Plant Biotechnology Overview - The Ohio State University

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6 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Production and Evaluation of
Genetically Modified Crops

John J.
Finer


http://www.oardc.o
hio
-
state.

edu/plantranslab/

Acreage of
GMO
Varieties

Acreage of GMO Varieties

Classical Plant Breeding
:

Genetic modification following
introduction of large amounts of
undefined DNA from a genetically
similar source.

Plant Biotechnology
:

Genetic modification of a plant
cell by introduction of defined
DNA(s) from a genetically
different source.


Biotechnology
:

Bio = Biology


Technology = Application

“The application of Biology”

(for the benefit of humans)

Plant Biotechnology
:

1) Plant Tissue Culture


(Cloning)

2) DNA introduction


(Gene Transfer)

Cloning



Have you ever eaten/used cloned plants?

in Plants

Cotton

Poplar

Xmas Cactus

Fern

Soybean

Ohio Buckeye

Gene Identification
:

Genomics

Proteomics

Metabolomics

Plant
Transformation

Agrobacterium

Particle gun

First biotech plant
product


Flav’r
Sav’r tomato

Bt Corn Reduces
:

Insecticide Mycotoxin

Application Production

X

Monarch larvae on
Butterfly weed

Public Support Varies for Different
Applications of Biotechnology

(Includes ALL Countries


N = 35,000)


35
42
55
68
71
73
74
85
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Increase Animal Productivity
Clone Animals (Medicine)
GM Feed (Healthier Meat)
More Nutritious Crops
Crops with Fewer Chems
Bacteria to Clean Waste
Crops to Produce Plastics
New Human Medicines
(Percent Agreement)
Source: Thomas Hoban, North Carolina State University

The Benefits of Using Biotechnology

are Greater than the Risks

(35,000 Consumers from
35 Countries
)

38
40
44
55
59
60
66
18
37
14
8
16
15
7
44
23
42
37
25
25
27
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Europe (Average)
Russia
Australia
Canada
Latin/South Amer (Ave)
Asia (Average)
United States
Agree
Not Sure
Disagree
The Benefits of Using Biotechnology

are Greater than the Risks

(
European

Consumers)

22
22
34
39
41
42
55
24
24
18
25
10
11
8
54
54
48
36
49
47
37
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Greece
France
Italy
Spain
Germany
Great Britain
Netherlands
Agree
Not Sure
Disagree
Willing to Buy GM Food if More Nutritious

(Net = Continue


Not Continue)

1
21
25
31
56
66
-7
-5
-5
1
-10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Great Britain
Australia
Germany
Mexico
Japan
Canada
USA
Brazil
India
China
Percent Response

Can you think of any information not currently included
on food labels that you would like to see?”

7
1
9
13
2
11
12
1
7
75
74
78
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Nothing
Ingredients
Biotech / GM
Other
Percent Response
Hoban (10/2000)
IFIC (1/2001)
IFIC (9/2001)
Perceptions of safety improved when US
consumers learn that biotech foods have been
in the stores.

21%
25%
31%
46%
48%
29%
Unsafe
Not sure
Safe
Do you think genetically
modified foods are basically
safe, basically unsafe, or don’t
you have an opinion on this?

Now, as you know, more than
half of products in the grocery
store are produced using some
form of biotechnology or genetic
modification. Knowing this, do
you think genetically modified
foods are basically safe, basically
unsafe, or don’t you have an
opinion on this?

January 2001

Source: Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology

“By Eating a Genetically Modified Fruit, a
Person’s Genes Could also Be Changed”

1996
-

1998

55
60
62
74
58
38
52
29
61
62
30
25
20
16
24
32
25
32
30
18
15
15
18
10
18
30
23
39
9
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
United Kingdom
Switzerland
Sweden
Netherlands
Italy
Germany
France
Austria
United States
Canada
Percent Response
False (Correct)
Don't Know
True
Source: Thomas Hoban, North Carolina State University

“Ordinary Tomatoes Do Not Contain Genes,
while Genetically Modified Ones Do”

1996
-

1998

40
48
46
51
35
36
32
34
45
52
38
21
24
27
44
20
39
22
45
33
22
31
30
22
21
44
29
44
10
15
0
20
40
60
80
100
United Kingdom
Switzerland
Sweden
Netherlands
Italy
Germany
France
Austria
United States
Canada
Percent Response
False (Correct)
Don't Know
True
Biotech Regulatory Oversight

For further information,
contact:

John J. Finer

Department of Horticulture and Crop
Science

OARDC/The Ohio State University

1680 Madison Ave.

Wooster, OH 44691

Tel: 330
-
263
-
3880

Fax: 330
-
263
-
3887

e
-
mail: finer.1@osu.edu