Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) University Syllabus for Session 2006-07 and onwards BCA Second Year

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Madhya Pradesh Bhoj (Open) University

Syllabus for Session 200
6
-
0
7 and
onwards

BCA Second Year


Computer Architecture


Unit


I

Digital Logic Circuits,
Digital Computers,
Logic Gates, Boolean Algebra, Complement of a
Function, Map Simplification, Product
-
o
f
-
Sum Simplification, Don't
-
Care Conditions,
Combinational Circuits, Half
-
Adder, Full
-
Adder, Flip
-
Flops,
SR Flip
-
Flop,
D Flip
-
Flop,
JK
Flip
-
Flop, T Flip
-
Flop,
Edge
-
Triggered Flip
-
Flops,
Excitation Tables, Sequential Circuits,
Flip
-
Flop Input Equations,
State Table,
State Diagram, Design Example, Design Procedure.


Unit


II

Digital Component
,
Integrated Circuits, Decoders, NAND Gate Decoder, Decoder,
Expansion, Encoders, Multiplexers, Registers, Register with Parallel Load, Shift Registers,
Bidirectiona
l Shift Register with Parallel Load, Binary Counters, Binary Counter with
Parallel Load, Memory Unit, Random
-
Access Memory, Read
-
Only Memory, Types of
ROMs.


Unit


III

Data Representation,
Data Types,
Number Systems, Octal and Hexadecimal, Numbers,
Decima
l Representation, Alphanumeric Representation, Complements
,
(r
-
1)'s Complement,
(r's) Complement, Subtraction of Unsigned Numbers, Fixed
-
Point Representation, Integer
Representation, Arithmetic
-
Addition, Arithmetic Subtraction,
Overflow, Decimal Fixed
-
Poi
nt Representation, Floating
-

Point Representation,
Other Binary Codes,
Gray Code,
Other
Decimal Codes,
Other Alphanumeric Codes,
Error Detection Codes.


Unit


IV

Basic Computer Organization and Design,
Instruction Codes, Stored Program,
Organization,
Ind
irect Address,
Computer Registers,
Common Bus System,
Computer
Instructions,
Instruction Set Completeness, Timing and Control, Instruction Cycle.

Input
-
Output and Interrupt, Input
-
Output Configuration, Input
-
Output Instructions, Program


Unit


V

Interru
pt,

Interrupt Cycle, Complete Computer Description, Design of Basic Computer,
Control Logic Gates, Control of Registers and Memory, Control of Single Flip
-
Flops,
Control of Common Bus, Design of Accumulator Logic, Control of AC Register, Adder and
Logic Ci
rcuit,
Programming the Basic Computer,
Introduction, Machine Language,
Assembly Language,
Rules of the Language,
An Example,
Translation to Binary, The
Assembler, Representation of Symbolic Program
in Memory,
First Pass, Second Pass.



Multimedia Systems


Unit


I

Introduction to multimedia,
Definitions, CD
-
ROM and the Multimedia Highway, CD
-
ROM, DVD, and Multimedia, the Multimedia Highway, Where to use Multimedia,
Multimedia in Business, Multimedia in Schools, Multimedia at Home, Multimedia in Public
Plac
es, Virtual Reality.
Text,
The Power of Meaning, About Fonts and Faces, Cases, Serif
Versus Sans Serif, Using Text in Multimedia, Designing with Text, Choosing Text Fonts,
Menus for Navigation, Buttons for Interaction, Fields for Reading,
TML Documents,
Sy
mbols and Icons, Animating Text, Computers and Text,
The Font Wars, Font Foundries,

Managing Your Fonts,
Character Sets and Alphabets,
Mapping Text Across Platforms,
Font
Editing and Design Tools,
Fontographer,
Making Pretty Text,
Hypermedia and Hypertext,

