content gone? How do we

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Where has all the AV
content gone? How do we
preserve it for the future?

Jim Lindner

Media Matters

Our Audio Visual Heritage

How we will be understood by history will
in part be based on what materials they
have to study.

We are in the early years of a technology
evolution that will certainly take hundreds
of years, maybe thousands.

What is at risk are the documents of our
time.

What are these Documents?

Feature, Documentary, Independent Film

Network, Independent, Art Television

Industrial / Educational Film and Video

Audio from Network to Soundtrack to Field
Recordings and Oral Histories

Community Recordings

Home Recordings

Where has the content gone?

We Have Lost Much More then most
people suspect


All but a small fraction of the films of the silent
film era are lost forever


Essentially all of television “pre history” is lost

E.G. Broadcasts of J.L. Baird

TV Before Tape


All lost except what was a kine
or news film and has survived

TV After Tape


A huge amount has been lost


1958


1978 3000 news shows remain versus 11,000
Days

Where has all the content gone?


Landfill


space, cost, not “needed” anymore


Erasure


intentionally to save money and
unintentionally


Into brown cardboard boxes after the edit
sessions, unlabeled, sitting in warehouses or
worse


Closets, Attics, Basements

Where has all the content gone?

Some of what is left has found its way to an
archive.



QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
How Much of it survives?

No one really knows
-

but there are
estimates…..

CBC


300,000 tapes

BBC


600,000 hours

MTV


1.2 Million hours

UNESCO estimate


200 million hours of culturally

important archives at risk

What do the Records in
Archives look like?


For the most part our A/V heritage is :

A mixture of analog and digital formats
including…

A Vast Array of Media Types
and Formats


Film and Film Elements


Nitrate


Acetates


Polyester
-

Mixtures
(Magnetic Full Coat)


Audio


Disc, Cylinder, Vinyl, Wire (steel), Polyester
(PET), Acetate, CD
-
R


Video


Polyester (PET)

Media is EXTREMELY
FRAGILE


Nitrate Highly Combustible


Acetates


Vinegar Syndrome


Binder issues


Sticky Shed


Laminates


Delaminate

Media is Subject to Disasters

Natural…..


Chemical Deterioration


Physical/Mechanical Damage


Natural Disasters


… and Man Made


War

Theft

Loss

Bad Economic Times

Format Obsolescence

Technological Evolution

“Digital” Media is subject to
many of the same perils

Format Type may be irrelevant in some
situations

Storage as a file adds many levels of
complexity that did not exist with
Analog Media

File Format Compatibility

Application Level Compatibility

Operating System Compatibility

Firmware / BIOS Level Compatibility

Hardware / Controller Level Compatibility

How?


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
What about the Content in the
File?

Content Management


Few standards across collections


no union
catalog

Let me see all the films that have Ford cars


Description of Sounds and Pictures with
words


Primitive Searching tools

No real LONG term strategy:

Best Practice Environmental Control


Short term postponement of the
inevitable

No single media type lasts forever

No single format / technology lasts
forever

No single location lasts forever.



How long do we store the stuff
anyhow


how long is forever?

Manufacturers think 90 days


well OK


10 Years

We have paper documents for hundreds of
years

We have clay tablets for thousands of
years

We have cave paintings for many
thousands of years

Can we realistically reformat
forever?

Consider the resources required to
reformat every 25 years, physical space
for each object, cost for media


Consider the environmental cost to
produce all that media

Is it desirable even if you did?




What we are doing is
not working very well!

We need to rethink and
try some new things…

Can the past help us
with the future?



The First Television was
Mechanical!

Mechanical television existed
for quite some time


some
systems scanning horizontally
others vertically. John Logie
Baird generally is given credit
for the first working
mechanical television system


as well as developing the
first way of RECORDING his
television signals.

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
This is what it looked like

This is what it took to record TV…

Magnetic Recording


Magnetic Recording

In The Beginning:


Initial market was for for TIME SHIFTING


Not for Editing or anything else


No thought given to other markets or
applications


It did not take very long before other uses
were found for video recording and the
manufacturers responded with new product

Magnetic Recording

Different Markets / Different Needs


Broadcast


High Quality, High Cost, Low
Quantity of Machines Sold, Flexibility


Industrial / Educational


Medium Quality,
Medium Cost, Higher Volume of Machines
Sold, Simplicity

These Markets were later segmented
Further and new markets like consumers
came into being

Magnetic Recording

Broadcast



Magnetic Recording

Broadcast




Magnetic Recording



Magnetic Recording


Videotape Recording

Military


Videotape Recording


Industrial / Educational









Maybe we can predict that…

Change and new formats have always
been a part of our AV Heritage and we
need to think in those terms.

