The 21st Century Internet

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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The 21st Century Internet

Invited Talk in the

Samuel D. Conte Distinguished Lecture Series

Purdue University

West Lafayette, IN

January 28, 2002

Larry Smarr

Department of Computer Science and Engineering

Jacobs School of Engineering, UCSD

Director, California Institute for Telecommunications and Information Technology

The 21st Century Internet

After twenty years, the "S
-
curve" of building out the wired internet with hundreds of
millions of PCs as its end points is flattening out, with corresponding lowering of the
growth rates of the major suppliers of that global infrastructure. At the same time,
several new "S
-
curves" are reaching their steep slope as ubiquitous computing
begins to sweep the planet. Leading this will be a vast expansion in heterogeneous
end
-
points to a new wireless internet, moving IP throughout the physical world.
Billions of internet connected cell phones, embedded processors, hand held
devices, sensors, and actuators will lead to radical new applications. The resulting
vast increase in data streams, augmented by the advent of mass market broadband
to homes and businesses, will drive the backbone of the internet to a pure optical
lambda
-
switched network of tremendous capacity. Finally, peer
-
to
-
peer computing
and storage will increasingly provide a vast untapped capability to power this
emergent planetary computer. I will describe how the newly formed Cal
-
(IT)2
Institute is organizing research in each of these areas. Large scale "Laboratories for
Living in the Future" are being designed, some of which provide opportunities for
collaboration with Purdue faculty.


The Co
-
Evolution of Infrastructures


Automobile / Highway Infrastructure


Internal Combustion Engine


Personal
Automobile


“Two
-
Lane Standard Width” for Inter
-
Roading


Co
-
Evolved Industries


Petroleum


Rubber


Steel


Concrete


PC / Wired Internet Infrastructure


Microprocessor


Personal Computer


“TCP/IP Standard” for Inter
-
Networking


Co
-
Evolved Industries


Semiconductor Memory


Disk Drives


Operating Systems


Databases


Computer Graphics


Technologies Expand Into Society

Following an S
-
Curve

Automobile Adoption

Source: Harry Dent,
The Great Boom Ahead

2002

Maturity

The Automobile Industry Grew Up Concurrently


The Inter
-
Highway System

Source: James M. Utterback, “Mastering the Dynamics of Innovation”

Slide from Forest Baskett, NEA

Interstate Highway System

Two Lane Highways

Unpaved Roads

Growth

Innovation

American Automobile Industry

The PC Industry Grew Up

Concurrently with the Internet

Source: DISK/TREND reports and Management Science

Slide from Forest Baskett, NEA

ARPAnet

NSFnet

Commercial

Internet

Such Rapid Buildouts of Infrastructure

Often Lead to Speculative Stock Bubbles

Dow 10/28
-
10/33 vs NASDAQ

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

Trading Days

NASDAQ Close

NASDAQ to Dec 2001

Dow to Oct 1933

Young Hot Companies

General Motors

Dell

Westinghouse


AOL

US Steel


Intel

RCA



Qualcomm

Sears



Amazon


Wireless Access
--
Anywhere, Anytime


Broadband Speeds


“Always Best Connected”


Billions of New Wireless Internet End Points


Information Appliances


Sensors and Actuators


Embedded Processors


Emergence of a Distributed Planetary Computer


Parallel Lambda Optical Backbone


Storage of Data Everywhere


Scalable Distributed Computing Power

The Next S
-
Curves of Internet Growth:

A Mobile Internet Powered by a Planetary Grid

Cal
-
(IT)
2

--

An Integrated Approach

to Research on the Future of the Internet


www.calit2.net

220 UCSD & UCI Faculty

Working in Multidisciplinary Teams

With Students, Industry, and the Community

We Are About to Transition

to a Mobile Internet

0

200

400

600

800

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

1,800

2,000

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

Mobile Internet

Fixed Internet

Subscribers (millions)

