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crookedabidingΚινητά – Ασύρματες Τεχνολογίες

12 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

260 εμφανίσεις















The
i
n
f
l
u
e
nce

of

uns
t
ab
l
e hous
i
ng on
ch
il
d
r
e
n

s
w
e
ll
be
i
ng a
n
d d
e
ve
l
op
m
ent


Ev
i
denc
e

fr
o
m

a

na
t
i
ona
l

l
ong
it
ud
i
na
l

s
t
u
dy






M
a
tt
he
w

Tay
l
o
r

an
d

Be
n

Edwa
r
ds


Au
st
r
a
li
a
n

I
n
sti
t
u
te

o
f

F
a
m
ily
S
t
ud
i
es

































T
h
e

i
n
f
l
uen
c
e

o
f
un
s
t
a
b
l
e

hou
si
n
g

o
n

c
h
il
dren

s
we
ll
be
i
n
g

an
d

d
e
v
e
l
opment

A
u
s
t
ra
li
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

o
f

F
am
il
y St
ud
i
es

2





Ex
e
c
ut
i
v
e
s
um
m
a
r
y


Ve
r
y little is

und
e
rs
t
ood

a
b
out

the in
f
lu
e
n
c
e of

ho
u
s
i
n
g on

c
hild
r
e
n’s

d
e
v
e
lopm
e
n
t

in

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
.
F
or

e
x
a
mpl
e
,

a

r
ece
nt

r
e
vi
e
w

of

the

lit
e
r
a
tu
r
e

o
n

th
i
s

i
ss
ue

s
ugg
e
s
t
s

t
h
a
t:

“th
e
r
e

i
s

noti
cea
bly

a
l
ac
k

of

e
mpi
r
i
ca
l

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
c
ondu
c
t
e
d

in

A
u
s
t
r
a
lia

o
n

the

links

b
e
t
wee
n

ho
u
s
i
ng

a
nd

c
hild
d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt”

(
Do
c
k
e
r
y

e
t

a
l.,

2010,

p.

2).

I
n

th
i
s

r
e
p
o
r
t,
w
e

b
e
gin

to

f
ill

t
he

g
a
p

in

t
he

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n
e
vid
e
n
c
e

by

p
r
oviding the

f
i
rs
t

n
a
tion
a
l

d
a
ta

o
n

the

i
n
f
l
u
e
n
ce
s

of

u
n
s
t
a
ble

ho
u
s
ing on

c
hild
r
e
n

s
d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt,

u
s
ing

d
a
ta

f
r
om

G
r
o
wi
n
g

Up

in

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
:

T
he
L
ongi
t
udin
a
l

St
u
dy

o
f

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n
C
hild
r
e
n

(
L
S
AC
). Sp
ec
i
f
i
ca
ll
y
,
w
e
exa
mine the
a
ss
o
c
i
a
tion

b
e
t
wee
n

r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l
m
obil
i
t
y
, un
s
t
a
b
l
e
hou
s
ing

t
e
n
u
r
e

a
nd

hou
s
i
ng
s
t
r
es
s

on

c
hild
r
e
n

s

c
ognit
i
ve

d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt

a
nd

l
ea
r
ning,

a
nd

s
o
c
i
a
l
-

e
motion
a
l

f
un
c
tioning.

P
a
r
e
nt
a
l

r
e
l
a
tion
s
h
i
p

b
r
e
a
kdo
w
n

o
f
t
e
n

l
ea
ds

t
o

un
s
t
a
ble

hou
s
ing,

a
n
d
both

of th
e
s
e

a
r
e

a
l
s
o

k
e
y

r
i
s
k

f
ac
to
r
s

f
or

h
o
m
e
l
es
s
n
es
s
,

s
o

w
e

f
o
c
u
s

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
ly

on

the
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
ce
s

of

c
hi
l
d
r
e
n livi
n
g in

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
a
nd
c
o
uple

f
a
mili
e
s
.


K
e
y

f
indings

f
r
om t
h
is

s
tudy

a
r
e

p
r
e
s
e
n
t
e
d n
ex
t.


Hous
i
n
g

t
enu
r
e
,

m
ob
ilit
y

an
d

cost


F
or

L
S
A
C

f
a
mili
e
s
,

on

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
,

th
e
r
e

we
r
e

minim
a
l

c
h
a
ng
e
s

in

hou
s
ing

t
e
n
u
r
e

b
e
t
wee
n

2004

a
nd

2008:




the

p
e
r
ce
nt
a
ge

of

f
a
mili
e
s

w
ho

o
w
n
e
d

th
e
ir

h
o
me

o
u
t
r
ight

wa
s

r
e
l
a
tiv
e
ly

s
t
a
ble

(
in
c
r
ea
s
e
d
fr
om

1
0
%

to

13
%
)

a
s

wa
s

the

p
e
r
ce
nt
a
ge

w
ho

took

out

a

mo
r
tg
a
ge

(in
c
r
ea
s
e
d

fr
om

61%

to

62
%
);




p
r
iv
a
te

r
e
nt
a
l
s

we
r
e

a
l
s
o

s
t
a
b
le

(d
ec
r
ea
s
e
d
f
r
om 1
7
%

to
1
6
%
);




tho
s
e

in

public

h
o
u
s
ing
i
n
c
r
ea
s
e
d m
a
r
gin
a
lly

f
r
om
2
%

to

3
%
;
a
nd




f
a
mili
e
s

living
i
n oth
e
r

living

s
itu
a
ti
o
ns

d
ec
r
e
a
s
e
d
f
r
om
1
0%

to
6
%
.


