The ESA Life Science Programme

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31 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

92 εμφανίσεις

ESA UNCLASSIFIED


For Official Use

The ESA Life Science Programme

on the International Space Station

TsNIIMASH, Nov 25
th
, 2010

Moscow

ESA Life Science Programme

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Ongoing ISS experiments
-

Physiology

1.
IMMUNO


Immune function
(Russian joint experiment

2.
NeuroSpat
-

NeuroCognitive

3.
CARD


Cardiovascular

4.
SOLO


Nutrition/Bone Loss

5.
3D SPACE


Neurovestibular/Cognitive

6.
PASSAGES
-

Neurovestibular/Cognitive

7.
EKE


Exercise Capacity
(joint protocol with NASA
VO2MAX expt)

8.
Thermolab


Thermoregulation
(joint protocol with NASA
VO2MAX expt)

9.
Vessel Imaging


Vascular function

10.
ZAG


Neurovestibular

11.
OTOLITH


Neurovestibular

12.
EDOS


Bone loss (trabecular structure)
(Russian joint
experiment)

13.
SPIN

GAZE


Neurovestibular/Cardiovascular
(Russian joint
experiment)


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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Upcoming Experiments


rather near
-
term

ENERGY (potentially Russian cooperation)


To measure changes in energy balance during long term Spaceflight


To measure adaptations in the components of the total energy
expenditure


To derive an equation for the energy requirements of astronauts


SARCOLAB

Contractile characteristics of the


plantarflexors during static (isometric

contractions at different joint angles)

and dynamic (isokinetic contractions

at different angular velocities) contractions


performed on the MARES dynamometer,



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GRIP (Dexterous Manipulation in
Microgravity)
-

ILSRA
-
2004
-
133

PI: Dr Thonnard (BE)


To study the long
-
term adaptation of grip
-
force/load
-
force coordination to conditions
of microgravity environment.


Effects of weight versus mass.


Point
-
to
-
point movement
kinematics and dynamics


Grip force during controlled
collisions


To study the interaction between
cognitive and proprioceptive cues with
respect to control of grip force and
movement kinematics for ‘upward’ versus
‘downward’ movements.






DEX on Columbus

ESA Life Science Programme

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Space Headaches: Incidence and characteristics

ILSRA 2009
-
0950


PI: Alla Vein (NL)



The main scientific objective of the experiment is to assess headache occurrence and to
analyze headache characteristics in astronaut/cosmonauts during space missions
.



Specifically designed questionnaires based on the criteria of the International Classification
of Headache Disorders (ICHD) will be filled out by the crew daily for the first week on
-
orbit
and weekly thereafter.



Retrospective questionnaires to astronauts that flown previously

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Perspective
-
Reversible

Figures in Microgravity

ILSRA 2009
-
1047


PI: Gilles Clement (FR)



Percept

reversals

during

the

visualization

of

perspective
-
reversible

figures

will

be

compared

before,

during

and

after

long
-
term

duration

exposure

to

microgravity
.

The

hypothesis

is

that

the

percept

reversals

of

perspective
-
based

reversible

figures

will

be

altered

in

microgravity

compared

to

normal

gravity,

but

that

the

percept

reversal

of

2
D

figures

will

not

be

changed
.


-

Six free
-
floating subjects will be tested in six
sessions while viewing ambiguous,
perspective
-
reversible figures through a
lightweight headset and a finger trackball
connected to a laptop.

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Patterns of Acceleration and Navigation

on board the ISS
-

I
LSRA 2009
-
1048


PI: Gilles Clement (FR)


-

This research is intended (1) to quantify the
normal patterns of head
-
and
-
body
acceleration experienced by astronauts
during adaptation to microgravity, and (2) to
examine the navigation strategies employed
by the astronauts inside the ISS.


-

Linear and angular accelerations of the head
and body will be continuously monitored
using digital sensors and processors in
compact, self
-
contained packages mounted
on a headband and belt. Navigation
strategies will be assessed using RFID
technology.


