COP L48 Lease Production Revenue - HAPL

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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MIDSTREAM AND MARKETING
OVERVIEW


Schematic of Gathering, Processing and Marketing


Discussion of Gathering Operations


Discussion of Processing Operations


Midstream Key Commercial Terms


Natural Gas Marketing


Operations

Marketing

Storage

NGC Residue

Gas Pipelines

Producers‘


Wells

Wet Gas Pipeline

PPGPL

Facility

To NGC

Customers

C
3

Propane

Butane

Natural
Gasoline

ALNG Trains 1, 2, 3 & 4

NGL Pipeline

C
4

C
5+




GATHERING


Wellhead


Pipeline Laterals


Treating


Dehydration


Compression


Metering


Operational Issues





PROCESSING


Inlet Compression


Treating


Dehydration


Processing Units


Residue Recompression


Metering





GATHERING


Wellhead


Separation


Crude Oil/Condsenste Storage & Disposition


Produced Water Storage & Disposition


Gas


Compression


Treating


Dehydration


Check Measurement





GATHERING


Pipeline Laterals


CDP versus Wellhead


Operating Pressures


High (500 to 1,000 psig)


Intermediate (150 to 500 psig)


Low (5 to 150 psig)


Pipe Materials


Polyethylene


Steel


Pigging





GATHERING


Treating


Removal of H2S and CO2


Types


Biocide Injection


H2S Scavengers


Iron Sponge


Not Typically Done on the Gathering Side





GATHERING


Dehydration


Removal of Water


Types


Triethylene Glycol


Most Frequently Encountered on High Pressure
Gathering Systems





GATHERING


Compression


Types


Reciprocating Compressors


Centrifugal Compressors


Screw Compressors


Location


At Wellhead


At Intermediate “Booster” Sites


Most Frequently Encountered on Low and Intermediate
Pressure Gathering Systems





GATHERING


Metering


Purpose is to Measure Gas Entering Gathering System
for Allocation Reasons


Metering Equipment


Meter Tube


Orifice Plate


Electronic Flow Computer (“EFM”)


SCADA


Gas Sampling


Gathering System Gains/Losses





GATHERING


Operational Issues


Line Pressures


Drip Liquids


Hydrates


Off
-
Spec Gas


Corrosion





PROCESSING


Inlet Compression


Plant Operating Pressure


Types


Reciprocating


Centrifugal


Gas
-
Fired versus Electric “Drivers”





PROCESSING


Treating


For H2S and CO2 Removal


Purpose of Removal


Dry Ice Formation


Corrosion Issues


Residue Gas Specs


NGL Specs


Types


Amines (MEA, DEA, Exotics)


Iron Sponge


Acid Gas Flare


Sulfur Plants





PROCESSING


Dehydration


For Water Removal


Purpose of Removal


Hydrate Formation


Corrosion Issues


Residue Gas Specs


Types


Ethylene Glycol (
-
50
o
F Dewpoint)


Triethylene Glycol (+10
o
F Dewpoint)


Mole Sieve (
-
150
o
F Dewpoint)





PROCESSING


Processing Units


For NGL Recovery


Purpose of Removal


When BTU’s of the NGL Components are More Valuable as Liquid
Than Gas


Residue Gas Specs (NGL Dewpoint Issues)


Types


Refrigeration (5% to 10% Ethane Recovery, but mostly for NGL
Dewpoint Control)


Refrigerated Lean Oil (20% to 40% Ethane Recovery)


JT (30% to 50% Ethane Recovery, also used for NGL Dewpoint
Control)


Turboexpander (40% to 90%+ Ethane Recovery)





PROCESSING


Residue Recompression


Sales Pipeline Operating Pressures


Types


Reciprocating


Centrifugal


Gas
-
Fired versus Electric “Drivers”





PROCESSING


Metering


Purpose is to Measure Gas Entering and Leaving the Plant for Allocation Reasons


Metering Equipment


Types

»
Orifice

»
Turbine

»
Ultrasonic


Electronic Flow Computer (“EFM”)


SCADA


Gas Sampling


Plant Gains/Losses


Flaring


Drip Condensate


Relief Valves


Venting of Gas during repairs


Measurement Differences


Gas Sampling Issues





PROCESSING


Operational Issues


Off
-
Spec Gas


Hydrates


“Dry Ice” Formation


Corrosion


Residue Gas and NGL Outlet Capacity Curtailments





KEY COMMERCIAL TERMS


Settlement to Producer


Fees (gathering, compression, dehydration,
treating, processing, T&F)


Gas Quality


Gathering System Wellhead Pressure


Fuel Usage (including Lost and Unaccounted)


Processing Plant NGL Recoveries





NATURAL GAS MARKETING


Henry Hub


Basis for Gas Marketing


Strategy


Best Market vs. Best Price


Long vs. Short


Fixed Price vs. Index (F.O.M. or Gas Daily)


Futures Trading


Hedging