The Power of Hypertext,
Using Hypertext,
Searching for Words, Hypermedia Structures,
Hypertext Tools,
Sound,
The Power of Sound,
Multimedia System Sounds, Digital Audio,
Preparing Digital Audio Files,
Making MIDI Audio,
Audio File Formats,
MIDI Versus
Dig
ital Audio, Choosing Between MIDI and Digital Audio,
Sound for the World Wide Web,
Adding Sound to Your Multimedia Project,
Toward Professional Sound: The Red Book
Standard,
Space Considerations, Production Tips, Audio Recording,
Keeping Track of Your
Soun
ds,
Testing and Evaluation,
Copyright Issues,


Unit
-

II


Images
Before You Start to Create, Plan Your Approach, Organize Your Tools,
Multiple
Monitors, Making Still Images, Bitmaps, Vector Drawing, 3
-
D Drawing and Rendering,
Color, Understanding Natural
Light and Color, Computerized Color,
Color Palettes,
Image
File Formats, Macintosh Formats,
Windows Formats, Cross
-
Platform Formats,
Animation,
The Power of Motion, Principles of Animation, Animation by Computer, Animation
Techniques,
Animation File Format
s,
Making Animations That Work, A
Rolling Ball, A
Bouncing Ball, Creating an Animated Scene.


Unit


III

Video,
Using Video, Obtaining Video Clips,
How Video Works,
Broadcast Video Standards,
NTSC,
PAL,
SECAM, A TSC DTV,
Analog Video,
Overscan and the Saf
e Title Area, 183
Video Color, Interlacing Effects,
Text and Titles for Television,
Taking Care of Your Analog
Tapes, Digital Video, Digital Video Architectures,
Digital Video Compression, Video
Recording and Tape Formats,
Composite Analog Video, Component

Analog Video,
Composite Digital, Component Digital,
ATSC Digital TV,
Comparing the Formats,
Shooting
and Editing Video, Shooting Platform,
Lighting,
Chroma Keys,
Composition,

Optimizing
Video Files for CD
-
ROM.
.


Unit


IV

Hardware,
Macintosh Versus Window
s, The Macintosh Platform,
The Windows Platform,
Networking Macintosh and Windows Computers, Connections, SCSI,
IDE, EIDE, Ultra
-
IDE, ATA, Ultra
-
ATA,
USE,
Fire Wire (IEEE 1394),
Memory and Storage Devices,
Random Access Memory (RAM), Read
-
Only Memory (ROM)
,
Floppy and Hard Disks, Zip,
jaz, Syquest, and Optical Storage Devices, Digital Versatile Disc (DVD),
CD
-
ROM Players,
CD Recorders,
Input Devices, Keyboards, Mice, Trackballs, Touchscreens, Magnetic Card
Encoders and Readers, Graphics Tablets, Scanners,
O
ptical Character Recognition (OCR)
Devices,
Infrared Remotes, Voice Recognition Systems, Digital Cameras, Output Hardware,
Audio Devices, Amplifiers and Speakers, Monitors, Video Devices, Projectors, Printers,
Communications Devices, Modems, ISDN and DSL,
Cable Modems.

Unit
-

V

Basic Software Tools,
Text Editing and Word Processing Tools,
OCR Software,
Painting
and Drawing Tools, 3
-
D Modeling and Animation Tools,
Image
-
Editing Tools,
Plug
-
Ins,
Sound Editing Tools, Animation, Video, and Digital Movie Tools,

Video Formats,
QuickTime for Windows and Macintosh, Microsoft Video for Windows, Movie Editors,
Compressing Movie Files, Helpful Accessories.



Communication Skills


Unit


I

MEANING AND PROCESS

OF COMMUNICATION :
An Introduction

to
Communication, Commu
nication

through Arbitrary Symbols, Human Interactions through
Communication,
Communication

Technology and Media, Communication in Managerial
Activities,

Definitions,
Some Definitions of Communication,
Appraisal,
Definition of
Communication,
The Process of

Communication, Some Models of Communication,
Communication

Situation,
The Model of Communication, Components of Communication
Cycle, The

Process of Communication, The Significance of Communication in Business
Organization,
Healthy Organisational Environme
nt,
Management
-
Employee Relations,
The
External and Internal Communication Network, Functionalisation
,
Complexity of Business
Activities, Trade Unions: Labour Problems, Multinationals and the

Language Problem,
Competition,
Participation and Delegation.