T
he

m
a
jo
r
i
ty

of

c
hil
d
r
e
n

did not

move

h
o
u
s
e

b
e
t
wee
n

2
004

a
nd

2008

(54
%
),

a
nd
m
o
s
t

c
hil
d
r
e
n
w
ho

e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
ce
d

a

h
o
u
s
e move

did

s
o

only

o
n
c
e

(27
%
);

ho
we
v
e
r
,

a
s
igni
f
i
c
a
nt

min
o
r
i
t
y
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
ce
d t
w
o or

mo
r
e

m
ov
e
s

(1
8
%
).


On

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
,

hou
s
ing

c
o
s
t
s

of

f
a
mili
e
s

in
c
r
ea
s
e
d

by

32
%
,

fr
om

$239

in

2004

to

$316

in

2008
ac
r
o
s
s

m
o
s
t t
e
n
u
r
e

t
y
p
e
s
.

F
o
r

exa
mpl
e
, ho
u
s
ing
c
o
s
ts

of

f
a
mili
e
s

w
ho
w
e
r
e
:




mo
r
tg
a
g
ee
s

in
c
r
ea
s
e
d by

a

li
t
tle

ov
e
r

$100 p
e
r

wee
k (3
3
%
);




p
r
iv
a
te

r
e
nt
e
r
s

in
c
r
ea
s
e
d by

$74 p
e
r

wee
k (32
%
);
a
n
d




r
e
nting

fr
o
m

a

St
a
t
e
/
T
e
rr
i
t
o
r
y

ho
u
s
ing

a
u
t
ho
r
ity

in
c
r
e
a
s
e
d

s
u
b
s
t
a
n
ti
a
ll
y
,

up

8
2
%

o
r

$88

in

4
yea
rs
.


B
ut

th
e
r
e

we
r
e

n
e
gligible

in
c
r
ea
s
e
s

in

hou
s
ing

c
o
s
ts

f
or

f
a
mili
e
s

living

in

the

Oth
e
r
l
a
ndlo
r
d/
o
th
e
r

t
e
n
u
r
e

t
y
p
e
s

(up $8
f
r
om 2004

to 2008).


Hous
i
n
g

i
n

sepa
r
a
t
e
d

co
m
pa
r
e
d

t
o

coup
l
e

f
a
m
ili
es


T
h
e
r
e

we
r
e

s
t
a
r
k

di
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s

in

the

t
y
pe

of

hou
s
i
ng

t
e
nu
r
e

of

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s

c
omp
a
r
e
d

t
o
c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s
. S
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
f
a
mili
e
s
,
c
omp
a
r
e
d to
c
o
u
ple

f
a
mili
e
s
,
we
r
e
:




f
a
r

l
es
s

lik
e
ly

to o
w
n

th
e
ir

h
ome

out
r
i
g
ht
o
r

be

p
ay
ing
o
f
f

a

m
o
r
tg
a
g
e
;




mo
r
e

lik
e
ly

to be

i
n

p
r
iv
a
te

r
e
nt
a
l
s
;




mo
r
e

lik
e
ly

to be

r
e
s
id
i
ng in

public

ho
u
s
ing (
o
ne

in t
e
n
c
omp
a
r
e
d
t
o one

in a

h
u
nd
r
e
d);
a
nd




mo
r
e

lik
e
ly

to

be

living

in

the

“Oth
e
r


t
e
nu
r
e

t
y
pe

(
r
e
n
ting

in

ca
r
a
v
a
n

p
a
r
ks

a
nd

living

w
ith
oth
e
r

f
a
mily

m
e
mb
e
r
s
)

(one

in t
e
n
c
omp
a
r
e
d

to
o
ne

in
t
we
nt
y
).


Hou
s
ing

mobility

wa
s

a
l
s
o

mu
c
h

high
e
r

in

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s
.