Third Generation Cellular Systems

Will Add Internet, QoS, and High Speeds

Source: Ericsson

Wireless Technologies Are

a Strong Academic Research Discipline

Two Dozen ECE and CSE Faculty

LOW
-
POWERED

CIRCUITRY

ANTENNAS AND

PROPAGATION


COMMUNICATION

THEORY

COMMUNICATION

NETWORKS

MULTIMEDIA

APPLICATIONS

RF

Mixed A/D

ASIC

Materials

Smart Antennas

Adaptive Arrays

Modulation

Channel Coding

Multiple Access

Compression

Architecture

Media Access

Scheduling

End
-
to
-
End QoS

Hand
-
Off

Changing

Environment

Protocols

Multi
-
Resolution

Center for

Wireless Communications

Source: UCSD CWC

Experimental Chip Design

with Industrial Partner Support

Source: Ian Galton, UCSD ECE, CWC

A Multiple

Crystal Interface
Phase Lock Loop
(PLL) for a
Bluetooth
Transceiver with
Voltage Control
Oscillator (VCO)
Realignment to

Reduce Noise

Cellular Internet is Already Here

At Experimental Sites


UCSD Has Been First Beta Test Site


Qualcomm’s 1xEV Cellular Internet


Optimized for Packet Data Services


Uses a 1.25 MHz channel


2.4 Mbps Peak Forward Rate


Part of the CDMA2000 Tech Family


Can Be Used as Stand
-
Alone


Chipsets in Development Support


PacketVideo’s PVPlayer™ MPEG
-
4


gpsOne™ Global Positioning System


Bluetooth


MP3


MIDI


BREW

Rooftop HDR

Access Point

Goal: Smooth Handoff by Mobile Device
Faced With Heterogeneous Access Network

WLAN

GPRS

CDMA

CDPD

Internet

(802.11b,a)

(CDMA20001xEV)

Identify Issues Related to Handoff
Between WLAN and WWAN Networks
and Implement a Test
-
bed

Ramesh Rao, Kameshwari Chebrolou

UCSD
-
CWC, Cal
-
(IT)
2

The Cal
-
(IT)
2

Grid Model for

Wireless Services Middleware

Real
-
Time

Services

Mobile

Code

Location

Awareness

Power

Control

Security

Wireless Services Interface

UCI Wireless

Infrastructures

UCSD Wireless

Infrastructures

Applications

J. Pasquale, UCSD

Data

Management

Maria Feng

UCI Civil & Environmental Engineering

Sensors Enable Real
-
Time Monitoring of Bridges

Through Wireless Internet



Data
-
Loggers











Sensor

Local

Data Hub

Control

Center

PC104

Wireless

Internet

Sensor

UCI

Users

UCSD

Caltrans

Workstation

Integrating Wireless, Sensor and

Data
-
Management Technologies

Source: Graviton, a Cal
-
(IT)
2

Partner

Millions of Video Cameras

Will Add Image Data Streams to the Net


London Underground


Initially 25,000 Video Cameras


Expansion to 250,000 Possible


British Transport Police Switch to Any Camera in 1 Sec.


Source: Telindus


British CCTV System


Currently 2.5 Million CCTV Cameras Installed (NY Times)


Average London Citizen is Seen by 300 Cameras Per Day


Face Recognition Software Added in High Crime Areas


Up to 6 Million Surveillance Cameras Across the USA
in 5
-
7 Years


Privacy International Prediction

Shrinking Flying Wireless Sensor Platforms:

From Predator to Biomimetic Robots

General Atomics Predator

(Air Force, CIA)

300 Inches

UC Berkeley Aerobot

(ARO, DARPA, ONR)

20 Inches

UC Berkeley

Micromechanical

Flying Insect Project

1 Inch

(DARPA, ONR)

The Human Body Will Become

an Internet Data Source



Skin

Sensors:

