Wireless Application Protocol and M-Commerce

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12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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1






Wireless Application Protocol and M
-
Commerce



Yuben Joseph



School Of Management Studies

CUSAT, Kochi
-
22

E
-
mail:
yubenjoseph@gmail.com



Abstract:
WAP bridges the gap between the

wireless mobile world and the
internet.

The Wire
less Application Protocol (WAP)
, is a collection of protocols and
transport layers which allow mobile and portable communication devices such as
mobile phones and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s), to
receive information over
the airwaves such as personal computers users obtain information over the
internet.

. WAP is simply a protocol
-

a standardized way that a mobile phone talks
to a server installed in the mobile phone network.

Advances in wireless
technology increase the number of mobile device users and
give pace to the rapid development of e
-
commerce using these devices. The new
type of e
-
commerce, conducting transactions via mobile terminals, is called mobile
commerce. Due to its inherent charact
eristics such as ubiquity, personalization,
flexibility, and dissemination, mobile commerce promises business unprecedented
market potential, great productivity, and high profitability. This paper presents an
overview of mobile commerce development by exam
ining the enabling
technologies, the impact of mobile commerce on the business world, and the
implications to mobile commerce providers. The paper also provides an agenda for
future research in

the area.


Keywords
: Mobile, internet,
t
ransaction, commerce,
GPRS, EDGE




1.
0

INTRODUCTION

WAP bridges the gap between the mobile world and the Internet as well as corporate
intranets and offers the ability to deliver an unlimited range of mobile value
-
added
services to subscribers

independent of their network,
bearer, and terminal. Mobile
subscribers can access the same wealth of information from a pocket
-
sized device as
they can from the desktop.

WAP is a global standard and is not controlled by any single company. Ericsson, Nokia,
Motorola, and Unwired Planet
founded the WAP Forum in the summer of 1997 with the
initial purpose of defining an industry
-
wide specification for developing applications over
wireless communications networks. The WAP specifications define a set of protocols in

2


application, session, tra
nsaction, security, and transport layers, which enable operators,
manufacturers, and applications providers to meet the challenges in advanced wireless
service differentiation and fast/flexible service creation. There are now over one hundred
members repre
senting terminal and infrastructure manufacturers, operators, carriers,
service providers, software houses, content providers, and companies developing
services and applications for mobile devices
.


WAP also defines a wireless application environment (WAE)

aimed at enabling
operators, manufacturers, and content developers to develop advanced differentiating
services and applications including a
micro browser
, scripting facilities, e
-
mail, World
Wide Web (WWW)

to
-
mobile
-
handset messaging, and mobile
-
to
-
telef
ax access.

The WAP specifications continue to be developed by contributing members, who,
through interoperability testing, have brought WAP into the limelight of the mobile data
marketplace with fully functional WAP

enabled devices (see
Figure 1
).


Figu
re 1. WAP

Enabled Devices


2.
0

BENEFITS


2.1.
Operators

For wireless network operators, WAP promises to decrease churn, cut costs, and
increase the subscriber base both by improving existing services, such as interfaces to
voice
-
mail and prepaid systems, and facilitating an unlimited range of new value
-
added
se
rvices and applications, such as account management and billing inquiries. New

3


applications can be introduced quickly and easily without the need for additional
infrastructure or modifications to the phone. This will allow operators to differentiate
themse
lves from their competitors with new, customized information services. WAP is an
interoperable framework, enabling the provision of end
-
to
-
end turnkey solutions that will
create a lasting competitive advantage, build consumer loyalty, and increase revenues
.

2.2
Content Providers

Applications will be written in wireless markup language (WML), which is a subset of
extensible markup language (XML). Using the same model as the Internet, WAP will
enable content and application developers to grasp the tag
-
based
WML that will pave the
way for services to be written and deployed within an operator's network quickly and
easily. As WAP is a global and interoperable open standard, content providers have
immediate access to a wealth of potential customers who will seek

such applications to
enhance the service offerings given to their own existing and potential subscriber base.
Mobile consumers are becoming more hungry to receive increased functionality and
value
-
add from their mobile devices, and WAP opens the door to t
his untapped market
that is expected to reach 100 million WAP

enabled devices by the end of the year 2000.
This presents developers with significant revenue opportunities.