Sin
c
e

2004,

t
w
o

in

th
r
e
e

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
f
a
mili
e
s

h
a
d

mov
e
d

a
t

l
ea
s
t

on
ce
,

c
omp
a
r
e
d

to

c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s
,

t
w
o

o
u
t

of

t
h
r
e
e

o
f

w
hom

h
a
d

T
h
e

i
n
f
l
uen
c
e

o
f
un
s
t
a
b
l
e

hou
si
n
g

o
n

c
h
il
dren

s
we
ll
be
i
n
g

an
d

d
e
v
e
l
opment

A
u
s
t
ra
li
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

o
f

F
am
il
y St
ud
i
es

3





not

mov
e
d

a
t

a
ll. Ov
e
r

on
e
-
t
e
nth

o
f

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
f
a
mili
e
s

h
ad

mov
e
d

a
t

l
ea
s
t

t
h
r
e
e

tim
e
s

in

the

l
a
s
t
f
our

yea
r
s
,
w
hile

ju
s
t ov
e
r

t
h
r
e
e

in a

hund
r
e
d

of

c
o
u
ple

f
a
mili
e
s

h
a
d mov
e
d
a
t

th
i
s

r
a
t
e
.


I
n

t
e
r
ms

o
f

ho
u
s
ing
s
t
r
e
ss
,

3
3%

of

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s

w
e
r
e

in

ho
u
s
ing

s
t
r
es
s
,

w
h
e
r
e
a
s

only

9%

o
f
c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s

we
r
e

i
n th
i
s

ca
t
e
go
r
y
.


T
he

s
a
m
ple

of

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s

in

L
S
A
C

wa
s

s
m
a
ll
e
r

th
a
n

c
ouple
f
a
mili
e
s
.

C
on
s
e
qu
e
ntl
y
,
e
s
tim
a
t
e
s

b
a
s
e
d
o
n
s
m
a
ll
e
r

sa
mpl
e
s

s
hould be

t
r
ea
t
e
d
w
i
t
h mo
r
e

ca
uti
o
n.


Change
s

i
n

hous
i
n
g

c
ir
cu
m
s
t
ance
s

f
o
ll
ow
i
n
g

a

r
e
l
a
t
i
onsh
i
p

sepa
r
a
ti
on


W
h
e
n

f
a
mili
e
s
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
, t
h
e
r
e
s
id
e
n
t

p
a
r
e
n
t

ex
p
e
r
i
e
n
ce
s

l
a
r
ge d
ec
lin
e
s in

e
q
u
i
v
a
li
s
e
d

f
a
mi
l
y
in
c
om
e
.

A
mong
L
S
A
C

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s
, th
i
s

d
ec
r
ea
s
e

o
n

a
v
e
r
a
ge

wa
s

j
u
s
t

u
n
d
e
r

$2
3
0

p
e
r

wee
k,
w
h
e
r
ea
s

L
S
A
C
c
o
u
ple
f
a
mil
i
e
s

ex
p
e
r
i
e
n
ce
d

a
n

in
c
r
ea
s
e
i
n

e
quiv
a
li
s
e
d

f
a
mily
i
n
c
ome of

$126

p
e
r
wee
k

ov
e
r

the

s
a
me p
e
r
i
o
d.

A
lthough

th
e
s
e

we
r
e
s
u
b
s
t
a
nti
a
l

c
h
a
ng
e
s

in

f
a
mily

in
c
ome

fo
r
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s
,

th
e
r
e

wa
s

on

a
v
e
r
a
ge

no

i
n
c
r
ea
s
e

in th
e
ir

ho
u
s
ing

c
o
s
t
s

f
ol
l
o
w
i
n
g

s
e
p
a
r
a
tio
n
.
How

do
e
s

th
i
s

o
cc
u
r
?

M
a
n
y

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

p
a
r
e
n
t
s

mov
e
d

to

c
h
e
ap
e
r

t
y
p
e
s

o
f

h
ou
s
i
n
g

t
e
nu
r
e
s
;

in
p
a
r
ti
c
ul
a
r

p
r
iv
a
te

r
e
nt
a
l
s

a
nd the

“Oth
e
r


t
e
nu
r
e

ca
t
e
g
or
y
.

Pr
iv
a
te

r
e
nt
a
l
s

a
nd

the


O
th
e
r


t
e
n
u
r
e
ca
t
e
go
r
y

we
r
e
,

on

a
v
e
r
a
g
e
,

$100

a
nd

$200

a

wee
k

l
es
s

th
a
n

a

m
o
r
tg
a
g
e
.

F
or

m
o
s
t

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
f
a
mili
e
s

i
n

p
r
iv
a
te

r
e
n
t
a
l
s
,

t
he

t
r
a
n
s
ition

m
ea
nt

th
a
t

a
p
a
r
t

f
r
om

th
e
ir

c
hild
r
e
n,

th
e
y

we
r
e

e
ith
e
r
living

a
lone or

w
ith

a n
e
w p
a
r
tn
e
r

(69%

a
nd

2
2
%

r
e
s
p
ec
tiv
e
l
y
).