-

Physical

-

Chemical

-

Biological

Battery

Transdermal Patch
“Smart Band
-
Aid
®



Patent Pending

Antenna

CPU/Comm Chip

Non
-
Invasive Platform

-

Smart Band
-
Aid®

Can Also Link to Invasive Sensors

Source: PhiloMetron

Adding Wireless Sensors to Systems
-
on
-
Chip

Will Create Brilliant Sensors

Applications

Memory

Protocol

Processors

Processors

DSP

Embedded

Software


Sensors

Source: Sujit Dey, UCSD ECE


Radio

Critical New Role of

Power Aware Systems

Internet

Ad Hoc Hierarchical Networks

of Brilliant Sensors

Over the Next Decade We Will Create the Field of
Nano
bio
info
engineering

5 nanometers

Human Rhinovirus

IBM Quantum Corral

Iron Atoms on Copper

VCSELaser

2 mm

Nanogen MicroArray

500x

Magnification

400x

Magnification

New Cal
-
(IT)
2

Buildings Have Clean Rooms
for Materials and Device Research

UCSD Building 2004

C

O

N

T

R

O

L


P

L

A

N

E


Clusters

Dynamically

Allocated

Lightpaths

Switch Fabrics

Physical

Monitoring

Apps Middleware

A LambdaGrid Will Be

the Backbone for an e
-
Science Network


Metro Area
Laboratories
Springing Up
Worldwide



Developing
GigE and
10GigE
Applications
and Services



Testing Optical
Switches



Metro Optical
Testbeds
-
the
next GigaPOP?



Research Topics for Building

an e
-
Science LambdaGrid


Provide Integrated Services in the Tbit/s Range



Lambda
-
Centric Communication & Computing Resource Allocation


Middleware Services for Real
-
Time Distributed Programs



Extend Internet QoS Provisioning Over a WDM
-
Based Network


Develop a Common Control
-
Plane Optical Transport
Architecture:


Transport Traffic Over Multiple User Planes With Variable Switching
Modes


Lambda Switching


Burst Switching


Inverse Multiplexing (One Application Uses Multiple Lambdas)


Extend GMPLS:


Routing


Resource Reservation


Restoration


UCSD, UCI, USC, UIC, & NW

Research Topics for Building

an e
-
Science LambdaGrid


Enhance Security Mechanisms:


End
-
to
-
End Integrity Check of Data Streams


Access Multiple Locations With Trusted Authentication Mechanisms


Use Grid Middleware for Authentication, Authorization, Validation,
Encryption and Forensic Analysis of Multiple Systems and
Administrative Domains


Distribute Storage While Optimizing Storewidth:


Distribute Massive Pools of Physical RAM (Network Memory)


Develop Visual TeraMining Techniques to Mine Petabytes of Data


Enable Ultrafast Image Rendering



Create for Optical Storage Area Networks (OSANs)


Analysis and Modeling Tools


OSAN Control and Data Management Protocols


Buffering Strategies and Memory Hierarchies for WDM Optical
Networks

UCSD, UCI, USC, UIC, & NW

Mediation of Information Using XML

Allows Federation of Heterogeneous Databases

Source: Gupta, Marciano, Zaslavsky, & Baru (SDSC)

Multi
-
Sensor Data Fusion Control Rooms

Linked by Lambda Grids


Integrate


Situational Awareness


Common Operational Picture


Local Data Warehouse with Remote Data Access


AI Data Mining of Distributed Databases


Spatial Data Analysis


Consequences Assessment Tool Set

Source: Panoram Technologies

Lambda Grids will Provide Access to

Many e
-
Science Community Resources

ATLAS

Sloan Digital Sky Survey

LHC

ALMA

Peer
-
to
-
Peer Computing and Storage

Is a Transformational Technology

The emergence of Peer
-
to
-
Peer computing

signifies a revolution in connectivity that will be
as profound to the Internet of future

as Mosaic was to the Web of the past.”



Patrick Gelsinger, VP and CTO, Intel Corp.

