elective paper

(MBEL 7 to 12)

Elective


02

Practical
-

II

Practical based on MB
2
01 to
2
03 and selected elective paper



06


Semester



III

MB
-
301

Genetic
E
ngineering and Protein engineering

Core


04

MB
-
302

Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Fermentation Technology

Core


04

MB
-
303

Omics
,

Inter Phase Microbiology and Recent Advances in
M
icrobiology

Core


04

Elective

Any one elective paper

(MBEL 13 to 17)

Elective


02

Practical
-

III

Practical based on MB

3
01 to
3
03 and selected elective paper



06


Semester



IV

MB 401

Project Work



18

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
3




LIST OF ELECTIVE PAPER

MB EL
-

01


Advanced B
ioinformatics

MB EL
-
02

Microbial Genomics and Proteomics

MB EL
-
03

Nanotechnology and Systems Biology

MB EL
-
04

Environmentally Sound

Technologies (EST)

MB EL
-
05

Entrepreneurship a
nd Management for Microbiology B
ased
I
ndustry

MB EL
-
06

Microbiology of E
xtreme Environment



MB EL
-
07

Quality Control , Assurance and Total
Q
uality Management

MB EL
-
08

Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry

MB EL
-
09

Medical Microbiology and Immunology

MB EL
-
10

Agriculture Microbiology


MB EL
-
11

Food and Dairy Microbiolog
y

MB EL
-
12

Soil and Water Microbiology



MB EL
-
13

Enzyme Technology

MB EL
-
14

Drug Discovery and Clinical Research

MB EL
-
15

Microbial
P
roduction of
R
ecombinant
M
olecules

MB EL
-
16

Microbial
E
cology

MB EL
-
17

Contemporary Microbiology



MB EL
-
18

Soft

skill

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
4


Course wise d
istribution of contact hours,

credits and examination
scheme for CBCS system




Per unit 15 hours equivalent to 1 credit per course for theory teaching.



Total credits
per course will be 4 equivalent

to 60 hrs of direct theory teaching.



For practical 2 credits per course equivalent to 4 hrs.
p
er week, per course. (Total 6

credits).



For elective paper 2 credits are allotted equivalent to 2 hrs.
of counseling
per week.

(Including practical if any)



For soft skill paper 2 credits are allott
ed equivalent to 2 hrs of counseling per week.




Electives



The elective course shall be offered to the students as per their choice from the list of
courses provided with the curriculum. The total credits shall be 2 for each elective course
including pra
ctical
i
f any but there shall be no practical examination in the university term
end examination. There shall be 2 hrs of contact teaching per week for each elective course.
The question paper for end semester exam shall be
of

50 marks.




Evaluation and Exa
mination

:




There shall be University examination for
every

core and elective
course

at the end
of each semester
.



There

shall

be continuous

evaluation of every student

for 30% of internal
weightage during the semester
as shown below :




Internal Assess
ment
:


Marks for internal assessment only for
core

theory papers shall be awarded on the basis of
attendance/regularity/punctuality, seminars, Poster presentations,
viva
-
voce
, field
work/library work/academic tour, MCQ’s tests, quiz competitions, assignme
nts etc. as
determined by the Board of Studies in the respective subject. The internal assessment marks
shall be notified on the department/college notice board for information of the students and it
shall be communicated to the Registrar (Evaluation) befo
re the commencement of the
University examinations.


Any
six

head

from the followings should be selected each of 5 marks in each theory pa
per for
internal assessment
.

Following five activities are compulsory during each semester for
internal continuous ev
aluation.


1.

Attendance

2.

Assignment

/Class seminar

3.

Individual
viva voce
/Group discussion



M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
5


4.
Internal MCQ based test

5. Internal practical test/Field work


The above five activities are to be compulsorily carried out for each semester, while out of
the follo
wing three activities are to be carried out during the first three semesters
respectively:


Semester I : Industrial / Educational tour

Semester II : Seminar / Conference presentation

Semester III: Review writing


Course contents :
Each
Core Course


sh
all be divided in to FOUR units.
The question paper
for end semester examination
comprises two sections of
3
5 marks each
. One question is to
be asked from each unit. There shall be equal weightage to each unit. Question paper shall

consist

20% objective

type question (MCQ/fill in the blanks/Answer in one word or one
sentence)

from all the units of the section. Each section is to be written in separate answer
sheet
.


The

Elective Course

shall be divided into two units.

The question paper for end seme
ster
examination shall be
of
50

marks & will

have two sections of 25 marks each.

Each section
of question paper will have two questions of 10 marks each
. 20% objective question
shall
be asked in each section.

S
ection
-
I
of the question paper
is to be dr
awn from unit
-
I and
section
-
II is to be drawn from unit
-
2.

Objective questions shall be asked from
respective
section
.

Moreover, there shall at least one practical test of elective paper be conducted
wherever applicable. The weightage should be given in

the end semester practical
examination along with the core theory paper.
Out of 10 marks the internal marks should
be put in the end semester practical examination.




Question Paper

(a)

Question paper shall consist of 2 sections.

(b)

Section
-
I covers first 2 uni
ts of the course.

(c)

Section

II covers remaining 2 units of the course.

(d)

Both sections of question paper comprises two questions with internal option of 14
marks each from each unit.

(e)

Third question shall be objective type of (07) marks which will cover both
units.

(f)

Same way Section
-
II is to be drawn.




Practical




For practical, total weightage shall be 50 marks per course i.e. total of 150 marks


for 3 core courses.



The


question paper will be as per the submitted format.



M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
6




Distribution o
f Marks for End Semester Examination :





300

Theory



Three
core

course
s (70 + 30 =100 for each course)





50

Theory elective

course




150

P
ractical

(All core courses)





------


Total
Marks
:


500


S
emester


IV Project Work


Students have to take up a small research project under the supervision of a teacher from
the department or may carry the work in an industry / NGO / private laboratory with
required f
acility/
other university or institution. If a student is doing project out side the
university then the chemicals to carry out experiment shall be
replaced to the institute
where he/she carry out the experimental work. All other arrangements
are to

be m
ade by
the student.
Student has to submit the dissertation before the last date for the submission
as declared by the university.


Dissertation Thesis :

250

marks

Presentation :

100

marks

Related Viva

:



50


marks


Total (a)


:


400

marks


General viva



:


50

marks

(all semester
s
)

Regularly



:

_
50


marks


Total
(b)

:
1
00

marks


Gran
d

Total (a+b)

: 500 marks


There shall be a
n examination for the soft skill paper at the end of the semester. The total
marks for the paper shall be 50.
M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
7





MB

-

101 Cell
B
iology and Genetics





4 Credits


Section
-

I

Unit

1

Cell Biology

-

I










15 hours



1.1.

The Origin and evolution of cell, cell theory, Cell

as experimental model

1.2.

Ultra
-
structure and function of Bacteria : Bacterial Nucleoids, Nucleosomes, Mitochondria, Microbial Cell
Surfaces, Cytoplasmic Membranes, Capsules, Organs

of Locomotion , Pili or Fimbriae

1.3.