3.
0

BENEFITS OF WIRELESS APPLICATION PROTOCOL



In the past, wireless Internet
access has been limited by the capabilities of handheld
devices and wireless networks. WAP utilizes Internet standards such as XML, user
datagram protocol (UDP), and Internet protocol (IP). Many of the protocols are based
on Internet standards such as hype
rtext transfer protocol (HTTP) and TLS but have
been optimized for the unique constraints of the wireless environment: low bandwidth,
high latency, and less connection stability. Internet standards such as hypertext mark
-
up

language (HTML), HTTP
and transm
ission control protocol (TCP) are inefficient
over mobile networks, requiring large amounts of mainly text
-
based data to be sent.
Standard HTML content cannot be effectively displayed on the small
-
size screens of
mobile phones and pagers.


WAP utilizes bi
nary transmission for greater compression of data and is optimized for
long latency and low bandwidth. WAP sessions cope with intermittent coverage and
can operate over a wide variety of wireless transports.

The lightweight WAP protocol stack is designed
to minimize the required bandwidth
and maximize the number of wireless network types that can deliver WAP content. All
network technologies and bearers will also be supported, including short message
service (SMS), USSD, circuit
-
switched cellular data (CSD
), cellular digital packet data
(CDPD), and general packet radio service (GPRS).


4.
0

COMPONENTS NEEDED FOR WAP IMPLEMENTATION


Requires three essential products components

1. WAP Micro Browser
-
residing in the client’s handheld devices.

2. WAP Gate
way
-
typically on the wireless ISP’s network.

3. WAP server
-
residing either on the ISP’s infrastructure or on end
-
user
organization’s

infrastructure.



4


4.1
.
WAP

Micro Browsers


To fit into a small wireless terminal, WAP uses a Micro Browser.

A Micro Browser
is a small piece of software that makes minimal demands on
hardware, memory and CPU. It can display information written in a restricted mark
-
up
language called WML.

WML stands for
W
ireless
M
arkup
L
anguage. It is a mark
-
up
language inherited from HTML, but
WML is based on XML, so it is much stricter than
HTML. WML is used to create pages that can be displayed in a WAP browser.

The
Micro Browser can also interpret a reduced version of JavaScript called WML

Script.



4.2
.

WAP Gateway


The idea behind WAP speci
fications is to connect the mobile networks to the Internet.

To connect these two mega
-
networks, the WAP Specification assumes there will be a
WAP Gateway. At its simplest level, this is a stack converter, which will convert the
WAP request into a Web requ
est and the Web response into a WAP response.

WAP Gateway is a piece of software that sits between the mobile device and the
external network like the Internet. The gateway does the job of converting Internet
content i.e. the WML pages into byte code (WMLC
) which can be understood by a
WAP device. Usually located on a server of a mobile operator it handles incoming
requests from your WAP phone, takes care of the conversion required during
WTLS/SSL sessions and handles incoming requests from your WAP phone.
Although
in theory, the gateway could also be made to convert the HTML page content itself on
-
the
-
fly as well, there are some problems. HTML pages can be full of graphics and with
inline scripting. Converting these to WML may return something that is not o
f any
relevance to anybody.

Some of the WAP Gateway products that are now coming on to the market (such as
Nokia's WAP Server) also provide hosting capabilities themselves. In future it could be
possible to integrate your WAP Server into the mobile networ
k to gain information
about the subscriber's location.


4.3
.

WAP server


A WAP server is simply a combined web server and WAP gateway. It is usually
residing either on the ISP’s infrastructure or on end
-
user
organization’s

infrastructure.


Figure 2: WAP's

Optional Proxy Model Supports Network
-
Based Optimizations




5


5.
0

WAP

USES


E
-
mail:

Using WAP phones, one can access and exchange e
-
mails.

Personalized information access:

The user could maintain a phone book or an
address book on a WAP
-
enabled phone.

Personal banking:

Banking and insurance are purported to be the other sectors
where WAP is predicted to make a significant difference. In banking, for instance, a
WAP gateway can provide user access to payment services

Personal billing information:

This en
ables the user to perform online shopping as
well as make online payments.

Financial information
:
Financial services includes Banking, Bill
-
paying, Stock trading,
Funds transfers
a
nd many more

City direction guides:

The user can obtain small road maps on h
is WAP

phone which
will guide him.

Infotainment:

This includes interactive information as well as other entertainment like
games and chat.