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Straight Ahead in Microgravity
-

ILSRA 2009
-
1093


PI: Gilles Clement (FR)


-

This project looks into the adaptive processes
within the central nervous system to take into
account the new environment and compute new
spatial egocentric and world
-
centered
representations or frames of reference. This
project will measure and monitor how these
frames change over time by investigating eye
movements and perceptual reports.


-
Subjects will be tested during free
-
floating while
looking at the apparent straight
-
ahead direction in
darkness, fixating on imaginary targets at different
distances along the apparent straight
-
ahead
direction.

Eye
-
tracking will be done during these
protocol.
A row of tactors embedded in a vest
worn by the subject will also be used to assess the
effects of vibrotactile feedback on spatial
orientation and apparent straight
-
ahead.

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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BICE (
Biomechanical Quantification of Bone and Muscle Loading to
Improve the Quality of 0g Countermeasure Prescriptions for Resistive
Exercise)
-

ILSRA
-
2009
-
1080


PI: Dr Ferrigno (IT)


The objective is to evaluate
movement kinematics in
weightlessness, comparing with the
situation on ground in 1
-
g. Load
paths will be evaluated as well as
joint torques. Modelling of bone
strain and muscle force is also
intended.


Four different exercises (deadlift
and different versions of Squats)
using the advanced Resistance
Exercise Device (aRED) will be
examined, using the ELITE
-
S2
system. H/W is available on orbit.

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EKET (Metabolic and cardiovascular demands and
effects of in
-
flight exercise countermeasures)
-

ILSRA
-
2009
-
873


PI: Dr Hoffmann (DE)


The objective is to evaluate the kinetics of
oxygen uptake during exercise on ISS.
The hypothesis is that the changes in
kinetics will follow changes in work
capacity, and furthermore that modelling
will allow to understanding of changes in
metabolism in the working muscles and
cardiovascular regulation.


Breath
-
by breath VO
2
-
uptake will be
measured during treadmill running or
cycling (during regular training sessions)
using a new portable (wearable) oxygen
uptake system, and during fitness tests
using the Portable PFS.

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Effect of microgravity on cartilage
morphology and biology
-

ILSRA
-
2009
-
0994

PI: Prof. Brueggemann (DE)

Objective:
Investigate the effects of microgravity on articular
cartilage health & cartilage metabolism to assess the risk
of cartilage degeneration during space mission


Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the knee cartilage, pre
-
flight
and two times post
-
flight, to measeure thickness and
volume

Desired to also get blood and urine samples on orbit (x2): in
order to measure biomarkers of cartilage metabolism


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Spaceflight induced neuroplasticity studied with
advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods
-

ILSRA
-
2009
-
1062


PI. Dr Wuyts (BE)


Advanced MRI methods (Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance
imaging (DTI), Voxel Based Analysis (VBA) and Resting state
Functional MRI (rfMRI)) will unravel spaceflight induced
neuroplasticity (human central nervous system adaptation). The
study will focus on specific regions of interest and fiber tracts that
are expected to be involved in mainly neuro
-
vestibular and
vestibuloautonomic processes. Cognition, mood and motor
control will also be investigated. Resting state fMRI will be used
to verify that the default state of the brain is undergoing
neuroplastic changes



3 Tesla MRI machine is needed, measurements before and three
times after flight (R+5,
-
10, and
-
45)

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Consequences of Stress Challenges on Stress
Response Systems and Immunity in Space: a
multidisciplinary approach
-

ILSRA
-
2009
-
1121


PI: Dr Chouker


This project aims at investigating the complex interaction of stress
and the different biological stress
-
response systems on the
“upstream” (brain) and “downstream” (immunity) functions in an
integrative manner.