Major structural and functional features of eukaryotic cell: Cell membrane and transport across the cell
membrane, Plasma membrane , Cell wall, Extracellular matrix and cell interaction, Nucleus, Endoplasmic
reticulum, Go
lgi complex,
L
ysosome, Mitochondria,
C
hloroplast,
P
eroxisome, Plastids, Vacuoles, Cyto
skeleton and
C
ell movement,

1.4.

Cell singling : Singling at cell surface, Singling pathway


Unit

2

Cell Biology


II









15 hours







2.1.

Cell death and

Cell renewal : Programmed cell death, Stem cell and maintenance of adult tissue,
Embryonic stem cell and therapeutic cloning

2.2.

Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell division and cell cycle

2.3.

Host
P
arasite Relationship :
Structures and Functions
i
nvolved in Ho
st

Parasite

interaction,
pathogenesis of
viral diseases, pathogenesis of bacterial diseases, Microbial mechanism for escaping host defense by
bacteria
or pathogens

2.4.

Cancer : the development and cause of cancer, Tumor viruses, Onco genes, Tumor suppressor

genes,
Molecular approach to cancer treatment


Section
-

I
I

Unit
-

3

Genetics

-

I










15 hours

3.1.

The organization and sequence of cellular Genomes

3.2.

Mendel’s Principles, Concept of gene, Extensions and Modifications of Basic Principles,

Sex Determination
and Sex
-
Linked Characteristics

3.3.

Linkage and Mapping in Eukaryotes, Prokaryotes and Bacterial viruses

3.4.

DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; DNA amplification and rearrangement


Unit
-

4

Genetics



II












15 hours


4.1.

Gene transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; post transcriptional modification

4.2.

Translation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; post translational modifications; protein processing

4.3.

Gene Expression control in Eukaryotes

4.4.

Population and Evolut
ionary Genetics, Pedigree

Analysis and Applications, Chromosome Variation

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
8


List of
E
xperiments


1.

Simple staining and
N
egative staining,

2.

Gram’s staining and Acid fast staining

3.

Special staining : Cell wall staining, Capsule staining, Spore staining, Flagell
a staining, Metachromatic
granule staining, Nucleus staining

4.

Polytene chromosome

5.

Mitosis and Meiosis

6.

Study of plant cell and animal cell

7.

Demonstration of
B
ar body and drum stick

8.

Isolation of mitochondria

9.

Isolation of chloroplast

10.

Isolation of DNA from pl
ant animal and microbial cell

11.

Enzyme Induction

12.

Determination of G+C ratio


List

of
R
eference
B
ooks


1.

Alexoplous
,
Introductory mycology

2.

Biswas
,
Viruses

3.

Dubey,

Introduction to Fungi

4.

Flint,

Virology

5.

Luria,

Virology

6.

Prescott,

Microbiology

7.

R. M. Atlas
,
Principles of Microbiology

8.

To
r
tora,

Microbiology

9.

Perry,

Microbial life

10.

Carter,
Virology Principle and application






M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
9




MB

-

102


Diversity of
L
ife forms and
Applied
Microbiology


4 Credits


Section
-

I

Unit
-

1

Concept of Biodiversity









15 hours



1.1.

Biodiversity Basics; Biodiversity: Origin, speciation and extinction and ecological role of biodiversity; Types
of biodiversity: alpha, beta, and gamma diversity

1.2.

Techniques for molecular identification: Morphological methods,

Biochemical, serological, Molecular
methods, Fatty acid profiling, metabolic fingerprinting ( Biolog ), DGGE and TGGE

1.3.

Taxonomy methods: Taxonomy and classification: Taxonomic Hierarchies; Classical approach to
classification; Numerical taxonomy; Molecular

taxonomy; modern methods of taxonomy and systematic.

1.4.

Overview of plant and Animal biodiversity: Taxonomic criteria of classification; Classification system;
Distinguishing and significant characteristics of representative group


Unit
-

2

Eukaryotic
Mic
roorganism and Archaebacteria






15 hours



2.1.

Mycology : Taxonomic criteria of fungal classification; Distinguishing and significant characteristics of
Mastigomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, Zygomycotina and Deuteromycotina; Fungal gro
wth
and differentiation;

2.2.

Protozoa: Structure, classification, reproductive strategies and economic importance; Algae : structure,
classification, reproductive strategies and economic importance; algal ecology ; lichens

2.3.

Archaebacteria : Phenotypes of Arch
ea : Methanogenic bacteria, extremophiles : thermophilic, halophilic
bacteria; Cell structure & composition; Eco
-
physiology; Taxonomy & nomenclature; Salient features of
representative group

2.4.

Virology : Structure, classification, cultivation and economic i
mportance of plant viruses and animal viruses;
Structure, classification, cultivation and economic importance of Bacteriophage; Viroids; Prions


Section


II


Unit
-

3

Prokaryotic
Microorganisms
and Viruses






15 hours



3.1.

Microbial taxonomy

: Microbial
evolution

and diversity, Taxonomic ranks, Classification system,

Major
characteristics used in taxonomy, Assessing Microbial Phylogeny, The Major Divisions of Life, Bergey’s
Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, A Survey of Procaryotic Phylogeny

and Diversity

3.2.

Overview of t
he Deinococci and Nonproteobacteria Gram Negatives

3.3.

Overview Proteobacteria

3.4.

Overview of The Low G+C and High G+C Gram Positives bacteria


Unit
-

4


Applied Microbiology










15 hours



4.1.

Application of Microbio
logy and Role of Microbiologist in Dairy and Food industry

4.2.

Application of Microbiology and Role of Microbiologist in Clinical
and Diagnostic field

4.3.

Application of Microbiology and Role of Microbiologist in Agriculture

4.4.

Application of Microbiology and Role
of Microbiologist in
Environment science

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
10



List of
E
xperiments


1.

Isolation and identification of bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae,
Pseudomonadaceae
Azotobactereceae
family

2.

Isolation and identification of industrially important molds and

fungi.

3.

Isolation of actinomyctes

4.

Isolation of bacteriophage

5.

Screening of Extremophiles (Acidophiles / Alkaliphiles / Halophiles/ Psychrophiles / Thermophiles)

6.

Study of Protozoan and algal permanent slide

7.

Growth curve of
E. coli
and determination of gro
wth rate and generation time, Effect of pH, temperature, salt
and glucose on growth

8.

Identification of Microorganism with 16S rRNA homology technique

9.

Microbiological analysis of clinical sample

10.

Identification of bacteria by rapid kit

11.

Microbiological exami
nation of food

12.

Microbiological examination of water

13.

Microbiological analysis of Air

14.

Microbiological analysis of Milk


List of
R
eference
B
ooks


1.

Pollard,
Cell Biology.

2.

Alberts,

Molecular Biology of Cell
.

3.

Coopper,

The cell.

4.

Prescott,
Microbiology.

5.

Lodish
,
Molecular Cell Biology.

6.

Griffth,
An Introduction to Genetic analysis.

7.

Moat,
Microbial Physiology.

8.

David
W
hite,
The Physiology and Biochemistry of Prokaryotes

9.

Pierce
Genetics A Conceptual Approach.