Online, real
-
time, multi
-
player games



Downloadable horoscopes, cartoons, quotes, advice

Location
-
based services



Real
-
time traffic reporting



Event/restaurant recommendation



Highly customized ads



Instant messaging

Travel services



Schedules and rescheduling



Reservations

M
-
Commerce
-

Shopping on the go



Instant comparison shopping



Impulse buying



Location
-
based special
offers and sales


6.
0

WAP
-
LIMITATIONS


WAP services

expensive:

Most WAP based services used CSD (Circuit Switched
Data) as its underlying bearer. So the cost poses a deterrent as CSD requires its users
to remain connected to the network for full interactio
n.

Small screen of WAP device:

For example, the NOKIA
N97 has a screen size of 3.5”
making it difficult for the user to view data properly

Hardware Factors
:
These
devices have hardware factors (
limited battery life, limited
RAM and ROM) and user interface
considerations, such as one
-
finger

navigation, that
challenge traditional Internet application design.

Data rate in WAP
:

The current wireless applications and its usefulness
are

limited by
the lower bandwidth that is about 9.6Kbps. With the advent of GPRS,

the data rate can
be increased up to 117Kbps
Carriers worldwide are upgrading their existing networks
with higher
-
speed

bearers such as General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) and High
-
Speed Circuit
-
Switched Data (HSCSD) and

introducing higher bandwidths and s
peeds
in third
-
generation (3G) wireless networks such as W
-
CDMA
.
These higher capable
network bearers permit new types of content (e.g., streaming media) and

provide an
'always on' availability. These new aspects of the serving networks permit new
operatio
nal activities.




6


7.
0

SUMMARY


WAP provides a markup language and
a transportation protocol that opens

the
possibility of the wireless environment and give players from all levels of the industry
the opportunity to access an untapped market that is still in its infancy.

The bearer
-
independent nature of WAP has proved to be a long awaited breath of
fresh ai
r for an industry riddled with multiple proprietary standards that have suffocated
the

advent of a new wave of mobile
-
internet
communications
. WAP is an enabling
technology that, through gateway infrastructure deployed in mobile operator's network,
will br
idge the gap between the mobile world and the internet, bringing sophisticated
solutions to mobile users, independent of the bearer and network.




7


M
COMMERCE


8
.
0
WHAT IS M
-
COMMERCE?


M
-
Commerce has been defined as the "use of handheld wireless devices to
communicate, interact, and transact via high
-
speed connection to the Internet." With
the introduction of advanced phone technology, consumers of mobile devices will be
able to access content and services anytime, anywhere. For example, they will be able
to

use wireless devices to access banking accounts and pay bills, receive stock quotes
and initiate buy/sell transactions, or receive special promotions and generate orders
from any place at any time.


9
.
0

WHAT IS DRIVING M
-
COMMERCE?


C
onsumer interest of
Mobile shopping

has increased to a great level
.

Internet and e
-
commerce has become common to everyone

and its adoption.

Growth of mobile
telephone has shown in huge figures.

Data transfer can be done in real time
. The
advent

of the handhel
d devices incorpo
rating WAP,

GPRS
, EDGE etc
.


10
.0
USES
OF M
-
COMMERCE




Purchasing airline tickets



Purchasing movie tickets



Restaurant booking and reservation



Mobile Banking



Hotel booking and reservation



Auctions



Mobile Brokerage



Location based services



Information services



Content purchase & delivery



Mobile marketing



11
.0
DISTINCTION BETWEEN E
-

COMMERCE & M


COMMERCE


Technology

E
-
Commerce

M
-
Commerce

Device

PC

Smart phones, PDAs

Operating System

Windows, Linux, MAC
OS

Symbian, Windows
Mobile, Palm OS, Pocket
PC

Presentation
Standards

HTML, XML

HTML,WML,WXML

Browser

Internet Explorer,
Chrome, Firefox

Safari, Mini Opera, Nokia
Browsers

and Java based
browser

Bearer Network

TCP/IP

GSM, GPRS, EDGE, 3G,


8



12
.0
M
-
COMMERCE IN INDIA


Low
-
value transactions

Music

downloads, logo downloads,
picture downloads, ring tone downloads, etc.



High
-
value transactions

Credit

and debit card transactions, point
-
of
-
sale terminals, going to the
merchant
location

and

paying through the handset
.

Book
ing of
cinema tickets

also c
an be done
easily on mobile
.
Besides t
rain tickets are also
be booked
on the mobile.