To this end, the different facets of the topic will be studied with a
variety of methods, that include standard questionnaires and tests,
as well as newly evolved methodological and technical means helping
to monitor (patho
-
) physiological stress
-
responses and stress
-
dependent immune changes


Saliva, hair, exhaled air, blood samples; Tests/questionnaires; ECG
and actigraph;pulse oxymetry; DTI (pre/post only)


Three in
-
flight sessions + pre
-

and post
-
flight measurements


This experiment has a heritage in the current “IMMUNO” experiment


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Monitoring the Cellular Immunity by in vitro
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity assay on the
ISS
-

ILSRA
-
2009
-
1149



PI: Dr Chouker


The immune system consists of complex cellular
mechanisms that are controlled by stress
-
dependent, neuroendocrine, inflammatory and
metabolic pathways to protect the organism from
disease. To maintain adequate immune responses, a
wide variety of immune cells from the innate (e.g.
granulocytes) and the adaptive immune system (e.g.
T
-
lymphocytes) are orchestrated to fight against
invading organisms and to control dormant virus
load (e.g. Herpes).


In light of the dysfunction of the immune system in
space flight, this project aims at to test global
functional cellular immunity in a standardized way,
using an in vitro assay to mirror “delayed type
hypersensitivity (DTH)” immune reactions.


Saliva, blood samples (smear, and to be incubated
with different antigens or standard / reference
stimuli for the in
-
vitro DTH
-
like tests)



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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


For Official Use

Airway NO in space
-

ILSRA
-
2009
-
801


PI: Dr Linnarsson (SE)


The experiments investigates the methodological
and physiological mechanisms underlying the
lowered base
-
line exhaled nitric oxide (NO)
experienced in microgravity and at reduced ambient
pressure, both conditions relevant for space
missions.


Measurements of exhaled NO will be made at
multiple flow rates in normal and in reduced
ambient pressure (in an air lock). These data will be
compared to ground controls.


PFS or PPFS. Niox MINO handheld analyzer
(previously used on ISS) will be used.


Three sessions on orbit with measurements at both
normal (1000 hPa) and reduced (600
-
700 hPa)
pressure. Blood samples pre
-

and post
-
flight
(E
ndogenous NO synthase inhibitors and
catecholamines including dopamine)

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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BISE: Bone recovery and Impact exercise after Space Exposure


ILSRA
-
2009
-
976 and Assessment of bone turn
-
over and bone
morphology during the early phase after microgravity exposure
-

is there a 're
-
entry bone loss‘


ILSRA
-
2009
-
922


PIs: Dr Rittweger (DE) and Dr Vico (FR)


Study bones changes due to microgravity and recovery
process. Measurements will look at bone structures using
2 complementary devices (extreme pQCT and QCT), as
well as bone markers in blood and urine with registered
diet and activity.


Actimetry in
-
flight and during several occasions post
-
flight


Bone markers obtained from blood and urine


The itention is merge these experiments into one
protocol, and subsequently aim to incorporate this into
the current EDOS protocol which is a joint ESA/IBMP
experiment.


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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Validation of skin physiological changes in space
and skin as a model for other body systems


ILSRA
-
2009
-
1142


PIs: Dr Heinrich and Dr Rodic


Study skin aging in microgravity and consequently develop a
mathematical model of aging skin.


In
-
flight measurements with corneometer, tewameter, visioscan,
high resolution ultrasound 20Mhz, laser doppler for
microcirculation; and additional measurements with cutometer,
reviscometer, skin temperature probes pre
-

and post
-
flight


A pilot
-
study was conducted in the Astrolab mission (one subject).
Among the most prominent results were an accelareted aging of
the skin visible as increased coarsening of the skin fields as well as
a dramatic degradation of the dermal connective tissue.

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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3
-
D Ballistocardiography in microgravity


ILSRA
-
2009
-
729


The objective is to correlate cardiovascular parameters with ballisto
-
cardiography (BCG, a non
-
invasive technique) parameters obtained through a
novel analysis of 3 dimensions (3D) movements of the human body that are
due to the mechanical action of the beating heart and the ejection of blood in
the arteries.


3D
-
BCG assessment should provide new information on mechanical aspects of
the cardiovascular system and information on autonomic adaptation in
individual astronauts during long term space flights.