10.

Benjamin,

Gene VIII.

11.

Syndeer and Champness.
Molecular
genetics of bacteria

12.

Nancy
,

Fundamental Bacterial Genetics

13.

Tamarin
,

Principles of Genetics.

14.

J. D. Watson
,
Molecular Biology of the Genes
.

15.

Prescott,
Microbiology

16.

Griffith
,

Genetic Analysis






M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
11



MB

-

103

Biochemistry and An
alytical
T
echniques

4 Credits



Section
-

I

Unit
-

1

Biochemistry
-

I










15 hours



1.1.

Basics of Chemistry for biologist

1.2.

Protein Structure and Function :
Amino Acids,Structure
of
Proteins, enzyme

1.3.

Intermediary Metabolism:
Bioenergetics and Oxidative Phosphorylation, Introduction to Carbohydrates,
Glycolysis, TCA Cycle, Gluconeogenesis, Glycogen Metabolism, Metabolism of Monosaccharides and
Disaccharides, PPP Pathway and NADPH, Glycosaminoglycans and Glycoproteins

1.4.

Lipid Met
abolism:

Metabolism of Dietary Lipids, Fatty Acid and Triacylglycerol Metabolism, Complex Lipid
Metabolism, Cholesterol and Steroid Metabolism


Unit
-

2

Biochemistry
-

II









15 hours



2.1.

Nitrogen Metabolism:
Amino Acids: Disposal of Nitro
gen, Amino Acid Degradation and Synthesis, :
Conversion of Amino Acids to Specialized Products,

2.2.

Integration of Metabolism :
Metabolic Effects of Insulin and Glucagon, The Feed/Fast Cycle, Diabetes
Mellitus, Obesity, Nutrition, Vitamins

2.3.

Nucleotide metaboli
sm:
Characteristics and types of Nucleic acids, Biosynthesis and catabolism of purines
and pyrimidines
,

2.4.

Molecular biology techniques: Principle and technique of nucleic acid hybridization and cot curve;
sequencing of proteins and nucleic acids;
S
outhern ,

Northern and South
-
W
estern blotting technique
s
;
Polymerase
C
hain
R
eaction; Methods for measuring nucleic acid and protein interactions


Section
-

II

Unit
-

3

Analytical
T
echnique
-

I









15 hours




3.1.

Electrochemistry: pH and buffers, Poten
tiometric and Conductometric titration, Agarose electrophoresis,
Native PAGE, SDS PAGE, isoelectric focusing (IEF), two dimensional gel electrophoresis, gels

3.2.

Purification and Identification of Bio molecules : Introduction to Chromatography, Column Chromato
graphy,
Ion
-
Exchange Chromatography, Gel Exclusion Chromatography, Affinity Chromatography and
Immunoadsorption, Perfusion Chromatography, GC. HPLC, FPLC.

3.3.

Histochemical and immunotechniques:
Antibody generation, detection of molecules using ELISA, RIA,
w
estern blot, immunoprecipitation, flow
c
ytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, detection of
molecules in living cells,
in situ
localization by techniques such as FISH and GISH.

3.4.

Radiolabeling techniques:
Properties of different types of radioisotopes n
ormally used in biology,
their
detection and measurement,Autoradiography


Unit
-

4

Analytical
T
echnique


II








15 hours




4.1.

Biophysical methods:
Analysis of biomolecules using UV/visible, IR, Fluorescence, CD, ESR spectroscopy,
structure
determination using X
-
ray diffraction and NMR; analysis using light scattering, different types of
mass spectrometry and surface plasma resonance methods, MALDI TOF, Atomic spectroscopy

4.2.

Microscopic techniques:
Light,
P
hase
C
ontrast,
F
uorescence,
S
cannin
g and
T
ransmission
E
lectron
M
icroscopy and other
A
dvanced
M
icroscopy

4.3.

Electrophysiological methods:
Single neuron recording, patch
-
clamp recording, ECG, Brain activity
recording, lesion and stimulation of brain, pharmacological testing, PET, MRI, fMRI, CA
T.

4.4.

Centrifugation technique,
Biosensors



M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
12


List of
E
xperiments


1.

Estimation of carbohydrates ( Coles, DNS and Anthron method)

2.

Estimation proteins ( Folin, Bradford and Biurates)

3.

Estimation of lipid

4.

Estimation of inorganic phosphorus

5.

Estimation of inorga
nic nitrogen

6.

Determination of K
m

and V
max
for Enzyme

7.

Enzyme inhibition study

8.

Agarose gel electrophoresis for DNA

9.

SDS PAGE analysis for Protein

10.

2D gel electrophoresis technique ( Demonstration)

11.

Determination of pK value

12.

Separation
of
amino acid by pa
per chromatography

13.

Separation of sugars/ fatty acid by thin layer chromatography

14.

Determination of molecular weight of protein by Column chromatography



List of R
eference
B
ooks


1.

Lehninger,

Principles of Biochemistry

.

2.

Lippincotts,


Illustrated Reviews Bioc
hemistry

3.

David Holme,

Analytical Biochemistr
y

4.

Rodney Boyer,

Modern Experiment
al Biochemistry

5.

Hames and Hooper
, Instant Notes in Biochemistry

6.

Wilson and Walker,
Principles and Techniques of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

7.

Debnath
,
Tools And Techniques Of Biotechnology

8.

Voet and Voet
,


Bichemistery

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
13



MB

201 Molecular
G
enetics of
B
acteria

and Bacteriophages

4 Credits



Section
-

I


Unit

-

1

DNA
D
amage,
R
epair,
R
ecombinati
on and
G
ene
R
egulation



15 hours






1.1.

Mutations and Mutagenesis:
Biochemical Basis of Mutation, Spontaneous Mutation,
Fluctuation Test,
Use
ful

Phenotypes in bacterial genetics,
Mutation Rate, Expression and Selection of Mut
ant Cell,
Types

of
Mutation, Mutagens
, Reversion and suppression of mutation

1.2.

DNA Repair
Evidences of
DNA Repair,
Specific repair pathway, General repair mechanisms, Repair
pathway in
E.

coli
, Bacteria phage repair pathway

1.3.

Recombination:
Overview of recomb
ination
,
Molecular
Model Recombination,
Molecular basis for
recombination in
E.

coli,
Phage recombination , ill
egimate recombination,
Genetic and Functional Analysis
of Recombination

1.4.

Regulation of gene expression: Overview of gene regulation,
Transcription
al regulation in bacteria,
Negative regulation, Positive regulation, Regulation by attenuation, Feedback inhibition, Translational
control.


Unit
-
2

Plasmid, Transposition and Conjugation







15 hours



2.1.

Plasmid Molecular
Biology:

What is plas
mid,
Types and p
roperties of plasmid: Replication, Control of
Copy Number, Partitioning, Incompatibility, Maintaining Plasmid belonging to the same incompatibility
group. Conjugal Functions, Pilus Production, Transfer DNA Replication

2.2.

Properties of Partic
ular Plasmids :
Major Chromosome
-
Mobilizing other than F, Bacteriocins, Resistance
Plasmids, Agrobacatrium plasmid Ti, Broad Host Range Plasmids

2.3.