13
.0 USER AUTHENTICATION


The user authentication comprises of the following steps:

1. The user visits a merchant site.

2. The merchant server sends the content to the
mobile phone via the WAP gateway.

3. The user wants to authenticate himself toward the merchant. The authentication
request is sent to the WAP gateway, which sends it to the Mobile ePay. The Mobile
ePay sends it to the merchant server.

4. The merchant serv
er generates an authentication message, e.g., a random number,
and sends it to the Mobile ePay, which sends it to the SMS
-
C (Short Message Center).
The SMS
-
C delivers it to the SIM on the mobile phone.

5. The SIM asks for permission to sign.

6. If the user

accepts, the SIM performs the signing

7. The SIM sends it back to the SMS
-
C, which sends it to the Mobile ePay.

8. The Mobile ePay generates an electronic signature by using

the received digital
signature.

9. The Mobile ePay sends the complete electronic
signature to the merchant server.


14
.0
PAYMENT FROM WAP PHONES

The payment comprises of the following steps:

1. The user visits a merchant site.

2. The merchant server sends the content to the mobile phone via the WAP gateway.

3. The user wants to buy. Th
e request is sent to the WAP gateway, which forwards it to
the Mobile ePay. The Mobile ePay delivers it to the merchant server.

4. The merchant server sends an offer to the Mobile ePay.

5. The Mobile ePay sends a request for payment type to the browser via

the WAP
gateway.

6. The user selects the payment type, e.g., prepaid account, credit cards, etc., and

7. The payment type is sent to the Mobile ePay via the WAP gateway.

8. The Mobile ePay sends the contract to the SIM via the SMS
-
C. The contract
captures

all the information about the transaction, e.g., user id, merchant id,
merchandise, etc.

9. After asking for confirmation from the user, the SIM performs the signing.

10. The SIM sends the digital signature back to the Mobile ePay via the SMS
-
C.

11. The
Mobile ePay executes the necessary transactions according to the payment
type. This may include transactions towards financial institutions in case of payment by
credit card.

12. The Mobile ePay sends a confirmation to the merchant server.

13. The merchant

server returns a URL for the continuation of browsing.


9


14. The mobile ePay generates a receipt and sends it together with the URL for
continuation to the browser via the WAP gateway.

The browser can then continue with the browsing from the received URL. T
he
shopping is hence completed.


15
.0
SECURITY CONCERNS


Compared with the wired counterpart, wireless communications are more vulnerable.
Although most wireless

data networks today provide reasonable levels of encryption
and security, the technology does
not ensure

transmission security in the network
infrastructure. Data can be lost due to mobile terminal malfunctions.

T
hese terminals
can be stolen and ongoing transactions can be altered. In short, the mobility enjoyed

by mobile commerce also raises many
more challenging security tasks. Serious
consideration must be given

to the issue of security as mobile commerce applications
play an increasingly significant role in our daily

business and personal life.

Research
on how to improve security in mobile comme
rce must be carried out due to the
vulnerability of mobile devices and wireless networks. To meet security requirements
including authentication, integrity, confidentiality, message authentication, and no
repudiation in mobile commerce, additional security

software and information (e.g.,
certificate, private, and public keys) will have to be installed on mobile devices.
Nevertheless, due to the limited computing resource of mobile devices, at some point it
will be necessary to establish additional servers t
o store information, perform security
checking, and conduct electronic payment on behalf of mobile devices
.


16
.0
CONCLUSIONS


Despite the skepticism around mobile commerce (e.g., Dugan, 2000), we share the
industrial and academic communities' optimism. Th
ough there remain a great number
of technical, regulatory, and social challenges to overcome for their further
development, we believe that mobile devices will continue to develop and incorporate
additional functionality in the coming years and that the en
d result will be a global
marketplace of mobile commerce.


As wireless technologies evolve, the coming mobile revolution will bring dramatic and
fundamental changes to business strategies, enterprise resource planning, supply
chains, and customer relations
. This revolution has already begun, but it is still in its
infancy. When complete, the revolution will impact numerous facets of everyday life. It
will provide important data in real time to assist decision makers, exert great influence
on the ways busine
sses communicate and develop relationships with consumers, and
ultimately transform the way we do business.


17.0 REFERENCE


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2.

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http://www.wapforum.org/

3.

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www.wapforum.org


10


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October 2000
, T. Bray et al.

URL:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC
-
xml
-
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5.

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-
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-
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-
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-
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ww.rfc
-
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-
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10.

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-
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-

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