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17 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Survey


Part One:

National ID



Europe


Right across the world there is a drive to increase document security with biometrics.
This is the first of a two
-
part survey into the use of biometrics in national identity cards

and will focus on the European marke
t
.
There has been increasing momentum in the
region towards implementing biometrics, particularly given that biometric identifiers are
now being introduced in passports and other ID documents in line with international
requirement
s
. Next month,
Btt

will fo
cus on
more ID card issues and hone in on
schemes
in other
regions of the world.


With a territory now spanning 25 countries and representing more than 450 million
citizens
,

Europe is a major market for the biometric industry. Alongside the fast moving
ele
ctronic passport
sector
, where biometrics are
now
being introduced with gusto, the
national ID card market is another where biometrics are begin
n
ing to pick up momentum.

Of the 25 Member States

in the European Union
, 21
already
have some form of identity
c
ard scheme (the exceptions being Denmark, Ireland, Latvia and the UK). Most of these
are not electronic
-
based cards,
although
this is a trend that
is becoming
increasingly
e
vident.

The potential introduction of biometrics is either under way or being consi
dered
by a number of Member States (see Table).

Biometrics can perform number of important roles in the creation, issuance and
subsequent use of ID cards. The primary biometrics under consideration in most projects
around the world are face, finger and iri
s. Within Europe, fingerprint and face are the
most common, although countries such as the UK
are also
keen on iris recognition,
thanks to its ability to work
highly
effectively in a one
-
to
-
many mode, something that is
desirable in preventing multiple appl
ications for an ID document.

As well as preventing multiple applications, biometrics can also be used to check that that
person is not on any watch lists and, o
nce any document is created, a biometric is also
useful to ensure that it is issued to the same
person that applied for it in the first place.


Finally
,

biometrics can be used in subsequent transactions, such as
accessing
eGoverment
services, or for ve
r
ification of identity in a myriad of circumstances
, from its use as a
travel document to
its use as

a
proof of identity to access
entitlements
, such as social
security
or healthcare
benefits
.


National ID card appeal

For those countries without electronic ID cards there are good reasons for upgrading.
A
key
reason is the fact that EC countries are alre
ady
mandated
to
introduc
e

facial and
fingerprint
biometrics into
their
passports

within the next few years
.

Many
non
-
chip
-
based
national ID cards already act as valid European travel documents.
If these documents are not upgraded to reach the enhanced lev
els of security being
integrated into passports, then national ID cards could potentially become the weak link
in the chain.

C
ost is also a consideration
.
Some governments argue that even without an
identity cards
scheme, the majority of the population wo
uld be enrolled via existing identity documents
like passports anyway.
Therefore t
he costs involved would be nearly the same as
implementing a comprehensive identity cards scheme available to the whole resident
population, but without the added benefits.


Benefits?

So what are the potential benefits? This is one of the most contentious questions and the
one that is always argued by anti ID card campaigners.
For example, when governments
say that cards will cut benefit fraud, campaigners often argue that th
is may be the case,
but is a reason for issuing entitlement cards to welfare claimants, not compulsory ID
cards to the whole population. Helping to preventing terrorism is another popular claim.
But campaigners point to the Madrid bombings, where ID cards
didn’t prevent the
atrocity, or even to the London bombings where the
perpetrators
are believed to be home
grown

and would have been entitled to
a
perfectly legitimate ID

card
. Controlling
immigration is another argument, but is
somewhat
spoiled by the fac
t that cards are often
not issued to foreigners unless they have been in the country for a number of months.

In the UK, a
current
list of benefits
being touted
includes:




tackl
ing

illegal working and immigration abuse;



disrupt
ing

the use of false and
multiple identities by organised criminals and those
involved in terrorist activity;



help
ing

protect people from
identity fraud and theft
;



improv
ing

public confidence and strengthen
security;



ensur
ing

free public services are only used by those ent
itled to them;



enabl
ing

easier and more convenient access to public services
.



Whether this list will be enough to persuade the UK to pass legislation to implement
biometric ID cards is yet to be seen, although the scheme does seem to be inching
forwar
ds, despite fierce opposition from some quarters.


Interoperability

The EU does not
currently
have any jurisdiction over the issuance of national ID cards,
but there have been moves to ensure that ID cards across Europe are interoperable.

Europe’s G5 (
Fra
nce, Germany, Italy, Spain and United Kingdom
), for example, has set
itself the target of ensuring that new electronic identity cards are technically compatible
and interoperable. This is to ensure that their citizens will be able to take advantage of the
facilities made possible by e
-
administration.

(France and Germany have been particularly
active in working together to create interoperable ID cards. By adopting a set of core
modules relating to biometrics, digital qualified signatures and
digital authent
ication, it
would be possible
for them
, for example,

to
perform e
-
business transaction across
borders.)

The G5 countries now wish to open up a dialogue with the other States, in line with the
Hague programme
.

Th
e Hague
programme
looks at migration and asyl
um policies for the
enlarged bloc of 25 countries and
originated under the Dutch Presidency of the European
Council in late 2004.
Part of the programme

calls on the Council and European
Commission to develop minimum security standards for eID cards includi
ng biometrics.