Conjugation:
Discovery of Conjugation, Mechanism of DNA transfer during conjugation in Gram Negative
Bacteria,

Chromosome transfer by Plasmid, Genetic mapping with Hfr crosses, Chromosome mobilization,
Prime factors, Transfer systems of gram Positive bacteria.

2.4.

Transposition and site specific recombination :
Insertion sequences, Detection of transposition in
bacte
ria, Types of bacterial Transposon, Transposition, Transposon Mutagenesis, Site specific
recombination, Phage Mu


Section
-

II


Unit
-
3

Bacteriophage
G
enetics and
T
ransformation






15 hours



3.1.

Genetics of intemperate bacteriophages:
T
4

Bacte
riop
hage as a Model Genetic System
,
Morphology and
Composition, Experimental Methods Used to Study Phage Infection, Genetic Organization of T
4
, DNA
Replication, Molecular Biology of T4 Phage Infection, Morphogenesis and Maturation;Properties of some
other c
ommon intemperate bacteriophages.

3.2.

Genetics of Temperate Bacteriophages:
Overview

of various temperate bacteriophages, General Nature
of the Temperate Response, Bacteriophage Lambda as the Archetypal Temperate Phage,
Genetic Map of
Lambda.
Lytic Cycle,
Lysog
eny

Cycle,

Lysogenic phage and bacatrial pathogenesis.

3.3.

Transduction
: Bacteriophage Lambda: A Specialized Transducing Phage, Production of Transducing
Particles, Physiology and Genetic Consequences of Transduction, Specialized Transducing Phages Other
than

Lambda, Generalized Transduction
, Cotransduction.

3.4.

Genetic Transformation:
Standard Genetic Transformation Systems¸ Discovery of Genetic Transformation,
Competent Cells, DNA Uptake and Entry, Establishment of Donor DNA in the Recipient Cell, Other
Transfor
mation Systems, Transfection, Genetic Mapping Using Transformation


M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
14


Unit
-

4

Advances in Microbial
G
enetics








15 hours



4.1.

Bacterial and Bacteriophage Evolution :
What Is Evolution, Expression of Evolutionary Relationships,
Specific Examples

of Evolution, Genetic Structure of the Chromosome, Bacteria, Bacteriophage ;

4.2.

Advanced Regulatory Topics :

Global Regulatory Mechanism: Catabolic sensitive Operon, Regulation of
Nitrogen assimilation, Porin synthesis, Heat shock protein, Virulence gene
s
,
Endospore formation,
Ribosome and t RNA synthesis; Two component regulation system; Inteins, Small RNA Molecules

4.3.

Strain Construction:
Construction of Bacterial strains, Operon and Gene fusion, Construction of Phage
Mutants

4.4.

Genetic Methods for Investi
gating Bacteria:

Metabolic pathways, Microbial physiology¸
Bacterial
virulence
, Specific mutagenesis, Taxonomy, evolution and epidemiology


List
of Experiments



1.

Ultraviolet irradiation survival curve

2.

Fluctuation test, rapid
-

plate technology.

3.

Isolation

of auxotrophic
mutant

4.

Isolation Respiratory deficient

mutant

5.

Isolation of temperature sensitive mutant

6.

Isolation of streptomycin
resistant
mutant by gradient plate technique

7.

Ames test

8.

Conjugation in
E. coli

9.

Transduction

10.

Plasmid curring

11.

Phage titration


List of Reference
B
ooks


1.

Trun and Trempy
,
Fundamental Bacterial genetics

2.

Syndeer and Champness,

Molecular genetics of bacteria

3.

Maloy,

Microbial genetics.

4.

Edward,
Bacterialand Bacteriophage Genetics.

5.

Dale,


Molecular
G
enetics of
B
acteria.

6.

Streips
,

Mode
rn Microbial genetics.

7.

Alan,

Principles of Molecular Virology

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
15



MB

-

202
Research

Methodolog
y

and
Professional Practices

4 Credits


Section
-

I

Unit
-
1

Introduction to Scientific Research







15 hours



1.1.

Char
acteristics and types of scientific research
,
Basics of research methodology
,
Research and
Experimental design
,
Method of Data collection

1.2.

Scientific Deliveries and Communications: Writing Research proposal, Paper, Thesis, Report and Citations,
Presenting

scientific research: Power point presentations, Posters, Flyers, etc.

1.3.

Publication processes, Review Processes and Significance of scientific communications

1.4.

Study of Critical review and scientific Paper in Microbiology


Unit
-
2

Statistical Methods and Da
ta analysis







15 hours



2.1.

Definition and scope, Organizing a statistical survey and presentation of statistically analyzed information,
Basic statistical methods: Measures of central tendency, dispersion and standard error; Probability
distr
ibutions: binomial, poisson and normal distribution

2.2.

Statistical significance: Hypothesis testing, types of error, level of significance, Student’s t test, F test and
Chi square goodness of fit

2.3.

Comparing Parametric and Non parametric statistics, Rank test,
F
-
max test, Mann

Whitney (U) test, and
Sign test, Applications of non parametric statistics in biological research

2.4.

Simple linear regression and correlation analysis
,


Section


II


Unit
-
3

Computer Science and Bioinformatics







15 hours



3.1.

Basic computing: MS Office ®, Internet, , Use of computers in statistical analysis, Database and Data base
management system, Biological database

: Sequence, Structure and classification

3.2.

Sequence Analysis : concepts of sequence similarity, identity and

homology, Global and Local alignment,
Scoring matrices, BLAST, FASTA

3.3.

Multiple
Sequence Alignments
(MSA): The need for MSA, basic concepts of various approaches for MSA
(e.g. progressive, hierarchical etc.); Introduction to CLUSTALW and PileUp ; concept of

dendrogram and its
interpretation.

3.4.

Application of Bioinformatics: Gene finding, PCR Primer designing, Microbial identification, Comparative
genomics, Secondary and tertiary protein structure prediction


Unit
-

4

Professional Practices











15 hours


4.1.

Concept of Quality
Control

and Assurance in life science research and industry
, Concept of GMP, GLP,
ISO, WHO

4.2.

The Business of biotechnology: Sciences and
Business,

Biotechnology company fundamentals, funding,
research development and marke
ting

4.3.

Legal and regulatory issues for Biotechnology based business

4.4.

Survey on Microbiology and Biotech Industry in State and Nation



M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
16


List of Experiments



1.

Standard operation procedure and validation of autoclave, pH meter, UV visible spectrophotometer a
nd
laminar air flow

2.

Computation of Mean, Mode and Median

3.

Computation of Standard deviation and Co
-
efficient of variation.

4.

Calculation of confidence limit for the population mean.

5.

Student's 't' test. (Paired and unpaired)

6.

ANOVA.

7.

regression and correlation a
nalysis

8.

Chi

square goodness of fit

9.

perform non parametric tests

10.

Application statistical software ( SPSS/ minitab/ metlab)

11.

Use of Word, Excel, Power Point, Access and internet

12.

Submission of scientific Review in relevant topics

13.

Internet gene bank search
and SRS

14.