Unit
-

II


OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNICATION :
Information, Significance of Inforo1ation,
Types of Information,
(a) The Internal Information
(b) External Information
How to Obtain
Inforo1ation?
Order :
What is an Order?,
Types of Orders,
(a) Written Orders, (b
) Oral
Orders,
How to Issue the Orders?
Advice,
Meaning and Importance ,Counselling, Advice and
Communication, Channels, Advice in Managerial Activities,
Advice and Professionalism,
Essentials of Effective Advice, Suggestions, Importance of Constructive Su
ggestions,
Suggestion and Other Forms of Communication, Suggestion Schemes, Motivation, Meaning
and Importance of Motivation, Essentials of' Effective Motivation, Clarity of Purpose,
Objectives and Procedures, (b) Participation, (c) Employer
-
Employee Relat
ions, (d) Primary
and Secondary Needs, Persuasion, Meaning and Importance of Persuasion, Essentials of
Effective Persuasion,
Understanding the Needs and Interests of the Receiver , (b) Using
Gentle Touch at Subtle Suggestions, (c) Preparing the Receiver to

be Open
-
minded, (d)
Selecting the Appealing Arguments, (e) Presenting the Message, (f) Motivating the Receiver
to Act, Warning, Meaning and Importance of Warning,
How to Issue the Warning?,
Education,
Meaning and Significance of Education, Education and T
raining for the:, (a)
Management, (b) Employees, (c) The: Outside Public, I. Raising Morale, Meaning and
Importance of High Morale ,
How to Keep the Morale High


Unit
-

III

THE
CHANNELS
OF COMMUNICATION :
What are the Channels of Communication?,
Downward C
hannel of Communication, What is Downward Communication?, Media of
Downward Communication, Redundancy of Message, Objectives of Downward
Communication , Essentials of Effective Downward Communication, Limitations of
Downward Communications, Upward Channels

of Communication, What is an Upward
Channel of Communication?, Methods and Policies of Upward Communication
, Problems
of Upward Communication,
Effective Upward Communication, Horizontal Channel of
Communication, What is Horizontal Channel of
Communicatio
n?,
Methods of Effective
Horizontal
Communication.
MEDIA
OF COMMUNICATION,
Oral Media,
Meaning and
Importance of Oral Media , Effective Oral Communication, Advantages of Oral
Communication, Disadvantages of Oral Communication,
Written Media,
Increasing
Spe
cialisation and the Need of Written Media,
The Art of Written Communication,
Advantages of Written Media, Limitations of Written Media,
Non
-
Verbal Media, Meaning
and Importance of Non
-
verbal Media,
Kinesic Media, Proxemics, Chronemics,
Paralanguage,
Artefa
cts.

Unit


IV

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION

:
Introduction,
Language and Semantic Barriers,
Lack of Common Language, Semantic Barriers, Poor Vocabulary, Poor Knowhow of
Grammar and Punctuation, Roundabout Verbiage,
Organisational Barriers, Hierarchical
Barrie
rs, Specialisation of the Workforce, Wrong Choice of Medium, Communication Load,
Physical Barriers, Noise,
Time,
Distance, Age,
Sex, Socio
-
Psychological Barriers, Status
Barriers, Attitudes and Values, Different Perceptions of Reality Inference, Abstractin
g,
Allness and Closed
-
mindedness, Distortion, Filtering and Editing, Past Experience, Bad
Listening, Emotions, Halo Effect, Inattentiveness, Resistance to Change,
THE ESSENTIALS
OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION,
Positive and Pleasant Approach, Appropriate Tone,
Pitch, Quality, Force and Intensity of Voice, Clarity of Purpose and Objective of
Communication, Clarity of Thought and Expression, Adequate Knowledge of the Subject,
Adequate Knowledge of Communication Receiver, The Objective and Realistic Approach,
Self
-
confidence and Conviction, Organisation of Message,
Proper Selection and Use of the
Media,
Proper Selection and Use of the Channel, Appropriate Formality, Patience in
Listening, Adaptibility, Attentiveness, 'You' Attitude, Courtesy,
The Time Factor,
Concis
eness and Relevance, Correctness, Completeness