Ho
we
v
e
r
,

f
o
r

t
he
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
f
a
mili
e
s

i
n

t
he

“O
t
h
e
r


t
e
n
u
r
e

ca
t
e
go
r
y
,

t
h
e
y

we
r
e

p
r
im
a
r
ily

r
e
l
y
ing

on

th
e
ir

r
e
l
a
tiv
e
s
f
or

lo
w
-
c
o
s
t
hou
s
ing (
f
o
r

exa
mpl
e
,

43%

we
r
e

living

w
ith

th
e
i
r

p
a
r
e
n
t
s
).

W
hile

w
e

did

n
ot

e
x
a
mi
n
e

this

i
ss
ue
i
n
this

r
e
po
r
t, ov
e
r
c
r
o
w
ding
m
a
y

be

a
n i
ss
ue

f
or

t
h
e
s
e

ho
u
se
hold
s
.


Hous
i
n
g

an
d

ch
il
d

we
ll
be
i
ng


T
h
e
r
e

we
r
e
s
ome

v
e
r
y

l
a
r
ge di
ff
e
r
e
n
ce
s

in

c
hil
d
r
e
n’s

d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt
a
l

out
c
om
e
s

f
or

h
o
u
s
ing

t
e
n
u
r
e
in

p
a
r
ti
c
ul
a
r
,
s
ome di
f
f
e
r
e
n
ce
s

f
or

h
ou
s
i
ng
s
t
r
es
s

a
nd

l
ittle
s
t
a
t
i
s
ti
ca
lly
s
ign
i
f
i
ca
nt

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
c
e
f
o
r
r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l

mobilit
y
.

T
he

e
v
i
d
e
n
c
e

fr
om

the

r
e
g
r
es
s
ion mod
e
lling

in

p
a
r
ti
c
ul
a
r

s
ug
g
e
s
ts

th
a
t

the
l
a
r
g
e
s
t

di
ff
e
r
e
n
ce
s

in

l
e
v
e
ls

of

r
ece
ptive vo
ca
bul
a
r
y
a
nd

b
e
ing
a
t

r
i
s
k of

c
lini
ca
l l
e
v
e
ls

of
e
motion
a
l

o
r

b
e
h
a
viou
r
a
l p
r
obl
e
m
s

a
r
e
f
o
u
nd

w
h
e
n

exa
mining

t
he

ho
u
s
ing t
e
nu
r
e

t
y
pe
o
f
c
hild
r
e
n

in

c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s
.
C
hild
r
e
n

in

c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s

w
ho

we
r
e

living

in

public

hou
s
ing

h
a
d
lo
we
r

l
e
v
e
ls

of

r
ece
ptive

v
o
ca
bul
a
r
y

a
nd

high
e
r

r
a
t
e
s

o
f
e
motion
a
l

or

b
e
h
a
vio
u
r
a
l

p
r
obl
e
m
s

th
a
n
c
hild
r
e
n

living

in

f
a
mi
l
i
e
s

w
ho

o
w
n
e
d

or

we
r
e

p
ay
ing

o
f
f

t
h
e
ir

o
w
n

h
o
m
e
.

C
hild
r
e
n

in

c
ouple
f
a
mili
e
s

w
h
o

we
r
e

p
r
iv
a
te

r
e
nt
e
r
s

a
l
s
o

h
a
d

lo
we
r

l
e
v
e
ls of

r
ece
ptive

vo
ca
bul
ar
y

th
a
n

c
hild
r
e
n

of
home

o
w
n
e
rs
,

a
nd

8

9

yea
r

old

c
hild
r
e
n

in

this

g
r
oup
a
l
s
o

h
a
d

high
e
r

r
a
t
e
s

of

c
li
n
i
ca
l

l
e
v
e
ls

of
e
motion
a
l
o
r

b
e
h
a
viou
r
a
l

p
r
obl
e
m
s
.


A

di
ff
e
r
e
nt

p
a
tt
e
r
n

o
f

di
f
f
e
r
e
n
ce
s

is

e
vid
e
nt

by

hou
s
i
n
g

t
e
nu
r
e

f
o
r

c
hild
r
e
n

living

in

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
f
a
mili
e
s
.

Only

4

5

yea
r

old

c
hild
r
e
n

in

public

ho
u
s
ing

h
a
d

lo
we
r

l
e
v
e
ls

of

r
ece
ptive vo
ca
bul
a
r
y
,
w
hile

8

9

yea
r

old

c
hild
r
e
n

living

in

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s

w
h
e
r
e

the

p
a
r
e
nt

o
w
n
e
d

the

ho
m
e
out
r
ight

h
a
d

f
a
r

l
o
we
r

r
a
t
e
s

of

e
m
otion
a
l

o
r

b
e
h
a
vi
o
u
r
a
l

p
r
obl
e
ms

t
h
a
n

a
ny

o
t
h
e
r

g
r
oup
o
f
separated
c
hild
r
e
n.