BLAST and FASTA

15.

Local Global and Multiple sequence alignment

16.

Protein structure visualization

17.

Primer designing


List of
R
eference

B
ooks



1.

Yali Friedman,
Building Biotechnology

2.

David Hoyle,
ISO 9000 Quality Systems Handbook

3.

Denyer,

Handbook of Micr
obiological Quality Control

4.

The North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research
,
Mapping your future: Exploring Careers In

biomanufacturing

5.

Chap
,
Introductory Biostatistics

6.

Zar
,
Biostatistical Analysis
.

7.

Gibas,

Developing Bioinformatics computer skill

8.

G
hosh,

Bioinformatics Principle and application

9.

Selzer,

Applied Bioinformatics

10.

Baxevanis,
Bioinformatics

11.

Claverie
,
Bioinformatics for dummies

12.

Mount,

Bioinformatics: sequence and genome analysis

13.

Oren,


Bioinformatics, Gene, Proteins and Computers.

14.

Rastogi
,

Bioinformatics

15.

Twyman,

Instant notes on Bioinformatics,

16.

Jin,

Essential Bioinformatics

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
17



MB



203


Bioprocess and Biochemical Engineering

4 Credits


Section
-

I


Unit
-
1

Bioprocess Microbiology



I









15 hours



1.1.

Introduction:

Scope of Biotechnology and Industrial Microbiology : Nature of Biotechnology and Industrial
Microbiology; Characteristics of Industrial Microbiology; Patents and Intellectual Property Rights in
Industrial Microbiology and Biotech
nology; The Use of the Word ‘Fermentation’ in Industrial Microbiology;
Organizational Set
-
up in an Industrial Microbiology Establishment

1.2.

Screening for Productive Strains and Strain Improvement in Biotechnological Organisms:

Sources of
Microorganisms
u
sed
in Biotechnology; Selection from naturally occurring variants; Manipulation of the
genome of industrial organisms in strain improvement

1.3.

Metabolic Pathways for the Biosynthesis of Industrial Microbiology Products:
The Nature of Metabolic
Pathways; Industr
ial Microbiological Products as Primary and Secondary Metabolites; Trophophase
-
idiophase Relationships in the Production of Secondary Products; Role of Secondary Metabolites in the
Physiology of Organisms Producing Them; Pathways for the Synthesis of Prima
ry and Secondary
Metabolites of Industrial Importance; Carbon Pathways for the Formation of Some Industrial Products
Derived from Primary Metabolism; Carbon Pathways for the Formation of Some Products of Microbial
Secondary Metabolism of Industrial Importa
nce.

1.4.

Overproduction of Metabolites of Industrial Microorganisms:
Mechanisms Enabling Microorganisms to
Avoid Overproduction of Primary Metabolic Products Through Enzyme Regulation; Derangement or
Bypassing of Regulatory Mechanisms for the Over
-
production
of Primary Metabolites; Regulation of
Overproduction in Secondary Metabolites; Empirical Methods Employed to Disorganize Regulatory
Mechanisms in Secondary Metabolite Production


Unit
-
2

Bioprocess Microbiology


II








15 hours



2.1.

Growth K
inetics :

Introduction; Kinetics of batch culture; Disadvantages of batch culture ; Advantages of
continuous culture ; Growth kinetics for continuous culture; Material balance for CSTR: Rate of product
formation, Growth kinetics, biomass and product yields
, YX/S and YP/S, Biomass balances (cells) in a
bioreactor, Material balance in terms of substrate in a chemostat, Modified chemostat, Fed batch culture

2.2.

Industrial Media and the Nutrition of Industrial Organisms :

The Basic Nutrient Requirements of
Industr
ial Media; Criteria for the Choice of Raw Materials Used in Industrial Media; Some Raw Materials
Used in Compounding Industrial
m
edia; Growth Factors; Water; Some Potential Sources of Components of
Industrial
m
edia, Carbohydrate sources, Protein sources;
The
u
se of
p
lant
w
aste
m
aterials in Industrial
Microbiology
m
edia: Saccharification of Polysaccharides, Starch, Cellulose, hemi
-
celluloses and lignin in
plant materials

2.3.

Sterility in Industrial Microbiology :

Introduction; The
b
asis of
l
oss by
c
ontaminan
ts; Physical and
Chemical Methods of Achieving Sterility : Hot plates; High temperature sterilization; Dry heat sterilization;
Sterilisation with filtration; Microwave sterilization; Electron beam sterilization; Chemical sterilization; Batch
sterilization
; Continuous sterilization; The sterilization of the fermentor and its accessories; Media
sterilization; Viruses (Phages) in Industrial Microbiology

2.4.

Bioprocess Scale
-
up:

Introduction; Scale
-
up procedure from laboratory scale to plant scale( Scale
-
up for
co
nstant KLa, for shear forces, constant mixing time); Bioreactor design criteria ; CSTR chemostat versus
tubular plug flow; Dynamic model and oxygen transfer rate in activated sludge; Aerobic wastewater
treatment; Fermentation economics

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
18


Section II


Unit
-


3

Biochemical
E
ngineering








15 hours



3.1.

Bioreactor :

Introduction; Background; Bioreactor for batch type fermentation : The Aerated Stirred Tank,
Anerobic Batch, Airlift bioreactors, Bubble column, Surface or Solid State; Bioreactor C
onfigurations for
Fed
-
batch Cultivation and Continuous fermentations; Calculation for bioreactor: Heat transfer; Design
equations for CSTR fermenter; Monod model for a chemostat ; Temperature effect on rate constant; Scale
-
up of stirred
-
tank bioreactor

3.2.

Di
ssolved Oxygen Measurement and Mixing:

Introduction; Measurement of dissolved oxygen
concentrations; Oxygen transfer rate (OTR); Respiration quotient (RQ); Agitation rate studies ;
Gas and
Liquid System (Aeration and Agitation):

Introduction; Aeration and
agitation; Effect of agitation on
dissolved oxygen; Air sparger; Oxygen transfer rate in a fermenter; Mass transfer in a gas

liquid system;
Gas hold
-
up; Agitated system and mixing phenomena; Characterisation of agitation; Types of agitator;
Gas

liquid phas
e mass transfer (Oxygen transport, Diameter of gas bubble formed D0 )

3.3.

Material and Elemental Balance:

Introduction; Growth of stoichiometry and elemental balances; Energy
balance with example of continuous ethanol fermentation; Conservation of mass princi
ple with example of
Acetic acid fermentation process

3.4.

Fermentation Process Control:

Introduction; Bioreactor controlling probes; Characteristics of bioreactor
sensors; Temperature measurement and control; DO measurement and control; pH/Redox measurement
an
d control; Detection and prevention of the foam; Biosensors


Unit

-

4

Downstream Processing, Scale up and
E
conomics





15 hours



4.1.

Extraction of Fermentation Products:

Solids (Insolubles) Removal: Filtration, Centrifugation, Coagulation
and fl
occulation, Foam fractionation, Whole
-
broth treatment; Primary Product Isolation: Cell disruption,
Liquid extraction (Continuous extraction column process, rotating disk contactors), Dissociation extraction,
Adsorption ( Ion
-
exchange, Langmuir isotherm
, Freundlich isotherm and Fixed
-
bed), Precipitation;
Purification: Chromatography, Carbon decolorization, Crystallization; Product Isolation: Crystalline
processing, Drying

4.2.