Unit


V

GROUP COMMUNICATION (COMMIITEES AND CONFERENCES
) :
Nature and
Characteristics of Group Communication, Committees, Different Types of committees,
Executive Committee, Advisory Committee, Permanent and

Temporary Committees, Line
and Staff Committees,
Formal and Informal Committees,
Advantages of Committee
Meetings, Disadvantages of Committee Meetings,
Factors Responsible for the Failure of the
Committees, Essentials of Effective Committee Meetings,
Conf
erences,
Definition of a
Conference, Significance of the Conferences, Conference and Committee, Essentials of
Effective Conference Meeting, Essentials of Efficient and Effective Conference Leadership,
LISTENING,
What is Listening?, Significance of Effectiv
e Listening in Business
Communication, Active Listening,
Some Do's for listeners, Some Don'ts for Listeners
Obstacles to Effective Listening .


Computer Networking


Unit
-

I

Essentials of Networking:
Essentials of Networking (H/W, S/W),
USES OF COMPUTER
N
ETWORKS,
Business Applications,

Home Applications,

Mobile Users,

Social Issues,
NETWORK HARDWARE,
Local Area Networks,
Metropolitan Area Networks,

Wide Area
Networks,
Wireless Networks,
Home Networks,
Internet works,

NETWORK SOFTWARE,
Protocol Hierarchies,

Design Issues for the Layers, Connection
-
Oriented and Connectionless
Services, Service Primitives, The Relationship of Services to Protocols.


Unit
-

II


REFERENCE MODELS
,
The OSI Reference Model, The TCP/IP Reference Model,

A
Comparison of the OSI and T
CP/IP Reference Models, A Critique of the OSI Model and
Protocols, A Critique of the TCP/IP Reference Model, EXAMPLE NETWORKS ,
The
Internet,
Connection
-
Oriented Networks: X.25, Frame Relay, and ATM,

Ethernet,
Wireless
LANs: 802.11, NETWORK STANDARDIZATION
,
Who's Who in the Telecommunications
World,
Who's Who in the International Standards World,
Who's Who in the Internet
Standards World.


Unit
-

III


THE PHYSICAL LAYER :
THE THEORETICAL BASIS FOR DATA
COMMUNICATION,
Fourier Analysis, Bandwidth
-
Limited Sig
nals,
The Maximum Data
Rate of a Channel,
GUIDED TRANSMISSION MEDIA,
Magnetic Media,

Twisted Pair,
Coaxial Cable,
Fiber Optics,
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION, The Electromagnetic
Spectrum.,
Radio Transmission,
Microwave Transmission,

Infrared and Millimeter Waves,

Light wave Transmission,
COMMUNICATION SATELLITES,
Geostationary Satellites,
Medium
-
Earth 0rbit Satellites, Low
-
Earth Orbit Satellites,

Satellites versus Fiber.


Unit


IV

THE NETWORK LAYER IN THE INTERNET,

The IP Protocol,
IP Addresses, Internet
Control

Protocols, OSPF
-

The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol,
BGP
-

The Exterior
Gateway Routing Protocol,
Internet Multicasting, Mobile IP, IPv6.


Unit


V

NETWORK SECURITY :
CRYPTOGRAPHY, Introduction to Cryptography,
Substitution
Ciphers,
Transposition Cipher
s,

One
-
Time Fads,
Two Fundamental Cryptographic principles,
SYMMETRIC
-
KEY ALGORITHMS,
DES
-
The Data Encryption Standard,
AES
-
The
Advanced Encryption Standard, Cipher Modes, Other Ciphers, Cryptanalysis,
PUBLIC
-
KEY ALGORITHMS,
RSA,
Other Public
-
Key Algorith
ms,
DIGITAL SIGNATURES
,
Symmetric
-
Key Signatures,
Public
-
Key Signatures, Message Digests, The Birthday Attack.