A
lthough

s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
mili
e
s

h
a
d

mu
c
h

high
e
r

l
e
v
e
l
s

of

h
ou
s
ing
s
t
r
e
s
s

th
a
n

c
ouple
f
a
mili
e
s
,

th
e
r
e
we
r
e

no
s
t
a
t
i
s
ti
ca
lly

s
i
g
ni
f
i
c
a
nt

d
i
ff
e
r
e
n
ce
s

in th
e
ir

l
e
v
e
l

o
f

c
hild
r
e
n’s

r
ece
ptive

vo
ca
b
u
l
a
r
y

or

r
a
t
e
s
of

c
lini
ca
l

l
e
v
e
ls

o
f

e
m
o
t
i
on
a
l

or

b
e
h
a
viou
r
a
l

p
r
obl
e
m
s
.

A
lt
h
ough

t
h
e
r
e
wa
s

e
vid
e
n
c
e th
a
t
c
hild
r
e
n

living

i
n

c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s

w
ho

w
e
r
e

in

h
o
u
s
i
n
g

s
t
r
e
s
s h
a
d

s
i
g
ni
f
i
ca
ntly

l
o
we
r

l
e
v
e
ls
o
f
r
ece
ptive

vo
ca
bul
a
r
y

th
a
n

c
hild
r
e
n

living

in
c
ouple

f
a
m
i
li
e
s

w
ho

we
r
e

n
o
t,

th
e
s
e

di
f
f
e
r
e
n
ce
s

we
r
e
no

long
e
r

e
vid
e
nt

on
c
e

o
t
h
e
r

d
e
mog
r
a
phic

c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
r
i
s
ti
c
s

we
r
e

t
a
k
e
n

into

acc
ount.

T
his
s
ugg
es
t
s
th
a
t

the

c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
r
i
s
ti
c
s

of

c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s

p
r
e
d
i
s
p
o
s
e

th
e
m

to

hou
s
ing

s
t
r
e
s
s

a
nd

not

hou
s
i
n
g
s
t
r
e
s
s

p
e
r

s
e
,
a
nd
ex
pl
a
i
n
s

th
e

di
ff
e
r
e
n
ce
s

i
n the

l
e
v
e
ls

of

r
ece
pt
i
ve

vo
ca
bul
a
r
y

by

ho
u
s
ing
s
t
r
es
s
.

T
h
e

i
n
f
l
uen
c
e

o
f
un
s
t
a
b
l
e

hou
si
n
g

o
n

c
h
il
dren

s
we
ll
be
i
n
g

an
d

d
e
v
e
l
opment

A
u
s
t
ra
li
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

o
f

F
am
il
y St
ud
i
es

4





Su
r
p
r
i
s
ingl
y
,

r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l mo
b
ility

wa
s

not

as
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d

w
ith
c
hild
r
e
n’s

r
ece
ptive

vo
ca
b
u
l
a
r
y

or

t
h
e
i
r
e
motion
a
l

o
r

b
e
h
a
viou
r
a
l

p
r
obl
e
m
s
.

W
hile

the

l
e
v
e
l

of

r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l

m
obility

o
f

c
hi
l
d
r
e
n

in

t
h
e
L
S
A
C

s
a
mple

wa
s

n
o
t

v
e
r
y

high,

m
a
ny

s
tudi
e
s

h
a
ve

f
ound

s
t
a
t
i
s
ti
ca
lly

s
ign
i
f
i
ca
nt

di
ff
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
u
s
ing

a

li
f
e
time

numb
e
r

of mov
e
s

of

t
h
r
e
e

or

m
o
r
e

f
or
a
dol
e
s
ce
nts

(
J
e
ll
ey
m
a
n

&

Sp
e
n
ce
r
,

2008).
P
e
r
h
a
ps

t
he

di
s
t
a
n
c
e

mov
e
d

a
nd
w
h
e
th
e
r

c
hild
r
e
n
s
h
i
f
t
e
d

s
c
hools

m
a
y

be

one

e
xpl
a
n
a
tion
f
or

t
he
l
ac
k

of

di
ff
e
r
e
n
ce
s

in

the
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

c
o
nt
ex
t.

F
u
tu
r
e

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h

c
ould

i
nv
e
s
tig
a
t
e

this

i
ss
u
e
;
ho
we
v
e
r
,

it m
a
y

a
l
s
o

be

ex
p
l
a
in
e
d

by

the
f
ac
t

th
a
t

c
omp
a
r
e
d

to the

U
n
i
t
e
d

St
a
t
e
s
,

f
a
mily

s
u
p
po
rt
s
in
A
u
s
t
r
a
lia

a
r
e

f
a
r

m
o
r
e

s
u
b
s
t
a
nti
a
l.


H
a
ving

a

“hom
e


is

a

f
un
d
a
m
e
nt
a
l

n
ee
d

of

a
ll

c
hild
r
e
n
.