Membrane Separation Processes:

Introduction; Types of membrane; Membrane processe
s; Nature of
synthetic membranes; General membrane equation; Cross
-
flow microfiltration; Ultrafiltration; Reverse
osmosis; Membrane modules.

4.3.

Advanced Downstream Processing in Biotechnology:

Introduction; Protein products; Cell disruption;
Protein purificat
ion; General problems associated with conventional techniques; Fluidised bed adsorption;
Design and operation of liquid fluidised beds; Interfaced and integrated fluidised bed/expanded bed system

4.4.

Immobilized Enzymes and Immobilized Cells:

Advantages of imm
obilized biocatalysts in general;
Methods of immobilizing enzymes; Methods for the immobilization of cells; Practical Application of
Immobilized Biological Catalyst Systems; Bioreactors Designs for Usage in Biocatalysis ; Immobilised cell
reactor(ICR) expe
riments and ICR rate model

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
19


List of E
xperiments


1.

Amylase Production: Screening, Optimization, production and Purification (affinity chromatography)

2.

Protease Production: Screening, Optimization, Production and Purification (Salt precipitation, ion exchang
e
chromatography)

3.

Immobilization of enzyme

4.

Estimation aeration efficiency

5.

Reverse micelle formation

6.

Screening of Organic acid producer microorganism

7.

Screening of Antibiotic producer microorganism

8.

Operation of fermentation

9.

Sterility testing


List of
R
eference
B
ooks


1.

Okafor,


Modern Industrial Microbiology and biotechnology.

2.

Najafpour,

Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology.

3.

Shigeo
,

Biochemical engineering.

4.

Whittaker,

Principles of fermentation technology
.

5.

Alexander,


Microbial Biotechnology.

6.

Siky
ta,
Techniques in Applied Microbiology.

7.

Vogel,

Fermentation and Biochemical Engineering Handbook.

8.

Mcneil,


Practical Fermentation Technology.

9.

Doran
,

Bioprocess

engineering Principle.

10.

Nathan
,


Modern Biotechnology.

11.

Mansi,


Fermentation microbiology and Bi
otechnology
, Taylor and Francis

12.

Waites,


Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction
, Blackwell publication

13.

Michal,


Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concept
, Prentica Hall of India

14.

Crueger,


A text book of Industrial microbiology.

15.

Volkmar
,

Microbial Fundamen
tals of Biotechnology

16.

Pepple
r
,

Microbial

technology: fermentation
technology
M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
20



MB
-
301

Genetic Engineering

and Protein
E
ngineering

4 Credits


Section
-

I


Unit
-

1

Concepts and tools and technique for genetic engineering





15 hours


1.1.

Concepts and application:
Introduction to gene cloning
; Application
of Recombinant microorganisms;


Application of transgenic Plant Technology; Application of animal cloning and Transgenic animal



technology

1.2.


En
zyme used in genetic engineering: Restriction endonuclease; DNA Polymerase: Reverse transcriptase;
RNA polymerase; Alkaline Phosphatase; Polynucleotide Kinase;
DNA ligase; Deoxyribonuclease;
Ribonuclease; Phosphodiesterase; β Agarase; Uracil


DNA Glycoylase; Proteinase

K
; Lysosome;
Topoisomerase

1.3.

Cutting of DNA: Host Controlled Restriction Modification system; Nomenclature of Restriction
Endonuclease; Types of R
estriction Endonuclease; Recognition sites; Cleavage by Restriction
endonuclease; variants of Restriction Endonuclease; Application of Restriction Endonuclease

1.4.

Joining of DNA Fragments: Introduction; Ligation of DNA fragment using DNA ligase; ligation usi
ng
homopolymer Tailing; Increasing versatility and Efficiency of ligation by modification of the Ends of
Restriction Fragments
; Ligation of PCR products


Unit
-

2

Vectors











15 hours



2.1

Plasmid as a vector
:

pSC101; pSF124; Col E1;
pBR 322 series; pUC
Series; pGEM series;
pET,pBAD,

2.2

Bacteriophage as a vector
:
lambda phage; M13; Cosmid;Phagemids; Phasmids;
Fosmid
;

2.3

Advance
d

vector:

Shuttle vector; Expression vector; Advanced gene trapping vector;
Specialized vector for
making SS DNA; fac
ilitate Purification of cloned product; promotes solubilization of expressed product;
promotes export of cloned product;
PAC, YAC, BAC, HAC
;

2.4

Other vectors

: Chimeric vector; Gram negative bacteria other than
E. coli

as cloning vector; Gram positive
ba
cteria as cloning vector; Plant and Animal Vectors; Fungi system other than yeast
.


Section
-

II



Unit
-

3













15 hours


1.

Introduction of DNA in to Host :

Introduction; Introduction of DNA in to bacterial cells; Introduction of DNA i
n
to yeast cells; Genetic transformation of Plants
;
Introduction DNA in to insects

2.

Construction of Genomic and c DNA Libraries:

Introduction; Genomic Library ; cDNA Library; PCR as an
alternative to library Construction
; Functional cloning;
Positional c
loning; Differential cloning

3.

Techniques for Selection, Screening and characterization of trans formants:

Introduction; Selectable Marker
gene; Reporter genes; Screening of clone
(s) of interest; Nucleic Acid Blotting and Hybridization; Protein
structure/
Function Fusion
-

based techniques

4.

Safety regulation related to genetic engineering:
Introduction; National regulatory Mechanism for
implementation of biosafety guideline for handling GMOs; Salient features , revised Guidelines for Research
in transgenic
Plant and risk assessment; regulation of Gm Plant; Regulation of steam Cell research and
human cloning
;
Patenting for Molecular Biotechnology;

Ethical issues


Unit



4












15 hours




1.

Site directed mutagenesis; Concept tools, technique
of and application

2.

Concept of protein engineering
;

Evolutionary Methods for Protein Engineering
;
Phage Display Systems for
Protein Engineering; Cell Surface Display Systems for Protein Engineering; Cell
-
Free Display Systems for
Protein Engineering;

3.

P
rot
ein engineering in basic and

applied

biotechnology
;
Enhanced recovery and folding

o
f

recombinant
proteins using

Fusion

protein strategies
; P
rotein engineering for

affinity

purification
;
Stabilization of industrial
enzymes

b
y

protein engineering
;
Engineerin
g of Therapeutic Proteins

4.

DNA Microarray technology: Concepts, tools and techniques, data generation and analysis, application;
Microarrays for Bacterial Typing; Overview of protein Microarray technology

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
21


List of
E
xperiments


1.

Isolation of
genomic
DNA
fro
m Bacteria

2.

Isolation of
genomic
DNA
from Plant

3.

Isolation of
genomic
DNA
from Blood

4.

Isolation of
genomic from fungi

5.

Agarose gel electrophoresis and recovery of DNA from gel

6.