System Analysis and Design & MIS

UNIT
-
I

System Analysis and Design :
What is System Analysis and Design (SAD), What Does it
Take to do System A
nalysis?, The Role of a System Analyst, Change in System Analyst's
Responsibilities, Responsibilities of System Analysts,
System Development Life Cycle:
System Development Life Cycle (SDLC), Waterfall Model for System Development,
Prototyping, The Spiral M
odel, Problem Identification


Preliminary Investigation


UNIT
-
II

Feasibility Study :
Objective of the Feasibility Study, Types of Feasibility, Steps in
Feasibility Study, Cost/Benefit Analysis,
System Analysis :
Need of Analysis,
Determination of Requirem
ents, Need of Documenting the Existing System, Fact Finding
Techniques
Documentation Tools and Techniques :
Documenting the Existing System,
Organization Chart, Decision Tree, Decision Table, Structured English, System Flow Chart,
HIPO Chart, Warnier/Orr D
iagram, Structure Chart, Programme Flow Chart, Data Flow
Diagrams (DFD), Data Dictionary, Entity Relationship Diagram


UNIT
-
III

System Design :
System Design Concept, Logical and Physical Design, Logical and Physical
DFDs, System Specifications.
Output Des
ign :
Objective of Output, Types of Output, Key
Output Questions, Formats of Outputs, Designing Printed Output, Turnaround Documents,
Layout of a Printed Report, Guidelines for Designing Printed Output, Designing Visual
Display Output.
Input Design :
Objec
tive of Input Design, Capturing Data for Input, Design
of the Source Document, Methods for Data Capture, Input Validation.


UNIT
-
IV

Modular Design and Database Organization :
Modular Design, Principles that Guide
Software Design, Top
-
Down Structure of Mod
ules, Bottom
-
up Structure, File Structure, File
Organization,

Database and Its Objectives, Normalization.
Quality Assurance, Testing and
Validation :
System Testing Objectives, What Do We Test For, The Nature of Test Data,
The Test Plan, Types of System T
ests, Quality Assurance.


UNIT
-
V

Implementation and Maintenance :
Conversion, Activity Network for Conversion, File
Conversion, User Training, Other Activities in Conversion, System Acceptance and
Combating Resistance to Change, Conversion Strategies,

Po
st Implementation Review,
Software Maintenance, Type of Software Maintenance.
System Security and Audit :
System Security, Threats to System Security, Risk Analysis, Control Measures, System udit,
Protection Against VIRUS.




Digital Electronics


Unit
-

I

Digital Principles,
NUMBER SYSTEMS AND CODES:

Decimal Odometer, Binary
Odometer, Number Codes, Why Binary Numbers Are Used, Binary
-
to
-
Decimal Conversion,
Microprocessors, Decimal
-
to
-
Binary Conversion, Hexadecimal Numbers, Hexadecimal
-
Binary Conversions,
Hexadecimal
-
to
-
Decimal Conversion, Decimal
-
to
-
Hexadecimal
Conversion,
BCD Numbers, The ASCII Code.
GATES :
Inverters, OR Gates, Boolean
Algebra, AND Gates.

MORE LOGIC GATES :
NOR Gates, De Morgan's First Theorem, NAND Gates 3
-
4. De
-
Morgan's Second Theorem,

EXCLUSIVE
-
OR Gates, The Controlled
Inverter, EXCLUSIVE
-
NOR Gates.


Unit
-

II

BOOLEAN ALGEBRA AND KARNAUGH MAPS

:
Boolean Relations, Sum
-
of
-
Products Method, Algebraic Simplification, Karnaugh Maps, Pairs, Quads, and Octets,
Karnaugh Simplifications, Don't
-
Care Conditions.


Unit
-

II
I

ARITHMETIC
-
LOGIC UNITS,
Binary Addition, Binary Subtraction,
Half Adders, Full
Adders, Binary Adders, Signed Binary Numbers, 2's
Complement, 2's
-
Complement Adder
-
Subtracter.