Adding Brilliance to Mobile Clients with

a Planetary Supercomputer


Napster Meets SETI@Home


Distributed Computing and Storage


Assume Ten Million PCs in Five Years


Average Speed Ten Gigaflop


Average Free Storage 100 GB


Planetary Computer Capacity


100,000 TetaFLOP Speed


1 Million TeraByte Storage


Serve as Global Compute and Storage
Server for Mobile Clients


Wireless Internet Puts

the Global Grid in Your Hand

802.11b Wireless

Interactive Access to:



State of Computer



Job Status



Application Codes

Using Students to Invent the Future

of Widespread Use of Wireless PDAs


Makes Campus “Transparent”


See Into Departments, Labs, and Libraries


Year
-

Long “Living Laboratory” Experiment 2001
-
02


500+ Wireless
-
Enabled HP PocketPC PDAs


Wireless Cards from Symbol, Chips from Intersil


Incoming Freshmen in Computer Science and
Engineering


Software Developed


ActiveClass: Student
-
Teacher Interactions


ActiveCampus: Geolocation and Resource Discovery


Extensible Software Infrastructure for Others to Build On


Deploy to New UCSD Undergrad College Fall 2002


Sixth College Will be “Born Wireless”


Theme: Culture, Art, and Technology


Study Adoption and Discover New Services

Cal
-
(IT)
2

Team: Bill Griswold, Gabriele Wienhausen

ActiveCampus Explorer:

PDA Interface

Source: Bill Griswold, UCSD CSE

ActiveCampus Explorer:

PDA Interface

Source: Bill Griswold, UCSD CSE

New Security Issues

in Mobile and Wireless Networks


Location
-
based Access Control


If Alice Is in Country P, She Can Do X


If Alice Is in Country Q, She Can Do Y


GPS? Need Tamper
-
Resistant Hardware…


Group
-
Based or Group
-
Centric Security


How Can One “Speak” As a Group or a Fraction Thereof?


Admitting New or Expelling Existing Members


Issuing, Re
-
issuing Credentials


Secure Commun. in Constantly Changing Groups


Group Needs Common Key: Key Distribution/Agreement


Authentication of Membership


e.g., Alice Is in This ad Hoc Net Cluster at This Time

Source: Gene Tsudik, UCI

Metro Lambda Grid Optical Data Analysis
“Living Laboratory”


High Resolution
Visualization Facilities


Data Analysis


Crisis Management


Distributed Collaboration


Optically Linked


Integrate Access Grid


Data and Compute


PC Clusters


AI Data Mining


Driven by Data
-
Intensive
Applications


Civil Infrastructure


Environmental Systems


Medical Facilities

SDSC

SIO

UCSD

Linking Control Rooms

Cox, Panoram,

SAIC, SBC, SGI, IBM,

TeraBurst Networks

UCSD Healthcare

SD Telecom Council

Cal
-
(IT)
2

Multi
-
Megapixel Displays

for Seismic, Geosciences, and Climate Analysis

Cal
-
(IT)
2

/ SIO / SDSC / SDSU

Putting it All Together

The Cal
-
(IT)
2

AutoNet Vision


Autonet Concept


Mobile, Ad Hoc, Wireless, Peer
-
to
-
Peer Platform


Distributed Sensing, Computation, and Control


Autonomous Distributed Traffic Control


Mobile Autonomous Software Agents


Multi
-
Level State Estimation/Prediction


Decentralized Databases


Path to Implementation


UC Irvine’s Institution of Transportation Studies


UCSD Computer Vision and Robotics Research Lab


Caltrans ATMS Testbed + Cal
-
(IT)
2

= Wireless SensorNet
ZEVNET “Living Laboratory”


50 Toyota Zero Emission Electric Cars


Add GPS Tracking, Wireless Communications

Source: Will Recker, UCI

Experimenting with the Future

Video Cams, Fiber, Wireless, Robots

Computer Vision and Robotics Research Lab

Mohan Trivedi, UCSD

Mobile Interactivity Avatar