Isolation of plasmid

7.

RFLP

8.

RAPD

9.

PCR amplification

10.

Cloning in bacteria

11.

Transformatio
n of plants

12.

Protein denaturation and in vitro Protein folding

13.

BT cotton testing


List of
Reference Books


1.

Nicholl,


An Introduction to Genetic Engineering

2.

Reece,

Analysis of Genes and Genomes

3.

Primrose,


Principle of gene Manipulation

4.

Brown,

Gene cl
oning and DNA Analysis

5.

Howe

,

Gene Cloning and Manipulation

6.

Wong

,

The ABC of gene cloning

7.

Watson
,

Recombinant DNA genes and genomics

8.

Budisa,


Engineering the Genetic Code

9.

Sheldon J. Park,

Protein Engineering and Design

10.

Allan Svendsen

Enzyme Func
tionality Design, Engineering, and Screening

11.

Lilia Alberghina
Protein engineering in industrial Biotechnology by Lilia Alberghina

12.

Joanna S. Albala,
Protein Arrays, Biochips, and Proteomics The Next Phase of Genomic


13.

Isaac,
Discovery by Microarrays for an
Integrative Genomics

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
22



MB

-

302 Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Fermentation Technology


4 Credits



Section
-

I

Unit

-

1

Pharmaceutical Microbiology









15 hours


1.

Microbial aspect of Pharmaceutical processing : Microbial spo
ilage and prevention of pharmaceutical
product; Principle and practice of sterilization, Sterile pharmaceutical product , Factory and hospital hygeny
and good Manufacturing practice

2.

Drug Discovery: Targets and Receptors; Drug Discovery: Small Molecule Drug
s; Drug Discovery: Large
Molecule Drugs: Enzymes, Vaccines (Attenuated, DNA, Subunit, vector), Antibodies( Monoclonal
antibodies) , Cytokines, Hormones, Gene Therapy, Stem Cells
;

3.

Drug Development and Preclinical Studies; Clinical Trial : Overview, Role o
f microbiologist in CRO
;

4.

Bio safety: Principle of bio safety , Laboratory Bio safety Level Criteria; Bioterrorism; Biomedical waste
management


Unit

-

2


Novel Microbial products







15 hours


1.

Probiotic
s

and Prebiotic
: Concept, methods and application

2.

Production of Antibiotics and Anti
-
Tumor Agents: Classification and Nomenclature of Antibiotics; General
production methods; Penicillin, Cephalosporins, Tetrcycline, Bacitracin production; Problem of Anti
biotic
Resistance; The Search for New Antibiotics; Combating Resistance and Expanding the Effectiveness of
Existing Antibiotics; Anti
-
Tumor Antibiotics; Newer Methods for Searching for Antibiotic and Anti
-
tumor
Drugs
;
Synthesis of commercial products by re
combinant microorganism: Small Biological molecules,
Antibiotics, Biopolymers
;

3.

Biocatalysis in Organic Chemistry: Nature and Use of Steroids and Sterols, Uses of Steroids and Sterols,
Types of microbial transformations in steroids and sterols, Fermentatio
n conditions used in steroid
transformation, Asymmetric Catalysis in the Pharmaceutical and Agrochemical Industries

4.

Production of Microbial Insecticides: Alternatives to Chemical Insecticides; Biological Control of Insects;
Bacillus thuringiensis

Insectic
idal toxin ; Production of Biological Insecticides; Bioassay of Biological
Insecticides; Formulation and Use of Bioinsecticides; Safety Testing of Bioinsecticides; Search and
Development of New Bioinsecticides

Section
-

II

Unit

-

3


Primary metabolites pro
duction








15 hours


1.

Amino Acids: Introduction, Microbial
strain

employed in aminoacid production, process control in amino acid
fermentation, Production of Glutamic Acid by Wild Type Bacteria, Production of Amino Acids by Mutants,
Improve
ments in the Production of Amino Acids Using Meta
bolically Engineered Organisms;
Vitamin:
Vitamin B12, Riboflavin, Carotenodis

2.

Production of Organic Acids: Citric, acetic lactic, Gluconic and Itaconic acid

3.

Production of Microbial enzyme: Introduction, Dev
elopment of new enzymes, Fermentation process,
Recovery and finishing, Regulations and specification, Survey of enzyme and application

4.

Production of Fermented Foods: Introduction; Fermented Food from Wheat: Bread; Fermented Foods Made
from Milk; Fermented

Foods from Corn; Fermented Vegetables; Fermentations for the Production of the
Stimulant Beverages: Tea, Coffee, and Cocoa; Fermented Foods Derived from Legumes and Oil Seeds
;
Production of Beer, Wines and Spirits


Unit

-

4


Production of Secondary metab
olites and other






15 hours


1.

Microbial Polysaccharides and Polyesters : Polysaccharides, Xanthan Gum, Polyesters

2.

Production of Ergot Alkaloids: Nature of Ergot Alkaloids, Uses of Ergot Alkaloids and their Derivates,
Production of Ergot Alka
loids, Physiology of Alkaloid Production

3.

Microbial Production of Nucleocide and Nucelotides: Introduction, Methods for production

4.

Single Cell Protein (SCP): Substrates for Single Cell Protein Production; Microorganisms Used in SCP
Production; Use of Auto
trophic Microorganisms in SCP Production; Safety of Single Cell Protein; Nutritional
Value of Single Cell Protein
;
Yeast Production: Production of Baker

s Yeast; Food Yeasts; Feed Yeasts;
Alcohol Yeasts; Alcohol Yeasts

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
23


List of
E
xperiments


1.

Production of Amino acid (Glutamic acid)

2.

Production of Vitamins (Vitamin B
2

/Vitamin B
12
)

3.

Production of Solvents (Ethanol, Acetone/ Butanol)

4.

Production of Organic a
cid (Citric acid/ Gluconic acid)

5.

Production of extra
-
cellular polysaccharide

6.

Production of Antibiotics (Penicillin/ Tetracycline/ Chlormphanicol/ Streptomycin)

7.

Effectiveness of antimicrobial preservatives

8.

Microbial limit test

9.

Physicochemical test of ext
racts: Preparation of extract, appearance, light absorption, pH, nonvolatile matter,
residues on ignition, heavy metal, buffering capacity, oxidizable substances

10.

Lal test for bacterial endotoxins



List of
Reference Books


1.

Mansi,


Fermentation microbiol
ogy and Biotechnology
, Taylor and Francis

2.

Waites,


Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction
, Blackwell publication

3.

Michal,


Bioprocess Engineering Basic Concept
, Prentica Hall of India

4.

Biotol series,


Operational Models for Bioreactor
,

5.

Biotol series,


Pr
oduct recovery in Bioprocess technology
,

6.

Whittaker,


Principles of fermentation technology
.

7.

Crueger,


A text book of Industrial microbiology.

8.

Okafor,


Modern Industrial Microbiology and biotechnology

9.

Najafpour,

Biochemical Engineering And Biotechnolog
y

10.

Alexander,


Microbial Biotechnology

11.

Volkmar
,


Microbial Fundamentals of Biotechnology

12.