Unit
-

IV

REGISTERS AND COUNTERS,

Buffer Registers,
Shift Registers,
Controlled Shift
Registers, Ripple Counters, Synchronous Counters, Ring Counters, Other Counters, Three
-
State Registers,
Bus
-
Organized Computers.


Unit
-

V

MEMORIES,
ROMs, PROMs and EPROMs, RAMs, A Small TTL Memory, Hexadecimal
Addresses.


Data Structures through Language C


Unit


I

Introduction to Data Structures:
Information and Meaning, Binary and Decimal Integers,
Real Numbers,
Character Strings, Hardware and Software, Concept of Implementation,
Example, Abstract Data Types, Sequences

as Value Definitions,
ADT for Varying
-
length
Character Strings. Data Types in C, Pointers in C, Data Structures and C,
Exercises,
Arrays
in C, The Array as an ADT,
Using One
-
Dimensional Arrays, Implementing One
-
Dimensional Arrays, Arrays as Parameters,
Ch
aracter Strings in C,
Character String
Operations, Two
-
Dimensional Arrays, Multidimensional Arrays.


Unit


II

The Stack :
Definition and Examples, Primitive Operations, Example, The Stock as an
Abstract Data Type, Exercises, Representing Stacks in C, Impl
ementing the pop Operation,
Testing for Exceptional Conditions, Implementing the Push Operation, Infix, Postfix, and
Prefix , Basic Definitions and Examples, Evaluating a Postfix Expression, Program to
Evaluate a Postfix Expression, Limitations of the Prog
ram,
Queues and Lists,
The Queue
and Its Sequential Representation, The Queue as an Abstract Data Type,
C Implementation
of Queues,
insert Operation,
Priority Queue,
Array Implementation of a Priority Queue,
Exercises,
Linked Lists,
Inserting and Removing

Nodes from a List, Linked Implementation
of Stacks, getnode and freenode Operations, Linked Implementation of Queues, Linked List
as a Data Structure, Examples of List Operations,
List Implementation of Priority Queues,
Header Nodes, Exercises,
Lists in C
,
Array Implementation of Lists, Limitations of the Array
Implementation,
Allocating and Freeing Dynamic Variables, Linked Lists Using Dynamic
Variables, Queues as Lists in, Examples of List Operations in C,
Noninteger and
Nonhomogeneous Lists,
Comparing t
he Dynamic and Array Implementations of Lists,
Implementing Header Nodes,
Exercises,
Example: Simulation Using Linked Lists,
Simulation Process, Data Structures, Simulation Program, Exercises, Other List Structures ,
Circular Lists,Stack as a Circular List
, Queue as a Circular List, Primitive Operations on
Circular Lists,
The Josephus Problem,
Header Nodes,
Addition of Long Positive Integers
Using Circular Lists,
Doubly Linked Lists, Addition of Long Integers Using Doubly Linked
Lists.


Unit


III

Trees :
Binary Trees, Operations on Binary Trees,
Applications of Binary Trees,
Exercises,
Binary Tree Representations, Node Representation of Binary Trees, Internal and External
Nodes, Implicit Array Representation of Binary Trees, Choosing a Binary Tree
Represen
tation,
Binary Tree Traversals in C,
Threaded Binary Trees, Traversal Using a
father Field, Heterogeneous Binary Trees,
Exercises,
Example: The Huffman Algorithm,
The
Huffman Algorithm,
C Program,
Exercises,
Representing Lists as Binary Trees,
Finding the
kth Element, Deleting an Element,
Implementing Tree
-
Represented Lists in C,
Constructing
a Tree
-
Represented List,
The Josephus Problem Revisited,
Exercises,
Trees and Their
Applications, C Representations of Trees,
Tree Traversals,
General Expressions as T
rees,
Evaluating an Expression Tree, Constructing a Tree, Exercises,
Example: Game Trees.