F
indings
fr
o
m

th
i
s

r
e
p
o
r
t
s
ugg
e
s
t

t
h
a
t
w
hile

r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l

mobil
i
ty

do
e
s

not

und
e
r
mine

c
hild
r
e
n

s d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt,

living

in

t
y
p
e
s

of

ho
u
s
i
n
g
t
e
nu
r
e

a
ss
o
c
i
a
t
e
d

w
ith

i
n
s
t
a
bility

s
u
c
h

a
s

“doub
l
ing up”

is

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
t
e
d

w
ith

s
ome

a
dv
e
rs
e
e
ff
ec
t
s
.

E
v
e
n

m
o
r
e

s
u
b
s
t
a
nti
a
l

is

the

r
ole

pl
aye
d

by

the

t
y
pe

of

ho
u
s
ing

t
e
n
u
r
e
,

w
ith

th
o
s
e
c
hild
r
e
n

living

in

public

h
o
u
s
ing

h
a
ving

mu
c
h

w
o
rs
e

r
e
c
e
ptive

vo
ca
bul
a
r
y

a
nd

mu
c
h high
e
r

r
a
t
e
s
of

b
e
h
a
viou
r
a
l

o
r

e
mot
i
on
a
l p
r
obl
e
m
s
.

One

e
xpl
a
n
a
ti
o
n

is

th
a
t

t
o

be

e
ligible

f
or

p
u
blic

hou
s
ing,
f
a
mili
e
s

n
ee
d to

h
a
ve
s
igni
f
i
ca
nt, long
-
t
e
r
m

a
nd ongoing n
ee
d
s
,
w
h
e
r
ea
s

a doubling
u
p
a
rr
a
ng
e
m
e
nt

ca
n

be

e
nt
e
r
e
d

into

f
a
i
r
ly

qui
c
kl
y
.

H
o
u
s
ing

c
o
s
t
s

m
a
y

be

a
n
ot
h
e
r

p
o
ss
ib
l
e
e
xpl
a
n
a
tion,

a
s

f
a
mili
e
s

w
h
o

we
r
e

doubling

up

w
ith

r
e
l
a
t
iv
e
s

a
nd

t
h
o
s
e

living

in

p
u
blic

hou
s
i
ng
h
a
d

mu
c
h

lo
we
r

ho
u
s
ing

c
o
s
t
s
.

C
omp
a
r
e
d to

th
o
s
e

l
i
ving

in

public

ho
u
s
ing,

t
h
o
s
e

w
ho

we
r
e
doubling

up

h
a
d

hou
s
ing

c
o
s
t
s

th
a
t

we
r
e

$100

p
e
r

w
ee
k

lo
we
r
.

Giv
e
n

th
a
t

th
e
r
e

we
r
e

mo
r
e
limit
e
d

a
dv
e
rs
e
out
c
o
m
e
s

f
o
r

th
e
s
e
c
hild
r
e
n

c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d

t
o

tho
s
e in

public ho
u
s
ing,
t
h
e
n

p
e
r
h
a
p
s
one

r
ea
s
on

f
or

th
i
s

f
i
n
ding is

the mo
r
e

l
i
mit
e
d
f
i
n
a
n
c
i
a
l
b
u
r
d
e
n of

doubling

up.


F
u
r
th
e
r

w
o
r
k

c
ou
l
d

exa
mi
n
e

the

r
ole

pl
aye
d

by

the

f
in
a
n
c
i
a
l

s
t
r
es
s

o
f

p
ay
ing

r
e
nt

o
r

a

mo
r
tg
a
g
e
in

und
e
r
min
i
ng

the

a
bility

of

p
a
r
e
n
t
s

to

p
r
ovide

r
e
s
o
u
r
ce
s

f
o
r

th
e
ir

c
hil
d
r
e
n,

or

the

f
in
a
n
c
i
a
l
s
t
r
e
s
s

of

h
o
u
s
ing on the
a
bil
i
ty to p
a
r
e
nt
e
ff
ec
tiv
e
l
y
,
s
o t
h
a
t hou
s
ing poli
c
i
e
s

ca
n
w
o
r
k

to
e
nh
a
n
c
e
the d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt

of

A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a
n
c
hild
r
e
n.

T
h
e

i
n
f
l
uen
c
e

o
f
un
s
t
a
b
l
e

hou
si
n
g

o
n

c
h
il
dren

s
we
ll
be
i
n
g

an
d

d
e
v
e
l
opment

A
u
s
t
ra
li
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

o
f

F
am
il
y St
ud
i
es

5





Ack
now
l
edgem
e
nts


T
his

p
a
p
e
r

u
s
e
s

u
nit

r
ec
o
r
d

d
a
ta

fr
o
m

G
r
o
wi
n
g

Up

i
n

A
u
str
a
lia
:

T
he
L
ongit
u
d
i
n
a
l

Study

of
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

C
hi
l
d
r
e
n

(
L
S
AC
).
T
he
s
tudy is

c
ondu
c
t
e
d

in

p
a
r
tn
e
r
s
hip

b
e
t
wee
n

the D
e
p
a
r
tm
e
nt

o
f
F
a
mili
e
s
,

H
o
u
s
ing,

C
o
m
m
unity

S
e
r
vi
ce
s

a
nd
I
ndig
e
n
ous

A
f
f
a
i
r
s

(
F
a
H
C
S
I
A
),

t
h
e

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n
I
n
s
titute

of

F
a
mily

Studi
e
s

(
A
IF
S
)

a
nd

the

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

B
u
r
ea
u

of

St
a
ti
s
ti
c
s

(
A
B
S).