3D
-
BCG will be recorded on free floating astronauts at rest, during asymmetric
motor tasks and during imposed and controlled breathing protocols.
Echocardiography, impedance cardiography and respiration will be recorded
simultaneously or consecutively to help understanding the physiological
determinants of the 3D
-
BCG curve and interpret its possible changes during
the flight. The analysis of heart rate variability will help assessing the possible
contribution of autonomic adaptation.


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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


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Gravitational reference frames for
Sensorimotor Performance: Reaching and
Grasping


ILSRA
-
2009
-
989



The human nervous system uses sensory information
from a variety of sources to coordinate reaching
movements of the hand with visual information about
an object to be grasped. It is hypothesized that
sensory and motor information is encoded in parallel
in different reference frames within the neural
networks of the brain. The weightless environment of
Earth orbit, coupled with techniques borrowed from
the field of virtual reality and the use of multisensory
conflict, will be used to tease out the contribution of
gravitationally
-
encoded internal representations to the
overall behavior of aligning the hand to the target.


Head
-
Mounted Display to provide a virtual
environment, tracking system, pointing device and
trigger. To a large extent it is foreseen to use the
GRIP (Dexterous Manipulation) H/W.


The subjects will aim and orient the pointing device in
an environment indicating different degrees of roll.
The experiment will be done in different sensory
feedback conditions and with and without sensory
conflict.


DEX on Columbus

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


For Official Use

Changes of circadian rhythm in humans during
spaceflight


ILSRA
-
2009
-
395


Maintaining synchronized circadian rhythms is important to health and well
-
being. It is
hypothesized that long
-
term spaceflights significantly affect the synchronization of the
circadian rhythm in humans due to changes of a non
-
24
-
hour light
-
dark cycle, reduced
physical activity, body composition, and/or changes of heat transfer and
thermoregulation in space.


Data on circadian rhythm obtained with a

double sensor” (core temperature
measurement) pre
-

in
-
, and post
-
flight shall be correlated with melatonin, a hormone
that follows the circadian pattern.


The outcomes might be useful: (i) to understand the time course and basic principles
of the adaptations of the human autonomic nervous system in space, (ii) to be able to
adjust more adequately physical exercise as well as rest
-

and work shifts, and (iii) to
foster adequate workplace illumination in the sense of occupational healthcare to
humans in space.


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Assessment of inflight bone density, muscle density and
muscle morphology changes in the forearm and lower leg
and efficiency of countermeasures using peripheral
quantitative computed tomography


ILSRA
-
2009
-
922

1.
Development and implementation of a X
-
ray
peripheral CT (pQCT) device on the ISS.

2.
The pQCT device will be used to monitor bone
and muscle changes in long
-
duration
spaceflight, and comparisons of these results to
those drawn from muscle function testing, will
be used to develop a set of optimum
parameters for feedback on the effectiveness of
countermeasure exercise.

3.
The quantitative measurements will include (i)
bone density, cortical thickness and area,
strength
-
strain index at the radius and tibia
and (ii) muscle cross
-
sectional area and muscle
density in combination with muscle function
parameters.


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MARES (Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise
System)

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MARES

Measurements are done:


-

with pre
-
programmed motions of
the subject’s joint,


-

driven by the MARES motor,


-

while precisely measuring:
Torque/Force, Velocity/Position, EMG
activity, etc.;


With / without external electrical
stimulation


The definition of these measurements
is totally open to the scientist


Extreme cases:



Muscle
-
group characterisation at
100% activation


Neural
-
drive activation: Motor control

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MARES in Columbus

ESA Life Science Programme

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Portable Pulmonary Function System

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Portable Pulmonary Function System

In 2005
ESA
has initiated the development of a

Portable Pulmonary Function System (
PPFS
).

The PPFS is an evolution to the existing

Pulmonary Function System (PFS*). PPFS is

supporting a wide range of respiratory and

cardiovascular measurements, complementing

well the capabilities of the rack
-
mounted PFS.

PPFS are a versatile instrument that can be

used station wide for supporting both scientific

research and crew health
-
monitoring activities.

