Biotechnology

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6 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Biotechnology

in Medicine

Chapter 12

Learning Outcomes


Discuss the scope and role of medical biotechnology in the
healthcare industry


Explain the function of drugs and discuss how they may be
created using combinatorial chemicals


Describe the various high
-
throughput screening processes for
potential drug activity


Explain the methods for synthesizing peptides and
oligonucleotides and discuss the uses of each


Detail the multiple uses of antibodies in medical biotechnology
and discuss the immune response that results from vaccinations

12.1 Drug Discovery

Medical biotechnology includes R&D in the following areas:


Causes of diseases and disorders


Drugs, pharmaceuticals, and medicines derived from nature
or through genetic engineering and/or combinatorial
chemistry


Disease prevention, vaccines, and gene therapy


Diagnostics for medical applications


Prosthetics or instruments for replacement or improvement of
tissues and organs

Drug Development

Drugs are chemicals that alter the effects of proteins or other molecules
associated with a disease
-
causing mechanism

A drug is usually specific for a particular disease process

Sources of Potential Drugs

The drug discovery process may involve finding chemical compounds that
show activity against one or more molecules associated with a disease.

The process is lengthy and often tedious.

Vocabulary


Medicine


something that prevents or treats disease or alleviates the symptoms of disease


Medical biotechnology


all the areas of research, development, and manufacturing of
items that prevent or treat disease or alleviate the symptoms of disease


Drug


chemical that alters the effects of proteins or other molecules associated with a
disease
-
causing mechanism


Drug discovery


the process of identifying molecules to treat a disease


Organic synthesis


the synthesis of drug molecules in a laboratory from simpler, pre
-
existing molecules


Screening


the assessment of hundreds, thousands, or even millions of molecules or
samples


Pathogenesis


the origin and development of a disease


Combinatorial chemistry


the synthesis of larger organic molecules from smaller ones

12.1 Review Questions

1.
What kinds of organisms cause diseases?

2.
Where are drugs typically discovered?

3.
How is aspirin an example of combinatorial chemistry?

12.2 Creating Pharmaceuticals through Combinatorial Chemistry

Natural compounds must sometimes be modified to be more useful or effective.

Techniques for Creating New Drugs

Combinatorial chemistry is the process of creating new and varied organic
compounds by linking chemical building blocks.

Screening Compounds

Some drug screening must take place in animal or human cells.

Most can be screened on sophisticated instruments.

Vocabulary


Parallel synthesis


making large numbers of batches of similar compounds at the same
time


Library


a collection of compounds, such as DNA molecules, RNA molecules, and proteins


Biochip


a special type of microarray that holds thousands of samples on a chip the size of
a postage stamp


Microarray


a small glass slide or silicon chip with thousands of samples on it that can be
used to assess the presence of a DNA sequence related to the expression of certain proteins

12.2 Review Questions

1.
What is the value of combinatorial chemistry?

2.
How are chemical compound libraries related to high
-
throughput
screening?

3.
What is the value of microarray technology?

12.3 Creating Pharmaceuticals through
Peptide and DNA Synthesis

A peptide can be used in an attempt to identify regulator molecules.

A peptide may be used as a vaccine antigen to initiate an antibody
response.

Peptides are often synthesized for use in the purification of other proteins.

Oligonucleotide Synthesis

Scientists have learned to make small pieces of DNA, called
oligonucleotides.

Vocabulary


Peptides


short amino acid chains that are not folded into a functional protein


Peptide synthesizer


an instrument that is used to make peptides, up to a maximum of a
few dozen amino acids in length


Oligonucleotides


segments of nucleic acid that are 50 nucleotides or less in length


DNA synthesizer


an instrument that produces short sections of DNA, up to a few
hundred base pairs in length

12.3 Review Questions

1.
What are three uses of peptides in medicinal biotechnology?

2.
How does a peptide synthesizer make peptides?

3.
How does a DNA synthesizer make oligonucleotides?

4.
Of what value are oligonucleotides?

12.4 Creating Pharmaceuticals by
Protein/Antibody Engineering

Large proteins can be synthesized through genetic engineering.

Antibodies are the most complicated of all proteins.

Using Antibodies to Purify Proteins

Antibodies are often needed in large quantities.

Using Antibodies to
Recognize Molecules

Antibodies may be used to recognize molecules in medical research
applications.

Using Antibodies and
Antigens in Vaccines

Antibody
-
antigen reactions are important in disease
prevention.

Vocabulary


Slow cytometry


a process by which cells are sorted by an instrument, a cytometer,
that recognizes fluorescent antibodies attached to surface proteins on certain cells


Vaccine


an agent that stimulates the immune system to provide protection against a
particular antigen or disease


B
-
cells


specialized cells of the immune system that are used to generate and release
antibodies


Memory cell


a specialized type of B
-
cell that remains in the body for long periods of
time with the ability to make antibodies to a specific antigen


Immunity


protection against any foreign disease
-
causing agent

12.4 Review Questions

1.
How are antibodies used in flow cytometry?

2.
How does a vaccine increase the number of antibodies in a person?

3.
How does a vaccine provide immunity?

Questions and Comments?