T
he

f
indi
n
g
s
a
nd

vi
ew
s

r
e
po
r
t
e
d

in

th
i
s

p
a
p
e
r

a
r
e

tho
s
e

of

the

a
uthor

a
nd

s
hould

n
o
t

be

a
tt
r
ibut
e
d

t
o
F
a
H
C
S
I
A
,
AI
F
S
o
r

the

A
B
S
.

T
h
e

i
n
f
l
uen
c
e

o
f
un
s
t
a
b
l
e

hou
si
n
g

o
n

c
h
il
dren

s
we
ll
be
i
n
g

an
d

d
e
v
e
l
opment

A
u
s
t
ra
li
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

o
f

F
am
il
y St
ud
i
es

6





1

Int
r
odu
c
t
i
on


Ve
r
y little is

und
e
rs
t
ood

a
b
out

the in
f
lu
e
n
c
e
o
f

ho
u
s
i
n
g on

c
hild
r
e
n’s

d
e
v
e
lopm
e
n
t

in

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
.
F
or

exa
mpl
e
,

a

r
ece
nt

r
e
vi
e
w

of

the

lit
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

on

th
i
s

i
s
s
ue

s
ugg
es
ts

t
h
a
t:


T
h
e
r
e

is

noti
cea
bly

a
l
ac
k

of

e
mpi
r
i
ca
l

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h
c
ondu
c
t
e
d

in

A
u
s
t
r
a
lia

o
n

the

links

b
e
t
wee
n

ho
u
s
i
ng

a
nd

c
hild
d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt

…”

(Do
c
k
e
r
y
e
t

a
l.,

2010,

p.

2).

I
n

th
i
s

r
e
po
r
t,

w
e

b
e
gin

to

f
ill

t
h
e

g
a
p

in

t
h
e
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

e
vid
e
n
c
e by p
r
oviding the
f
i
rs
t

n
a
ti
o
n
a
l d
a
ta on

the in
f
lu
e
n
ce
s

of

un
s
t
a
ble hou
s
ing
o
n
c
hild
r
e
n’s

d
e
v
e
l
o
pm
e
nt

u
s
i
ng d
a
ta
fr
o
m

G
r
o
wi
n
g

Up
i
n A
u
str
a
lia
:
T
he
L
ongitud
i
n
a
l S
t
udy
of
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

C
hil
d
r
e
n

(
L
S
A
C
).

Sp
ec
i
f
i
ca
ll
y
,

w
e

e
x
a
mine

the

as
s
o
c
i
a
tion

b
e
t
we
e
n

r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l
mobilit
y
,

u
n
s
t
a
ble ho
u
s
ing
t
e
nu
r
e

a
nd

ho
u
s
ing
s
t
r
e
s
s

o
n

c
hild
r
e
n

s

c
o
g
nitive

d
e
v
e
l
opm
e
nt

a
nd
l
ea
r
ning,

a
nd

s
o
c
i
a
l
-
e
m
o
ti
o
n
a
l

f
un
c
tioning.
P
a
r
e
nt
a
l

r
e
l
a
tion
s
hip

b
r
ea
kdo
w
n

o
ft
e
n

l
ea
ds

to
un
s
t
a
ble

hou
s
i
ng,

a
nd

both

of

th
e
s
e

a
r
e

a
l
s
o

k
e
y

r
i
s
k

f
ac
to
r
s

f
or

hom
e
l
e
ss
n
e
ss
,
s
o

w
e

f
o
c
u
s
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
ly

on
t
he

ex
p
e
r
i
e
n
ce
s

of

c
hi
l
d
r
e
n living
i
n
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
a
nd
c
ouple

f
a
mili
e
s
.


T
he

r
e
m
a
ind
e
r

o
f

t
his

r
e
p
o
r
t

i
s

s
t
r
u
c
tu
r
e
d

a
s

f
ollo
w
s
.

S
ec
tion

2

p
r
e
s
e
n
t
s

a
r
e
vi
e
w

of

t
h
e
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

a
n
d

i
n
t
e
r
n
a
ti
o
n
a
l

lit
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

on the
a
s
s
o
c
i
a
ti
o
n

b
e
t
wee
n
r
e
s
id
e
n
ti
a
l

mo
b
i
l
it
y
,

ho
u
s
ing
s
t
r
e
s
s

a
nd

h
o
u
s
ing

t
e
n
u
r
e

on
c
hild

out
c
om
e
s
.