Sikyta,
Techniques in Applied Microbiology

13.

Laskin,

Applied Microbiology, Volume 56

14.

Laskin,

Advances in Applied Microbiology Volume 59


15.

Laskin,

Advances in Applied
Microbiology Volume 62

16.

Walker,


Microbial Processes and Products

17.

Demain
,
Manual of Industrial and Biotechnology

18.

Pepple
r
,

Microbial technology: fermentation technology

19.

Waites
,


Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction

20.

Michal
,

Bioprocess Engineering Basic C
oncept

21.

Rehm,


A multivolume Comprehensive Treaties: Biotechnology

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
24


MB
-

303 Omics,
Inter
Phase Microbiology and
Recent A
dvances in

M
icrobiology

4 Credits

Section
-

I


Unit
1

Proteomics: Microbiology








15 hours


1.

Holistic Bio
logy of Microorganisms: Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics;
Understanding genes,
genomes, “otheromes”; Introduction and basic concept of systems biology

2.

Tools and technique for proteomics

3.

Exploring and Exploiting Bacterial Proteomes; Strategies for
Measuring Dynamics: The Temporal
Component of Proteomics; Quest for Complete Proteome Coverage

4.

Proteomics of Corynebacterium glutamicum: Essential Industrial Bacterium
;
Analyzing Bacterial
Pathogenesis at Level of Proteome; Structural Proteomics and Comput
ational Analysis of a Deadly
Pathogen: Combating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Multiple Fronts


Unit
2

Genomics: Microbiology









15 hours


1.

Tools and technique for Genomics

2.

Bacterial Genomes for the Masses

3.

Comparative Genomics for Microor
ganisms
; Microbial Genome Sequencing and Annotation

4.

Pharmacogenomics : Overview, concept and application of Individualized Therapy; RNA Interference:
Targeted Medicine

Section
-

I
I


Unit
3

M
etagenomics











15 hours


1.

Metagenomics: What

and Why
for
metagenomics

2.

Metagenomics:

a new light on biology

3.

Metagenomics: From Genomics to Metagenomics

4.

Designing a successful metagenomics project


Unit 4

Recent
A
dvances in
M
icrobiology






15 hours


1.

Overview of clinical
laboratory diagnosis (Hematology, Cardiac, Renal, Liver testing’s) ; Culturing of
pathogens; Immunological Diagnostic Procedure; Monoclonal Antibodies; DNA diagnosis systems;
Molecular Diagnosis of genetic disease.

2.

Overview and Current status of Anti HI
V, Anti Malaria, Anti Tuberculosis and Anti Cancer treatment;
Multidrug resistance : Introduction, development, detection and treatment

3.

Discovering New Pathogens; New disease: SARS, bird flu , swine flu etc.; Pharmacogenomics : Overview,
concept and
application of Individualized Therapy; RNA Interference: Targeted Medicine
;

Introduction

to
synthetic biology; Overview of Artificial Cells


4.

Study of
Selected recent review/ research paper in field of Microbiology
( Minimum four)













M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
25


List of
E
xperiments


1.

DNA extraction from Soil

2.

DNA extraction from water

3.

Library creation from metagenome

4.

Isolation of m RNA

5.

RT PCR

6.

Immunological testing :
Widal test; VDRL test; Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent assay (ELISA)

7.

Hematology : RBC Count; Total WBC Count;

Differential WBC Count
;
E.S.R. determination
;
Hb estimation;


8.

Bleeding time and clotting time

9.

Blood

Grouping:

Slide technique; Tube technique; Reverse and forward grouping/ Cross matching: Major
and Minor/Coombs test: Direct coomb’s; Indirect coomb’s

10.

Isolation
and identification
of Pathogens

11.

Biochemistry :
Cardiac Profile testing
;

Live Profile testing
;
Renal Profile testing

12.

Study of genome database and tools

13.

Study of Metagenomics database

and tools

14.

Study of proteomics database and tools


List of
Re
ference Books



1.

Woodford,
Genomics, Proteomics and clinical bacteriology

2.

Andreas,

Computing for Comparative Microbial Genomics

3.

Humphery
-
Smith,

Microbial Proteomics

4.

Rehm,

Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics

5.

Daniel
,
Introduction to Proteomics

6.

Heinrich,
Ind
ustrial Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

7.

Richmond
,


Bio safety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories


8.

Rick,


Drugs: From Discovery to Approval


9.

Gad
,

Handbook of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

10.

Walsh,

Biopharmaceuticals Biochemistry and Biotechnology

11.

Hug
o,

Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Blackwell scientific Publications

12.

Glick
, Molecular Biotechnology

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
26


MBEL 18 Any paper of students’ choice to develop technical skill





02


Semester


IV Projec
t Work


Students have to take up a small research project under the supervision of a teacher from
the department or may carry the work in an industry / NGO / private laboratory with
required facility/other university or institution. If a student is doing
project out side the
university then the chemicals to carry out experiment shall be replaced to the institute
where he/she carry out the experimental work. All other arrangements are to be made by
the student. Student has to submit the dissertation befo
re the last date for the submission
as declared by the university.

Semester



IV

MB 401

Project Work



18

M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
27



MB EL
-

01

Advanced Bioinformatics

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4









List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
28



MB EL
-

02

Microbial Genomics and Proteomics

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
29




List of reference books

















MB E
L
-

03

Nanotechnology and Systems Biology

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1

Concept of nanotechnology




2

Application of Nanotechnology




3

Tools and technique for nanotechnology




4

Nanotechnology in microbiology




Section II

II

1

Concepts of system biology




2

Application of system biology




3

Tools and resources of systems biology




4

Overview of major system biology projects




M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
30



MB EL

-

04

Environmentally S
ound

T
echnologies (EST)

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
31





MB EL



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M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
32



MB EL



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M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
33



MB EL



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M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
34



MB EL
-

08

Microbial Physiology and Biochemistry

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
35



MB EL






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䵩捲潢i潬潧礠

C⁉浭畮 汯ly

r湩琠

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p散瑩潮⁉

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2





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4





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散瑩潮⁉e



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2





3





4






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M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
36



MB EL

-

10

Agriculture Microbiology

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books




















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
37



MB EL



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r湩琠

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2





3





4






䱩獴i⁲敦敲敮捥⁢潯歳k

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
38



MB EL



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p潩氠慮搠a慴敲 䵩捲潢楯汯杹i

r湩琠

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M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
39



MB EL
-

13


Enz
yme Technology

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
40



MB EL


ㄴ†1r畧⁄楳捯i敲礠慮搠a汩湩捡氠l敳e慲捨

r湩琠

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2





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4






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M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
41



MB EL

-

15

Microbial Production of Recombinant Molecules

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credi
t

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
42



MB EL
-

16

Microbial Ecology

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
43



MB EL

-

17 Contemporary Microbiology

Unit

Topic


Time

Marks

Credit

Section I

I

1





2





3





4





Section II

II

1





2





3





4






List of reference books

















M.Sc. M
icrobiology CBCS Curriculum 2011

Hem. North Gujarat University, Patan

Page
44



MB EL


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(Students’ Choice)

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2





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3





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