Download File - Janessa Friesen

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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Buildings are as individual and interesting as are
people. Like people, some buildings are small and
delicate, some are tall and thin, and others are large
and heavy
-
looking. Both people and buildings have
different features

small or large eyes (windows) and
different shaped mouths and noses (doors and
projections). Buildings, like people, have different
colors, shapes, and features (windows, doors,
columns, bases, decoration, etc.).


The way people dress is another clue to
understanding their personalities and the
fashion of the times. Buildings can be
fancy with lots of jewelry
(ornamentation), or plain and neat
looking. Thus, buildings, like people, are
decorated differently, making some look
grand and important and others plain
and ordinary.


Buildings each have a unique
history. Like people, buildings
age and change with the
times. Some buildings are
given “surgery” to restore
them to their original state;
other buildings “die” from
neglect, accidents and disease.


A building’s architectural style, like the personality
of an individual, is its special look. A building’s
architectural style is a combination of its shape,
age, building materials and ornamentation. Stylistic
labels, such as Egyptian or Gothic, are a way to
explain a building’s appearance. However, you
don’t have to put a style label on every building.
Over time, some building styles change and evolve
or even become a mixture of several styles.


Altar


A table
-
like structure that holds
objects used in celebrating religion.



Architecture


the profession of designing
buildings and environments with
consideration to style



Catacombs


Religious underground burial places
sometimes included near chapels
and meeting rooms.



Column


A vertical cylindrical structure that
supports something (
i.e

the roof of
a building)











Dome


A rounded roof or ceiling supported
by a column or a wall base.



Facade


The front face of a building



Ornamentation


Is the decoration used to embellish
parts of a building or object.



Pediment


The pediment is the triangular
structure above the door.



Post


A pole or column that holds part of
the building up.



Vault


An arched roof or covering.

Other Architecture Terms:

Egyptian


Great Pyramid of
Cheops
, Giza, 2530 B.C.

Stacking technique giving
structural strength through
compression of building materials
(solid).

Greek


Post and lintel,
Parthenon
,
Greece, 447


432 B.C.

Columns

are used as support.
These are also called lintel beams
which help to create interior (inside)
space.

Greek


Post and lintel,
Parthenon
,
Greece, 447


432 B.C.

Columns

are used as support.
These are also called lintel beams
which help to create interior (inside)
space.


Romanesque


St.
Sernin
, Toulouse,
France, 1080 A.D.


This style supports thick walls
with small windows. Posts support

round arches.

Romanesque


St.
Sernin
, Toulouse,
France, 1080 A.D.


This style supports thick walls
with small windows. Posts support

round arches.


Gothic


Reims Cathedral
, France,
1210 A.D.

The posts are used to support
ribbed vaults.
These are made by
putting several arches together that
meet at one common point to
provide extra strength and height
to the building.

Gothic


Reims Cathedral
, France,
1210 A.D.

The posts are used to support
ribbed vaults.
These are made by
putting several arches together that
meet at one common point to
provide extra strength and height
to the building.


Crystal Palace
by Joseph Paxton,
London, 1851

Introduction of structural iron
creates the first non
-
load bearing
walls. This meant they could use
glass and other materials to create
walls without letting the building
fall down. They were sometimes
called curtain walls. Like the skin on
your body holds in blood and
organs, the metal was used to keep
the building together.

Crystal Palace
by Joseph Paxton,
London, 1851

Introduction of structural iron
creates the first non
-
load bearing
walls. This meant they could use glass
and other materials to create walls
without letting the building fall down.
They were sometimes called curtain
walls. Like the skin on your body
holds in blood and organs, the metal
was used to keep the building
together.


Falling Water
House by Frank Lloyd
Wright, Bear Run, Pennsylvania, USA,
1936.


This house displays a structural
technique called cantilevering which
is where a part of the building is only
supported at one end. After world war
1 architects began to simplify art.
These ideas were called
the

International Style
. It was marked
by the absence of decoration and by
harmony between the function (use)
of a building and its design.

Falling Water
House by Frank Lloyd
Wright, Bear Run, Pennsylvania, USA,
1936.


This house displays a structural
technique called cantilevering which
is where a part of the building is only
supported at one end. After world war
1 architects began to simplify art.
These ideas were called
the

International Style
. It was marked
by the absence of decoration and by
harmony between the function (use)
of a building and its design.


Museum of Civilization
, Ottawa, by
Douglas Cardinal, 1988


This post modern building uses the
culture of First Nation’s People to
integrate the natural material of stone
into sculptural shapes inspired by the
landscape.


Museum of Civilization
, Ottawa, by
Douglas Cardinal, 1988


This post modern building uses the
culture of First Nation’s People to
integrate the natural material of stone
into sculptural shapes inspired by the
landscape.


Guggenheim Museum
, by Frank
Gehry
, Bilbao, Spain, 1998


This building integrates (brings
together) a structural steel frame and
metal skin
-
like exterior to create a
flowing sculpture and a building.