Unit


IV

Sorting,
General Background,
Efficiency Consideration,
0 Notation, 350 Efficiency of
Sorting, Exercises,
Exchange Sorts, Bubble Sort, Quicksort, Efficien
cy of Quicksort,
Exercises, Selection and Tree Sorting, Straight Selection Sort,
Binary Tree Sorts,
Heapsort,
Heap as a Priority Queue,
Sorting Using a Heap, Heapsort Procedure, Exercises,
Insertion
Sorts, Simple Insertion, Shell Sort, Address Calculation

Sort, Exercises, Merge and Radix
Sorts,
Merge Sorts,
The Cook
-
Kim Algorithm,
Radix Sort.


Unit


V

Graphs

and Their Applications, Applications of Graphs,
C Representation of Graphs,
Transitive Closure, Warshall's Algorithm,
Shortest
-
Path Algorithm,
Exerci
ses,
A Flow
Problem, Improving a Flow Function, Example, Algorithm and Program, Exercises,

Linked Representation of Graphs, Dijkstra's Algorithm Revisited, Organizing the set of
Graph Nodes, Application to Scheduling, C Program, Exercises, Graph Traversa
l and
Spanning Forests, Traversal Methods for Graphs, Spanning Forests, Undirected Graphs and
Their Traversals, Depth
-
First Traversal, Applications of Depth
-
First Traversal, Efficiency of
Depth
-
First Traversal, Breadth
-
First Traversal, Minimum Spanning Tre
es.


Database Management Systems


Unit


I

DBMS: An Introduction
:
Data Base Management System
-
Basic Concepts,

Data and
Database,

Database System: Concept and Meaning,
Disadvantages of File
Systems,

Advantage of Database Approach,

Disadvantages of Using a

DBMS,

Database Languages,
Database Administrator, Database Designers, Database Users. Database Manager, Data Base
Management System
-
Architectures and Features, Data Abstraction,

DBMS Architecture,

Data Independence, System Architecture,

Data Model.


Unit
-

II

Entity Relationship Model :
Entities and Relations: Entities and Entity Sets, Attributes,
Relationships, Design Choice,

Key,

ER
-
diagram, The Entity Relationship Diagram,

Types of
Attributes, Role, Attribute of Relationships, Participation, Cardinality

Constraints, Multiple
Relationships, Keys,

Weak Entity Sets,

EER
-

model,
Specialization and Generalization,
Constraints on Specialization and Generalization, Aggregation, Simplification,
Constraints
beyond the ER Model.


Unit
-

III

Relational Data Model

R
elations:

What is Relation?, Different Features of a Relation,

Relation Scheme,

Constraints, Entity Integrity Constraints, Referential Integrity,Relational Algebra
-
I, Operands
of Relational Algebra, The Selection Operator, The Projection Operator, Union,

Intersection
and Set
-

Difference, Cartesian Product,

The Renaming Operator, Completeness of Relational
Algebra, Relational Algebra
-
II,

The Join Operator,

Division Operator,

Database
/V10dification, Relational Operations are Closed, Outer Join, Generalized

Projections,
Aggregate Functions, Implementing Relational Algebra Operations.


Unit
-

IV

Relational Database Design :
Functional Dependencies, Anomalies in Databases,
Functional Dependencies, Inference Rules fur FDs, Attribute Closure,

Normal Forms,
First
Normal Form, Second Normal Form,

Third
Normal Form, Boyce
-
Codd Normal Form,

Decomposition and Other Dependencies,

Attribute Preservation, Loss
-
Less Join
Decomposition,

Dependency Preservation, Multi
-
Valued Dependency, Join Dependencies,
The Process of Norm
alization.


Unit


V

SQL: A Query Language :
Data Definition With SQL,
SQL Schema Definition,

Table
Definition, Column Definition,

Data Types in SQL,

Domain Definition,

Table Constraints,
Modification, Catalog,

Basic SQL Queries,
Basic SQL Query,

Union, In
tersect,

Nested
Queries, Aggregate Operators,

GROUP BY and HAVING Clause,

Joined Relations, Joined
Conditions