Innovation will continue
-

and perhaps the
best we can do is not mess it up for the
next generation of innovation

It will continue to get smaller, better and
cheaper…. and

There WILL be more of it!


QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Here is the good news
-

it is getting cheaper
and easier to store it!

Economic Viability of storage as
FILES versus Videotape

In Canberra


Today June 6

Using Sony Stock

1 Digital Betacam Tape costs $27.08,
Records 1 hour, Obsolete Format ?

1 LTO3 Datatape costs $60.52

QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (LZW) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Economic Viability of storage as
FILES versus Videotape

Using MPEG2 50 Mbit or MJPEG 2000

1 hour of content requires 25


30
Gigabytes using MJPEG2000 (24 using
MPEG2)

1 LTO3 tape stores 400 Gigabytes


400 / 25 = 16

1 LTO3 tape stores 16 Hours


Cost to store 1 hour of content

LTO = $60.52 / 16

Cost = $3.78 Per Hour

Digital Betacam = $27.08

Videotape is 7.16
TIMES

more
expensive!!!!!


storing the exact same
quality.



How Much Will Storage Cost,
What about small collections?

350 Hour Collection

350 x 30 Gigabytes each hour =

10,500 Gigabytes (10.5 Terabytes)

Media Cost @ $.15 per Gigabyte = $1575

27 LTO Tapes (versus 700 Umatic)

2333 DVD’s….

But what about the decks!?

LTO3 $3600 (Tandberg Internal)

DVW 2000 $40,500

UVW 1800 $9,00 (Used)

How is the Migration
Performed?

Video

Videotape

Audio

Time Code

Meta Data

Manual Migration

Tedious and error prone

Requires constant attention

Difficult to maintain quality control

Slow

Team of 6 experts (3 per shift


2 shifts per day)

can migrate 5000 hrs/yr

Expensive

Requires highly skilled labor

No economies of scale

No Metadata

No history of past actions or condition


Automated Migration

Higher Quality

Verification of tape condition and process

Consistent quality control

Faster

Multiple streams at a time (up to 6)

Runs 24/7 (up to 140 hours per day)

Less Expensive

10 to 40% of the cost of manual migration

What about
Compression
?


Compression is NOT ALWAYS
BAD for archival applications

Depends on the type of compression

Depends on the application

Depends on the implementation

Depends on the user (using things for
what they were designed to do)

Compression is NOT ALWAYS
BAD for archival applications

Must define terms


Preservation and/or Access?

Must understand underlying issues


Technical Considerations


Marketing Considerations


Practical Considerations


Political Considerations (NTSC vs. PAL)

Many Different Standards
-

and
it IS confusing…

MPEG
-

Moving Picture Experts Group

Several major categories use entirely different approaches


MPEG 1 Samples 4:2:0 at 1.2 Mbits/sec at 352x240, 30 FIELDS /
Second


MPEG 2 Samples 4:2:0 at 1.2 to 15 Mbits/sec at 704x496, 60 Fields
/ Second


MPEG 2 Professional Profile @ Main Level Samples 4:2:2 at about
50
-
60Mbits/sec (variable) at 704x496, 60 fields/sec


MPEG 4

MPEG 7 …. MetaData

Compression for A/V Materials

In general terminology there are two
classes of Compression


LossLESS, and
Lossy

Most Common formats in AV are Lossy


MPEG2, MPEG4, H.264, Windows Media

LossLESS formats offer Uncompressed
Quality, with storage savings of about 3:1


MJPEG 2000


Determination of Quality cannot
be “It looks fine to me”

Do No Harm

Area of Rapid Technology Development

Real possibility of new class of “Orphan
Video” by encoding type


Videocube

What will Search Engines use in the
future?


We Are Now in a Transition Phase


and We Will Be for Some Time

• Digital asset management is very new and it
will take some time for the technology and
standards to mature.

• Migration of analog media to digital systems is
still very unclear


compression/formats/bitrates

• Current production process still has
“conventional” media used at times

• Storage is still too expensive, networks are still
too slow and unreliable, systems are still largely
incompatible.

What Happens When This…..


Turns Into This

What will the role of the future
A/V Archivist be?

• Archivist as Information “miner”

• Archivist as architect of information
standards and systems

• Archivist as Information Manager