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Portable Pulmonary Function System


Cardiac output, Pulmonary Blood Flow


Functional Residual Capacity


Lung Tissue volume (Volume of
pulmonary capillary blood)


Oxygen uptake, VO2


Total Lung Capacity


Breath
-
by
-
breath measurements of
VO2, VCO2, VE


Respiratory exchange ratio
VO2/VCO2.


Alveolar Ventilation


Vital Capacity


Dead Space Volume


Fractional inspiratory and expiratory
volumes, FIO 2 and


FEO 2 , FICO 2 and FECO 2


High Accuracy VO2, VCO2, VE


High Accuracy Respiratory exchange
ratio VO2/VCO2.


Expiratory Reserve Volume


Forced Expired Spirometry


Residual Volume


Tidal Volume


Vital Capacity


Heart Rate


ST measurements


ST slope


Arrhythmia’s


Systolic/Diastolic/Mean Blood
Pressure

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EPM


European Physiology Module

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Cardiolab
-

EPM

CARDIOLAB Elements

Operational
mode

Acronym

Comments

CARDIOPRES

Ambulatory

CDPB

Continuous Blood Pressure acquisition Beat ECG from 1 to
12 leads derivations, breathing pattern
measurements.

ECG HOLTER

Ambulatory

HLTE

24 hours ECG full stripes recording

BLOOD PRESSURE HOLTER
(ABP)

Ambulatory/
Station
ary

HLTA

Systolic, Diastolic and Mean Blood Pressure measurements.

CARDIOLAB Multi Sensor
Ambulatory System

Ambulatory

CMAS

Very versatile device which can support a lot of sensors
recording.

PORTABLE DOPPLER

Stationary

PDOP

Main arteries Blood velocities measurements up to three
channels at a time. 2Mhz, 4Mhz and 8Mhz PW probes.

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Cardiolab
-

EPM

AIR PLETHYSMOGRAPH

Stationary

APLT

Provides limb volume variations against venous occlusion.

PORTABLE BLOOD
ANALYZER DEVICE

Ambulatory

PBAD

Main electrolyte parameters analyses depending on specific
cartridge sets.

HEMOGLOBINOMETER

Ambulatory

HEMO

Measurement of hemoglobine by azide methemoglobine method.
Control of the status of whole blood.

Limb Volume Measurement
Device

Stationary

LVMD

Provides global limb volume measurement.

HEMATOCRIT CENTRIFUGE

Ambulatory

HEMC

Determination of the whole blood hematocrit by centrifugal
separation of blood cells from plasma.

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Multi Electrode Electro
-
encephalogram Mapping
Module

-

MEEMM

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MEEMM


EEG and Evoked Potentials
measurements in stationary (MEEMM)
or ambulatory mode (PORTEEM)



EMG measurements



Currently used in the Neurospat
experiment (for EEG during different
cognitive tasks and inputs.

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MEEMM

Mode


Channels


Bipolar
interfaces


Maximum
bandwidth


Maximum
Sampling
frequency


Signal
envelope


Fast
stationary


Up to 32


Up to 32


1 Hz


10
kHz


40 kHz


+/
-

25 mVpp


Slow
Stationary


Up to 128


At least 32


0,01 Hz


570 Hz


2.2 kHz


25 mVpp


Ambulatory
& Sleep


Up to 16


Up to 4


0,03 Hz


150 Hz


1 kHz


TBD


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Selection and implementation process


ESA view

Announcement of

Opportunity

Peer Review and

Feasibility assessment

Selection (PB
-
HME)

Definition

SoW

Development

Implementation

Joint science

protocol

Exp Specific

Agreement

Selection

Into Russian Space Programme

ESA/Russia

Joint documents

Russian Programme

ESA Programme

Development

Implementation

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ESA UNCLASSIFIED


For Official Use

Contact information

Biology:

Jason.Hatton@esa.int


Human Life Science:

Patrik.Sundblad@esa.int


ESA contact in Russia:

Elena.Feichtinger@esa.int


Please also keep Elena Lavrenko in cc:

egl@tsniimash.ru