In a related development,
the UK Presidency of the Council of the European Union
has
put forward a proposal that
all
ID cards in the EU should have biometrics
, including
driving licences. In a speech to the European Parliament

o
n
7 Septembe
r 2005, the UK
home secretary Charles Clarke, commented: “
We argue that internationally consistent
and coherent biometric data should be an automatic part of our visas, passports and
identity cards where we have them


and would even suggest driving licenc
es as well.


Next month
’s issue of
Btt

will take a look
at a plethora of other issues surrounding the
use of biometrics in national ID cards, such as the storage of biometrics in large
-
scale
databases and privacy implications, as well as the potential bene
fits of on
-
card matching.
The survey will also focus on ID card schemes in other regions of the world.



Table: A selection of
10
European countries using or considering biometrics for
their national id cards


Belgium

Electronic ID cards started to roll
out to the entire population from September 2004, with
the replacement of current paper cards by the end of 2009. The card is valid for five years
and is an official ID document which can also act as a European travel document.
Although there are no biomet
rics in the ID cards currently, the introduction of biometrics
is envisioned for the future.


Estonia

The Estonian Parliament took the decision to introduce an eID card in 2000, and the first
cards were issued in January 2002. 130,000 were issued in the f
irst year.

The
smart
card
can also act as a travel document

in the E
uropean Union
and European Economic Area.
More than
100 services can be
accessed using the
card. A s
econd chip holding the card
owner’s
facial image and fingerprint



complying with ICAO r
ecommendations



is to

be
added to the card.


Finland


Electronic ID card issuance began in 1999, although the ID card is not obligatory. The
card is an official ID document and can act as a European travel document. The use of
biometrics is being conside
red, based on experience with the country’s biometric
passport.


France

France is actively considering the implementation of a
mandatory
national identity card
.
Procurement for the INES (Identité Nationale Electronique Sécurisée, or Secure
Electronic Natio
nal Identity) project was expected to begin before end 2004, and
according to the original schedule
,

the card should
have been
developed and tested during
2005, with a view to start distribution in 2006.
However,
opposition to the card has
delayed the proc
ess
and so the

deployment date of the first ID cards is still
up in the air
.
A

report
commissioned by

the
French Ministry of the Interior

and published by
the
Internet Rights Forum
, raised concerns saying that the reasons for introducing the card
were not
convincing enough. The report did reveal that 74% of citizens are in favour of
the card and that 69% of citizens would welcome a mandatory card.
A decision is still to
be made regarding whether or not electronic ID cards will be mandatory in France or
rema
in optional. The
French administration
is working closely with Germany
to
ensure
a
degree of interoperability
.


Germany

T
he German Federal Government
has
launched
its
eCard initiative
to define

and
implement a common platform for all upcoming smart cards i
n Germany, including those
that Federal Government ministries will be responsible for
,
such as
the
upcoming
electronic ID card.
Similar to the country’s ePassports, t
he card would include face and
fingerprint

images stored on a chip. Germany will not store

the biometrics centrally and
is currently expected to adopt a model where the cardholders’ biometrics are verified in
the reader. A ‘match
-
on
-
card’ model has not been ruled out however. The German
administration is working closely with France to ensure a
degree of interoperability
between the two countries ID cards.


Italy

Italy has placed orders for
more than two million optical memory cards following a ruling
in May 2005 that paper
-
based citizen IDs can no longer be issued after 1 January 2006.
The Ita
lian government is planning for the entire adult population to have new citizen IDs
within about six years. The citizen card has a five
-
year validity period. Each card
contains a secure one megabyte optical memory stripe in which an individual’s
demographi
cs, color facial image, digitized signature, fingerprint and other biometrics are
recorded. These cards are also ‘chip
-
ready’ to enable the Italian government to add e
-
government services. The ID card is already recognized as a travel card for border entry

by some 32 European and North African countries.


Netherlands

The Netherlands new biometric passport will start rolling out in the autumn of 2006 and
will include facial biometrics. Fingerprint images will be added at a later stage. The
country’s national

identity card, which is currently held by 10 million people, will be
upgraded at the same time to have the same characteristics as the ePassport.


Spain

In February 2004 the Spanish Council of Ministers approved the creation and distribution
to Spanish c
itizens of new electronic national ID cards containing biometric identifier
s
.
The electronic ID cards will be identical to the current card in terms of size
(credit card
sized)
but will contain a range of information in the smart card’s embedded microchip,

including a fingerprint
, which will be verified using a match on card system
.
Card
issuance is expected to commence by the end of the first quarter of 2006. The total
number of cardholders is expected to be 35 million. The validity of the card will be fiv
e
or 10 years, depending upon the age of the cardholder.


Sweden

From October 2005 Swedish police are expected to begin issuing an electronic national
ID card, which will serve as both an official ID document and as a Schengen passport.
The card will be va
lid for three
-
to five years. In the first instance the card will support
face recognition and will most likely probably also support fingerprint recognition from
2006. It has not yet been decided whether the card will access government eServices.


UK

Plans

for a national ID card to be introduced in the UK were delayed because of the
country’s general election, but t
he scheme


proposing a potential mix of finger, face and
iris biometrics

has progressed
despite
a backdrop of increasing unease surrounding th
eir
introduction. In particular, strong concerns ha
d

been voiced about spiralling cost
estimates, the potential invasion of privacy and the ability of the government to
implement such a project
. A

Bill
is
now
at

the House of Lords, where it is expected to
receive a mauling.