S
ec
tion

3

p
r
ovid
e
s

a
n

ov
e
r
vi
e
w

o
f

s
o
m
e

d
e
f
initi
on
s
r
e
l
e
v
a
nt

to

ho
u
s
ing

a
nd

h
o
m
e
le
ss
n
e
s
s

in

A
u
s
t
r
a
lia

a
nd

the

d
a
ta

u
s
e
d

in

th
i
s

r
e
p
o
r
t.

S
ec
tion 4
p
r
ovid
e
s

a d
e
s
c
r
i
p
tion

of

t
h
e
s
e
a
s
p
ec
ts

of

the ho
u
s
i
n
g
c
i
r
c
um
s
t
a
n
ce
s

of

A
u
s
t
r
a
l
i
a
n

c
hild
r
e
n.
S
ec
tion

5
f
o
c
u
s
e
s

o
n

t
he

h
o
u
s
ing

c
i
r
c
um
s
t
a
n
ce
s

o
f

c
hil
d
r
e
n

living in

f
a
mili
e
s

w
h
e
r
e th
e
ir

p
a
r
e
nt
s
h
a
ve
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d
a
nd
w
h
e
r
e
t
h
e
ir

p
a
r
e
n
t
s

a
r
e
s
till
c
o
u
pl
e
d. S
ec
tion 6
e
x
a
min
e
s

the
r
e
l
a
tion
s
h
i
p
s
b
e
t
wee
n

c
hild

out
c
om
e
s

a
nd

hou
s
i
ng

c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
r
i
s
ti
c
s

f
or

4

5

a
nd

8

9

yea
r

old
c
hild
r
e
n

i
n
s
e
p
a
r
a
t
e
d

a
nd

c
ouple

f
a
mi
l
i
e
s
,

w
hile

c
ont
r
olling

f
o
r oth
e
r

s
o
c
i
o
-
ec
onomic

c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
r
i
s
ti
c
s

o
f
c
hild
r
e
n’s

f
a
mili
e
s
.

T
he

f
i
n
a
l
s
ec
tion d
i
s
c
u
s
s
e
s

th
e
s
e

f
i
nd
i
ngs

a
nd
t
h
e
ir

impli
ca
t
i
on
s
.

T
h
e

i
n
f
l
uen
c
e

o
f
un
s
t
a
b
l
e

hou
si
n
g

o
n

c
h
il
dren

s
we
ll
be
i
n
g

an
d

d
e
v
e
l
opment

A
u
s
t
ra
li
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

o
f

F
am
il
y St
ud
i
es

7





2

Un
s
tab
l
e hou
si
n
g and
c
h
il
d
r
en

s

de
v
e
l
opment


T
his
s
ec
tion

p
r
ovid
e
s

a
n

ov
e
r
vi
e
w of

r
e
s
ea
r
c
h

e
x
a
mi
n
ing

the in
f
lu
e
n
c
e of

r
e
s
id
e
n
ti
a
l

mobilit
y
,
hou
s
ing

s
t
r
e
s
s

a
nd

ho
u
s
ing

t
e
nu
r
e

on

c
hild
r
e
n

s

d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt.

Giv
e
n

th
a
t

u
n
s
t
a
ble hou
s
ing

ca
n
l
ea
d

to

h
om
e
l
es
s
n
es
s
,

w
e b
r
i
e
f
ly

di
s
c
u
s
s

the

impl
i
ca
tions

of

hom
e
l
es
s
n
e
s
s

f
or

c
hil
d
r
e
n

s
d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt
(
s
e
e

a
l
s
o
A
p
p
e
ndix A
f
or

a

di
s
c
u
ss
i
o
n of

t
h
e

d
e
f
inition

of

h
om
e
l
es
s
n
ess
).


2
.
1

Res
i
den
ti
a
l

m
ob
ilit
y


High

l
e
v
e
ls

of

r
e
s
id
e
n
ti
a
l

mobility

h
a
ve

c
o
n
s
e
qu
e
n
ce
s

f
or

t
he

d
e
v
e
lopm
e
nt

of

t
h
e

c
hild
r
e
n

i
n
th
e
s
e

h
ou
s
e
ho
l
d
s
.

A

r
ece
nt
s
y
s
t
e
m
a
tic

r
e
vi
e
w

o
f

22

s
t
u
d
i
e
s

r
e
p
o
r
t
e
d

high
e
r

l
e
v
e
ls

of

b
e
h
a
viou
r
a
l
a
nd

e
motion
a
l p
r
obl
e
m
s
,

in
c
r
ea
s
e
d

t
ee
n
a
ge

p
r
e
gn
a
n
c
y

r
a
t
e
s
,

f
a
s
t
e
r

initi
a
t
i
on

o
f

illi
c
it

d
r
ug

u
s
e

a
n
d
r
e
du
ce
d

c
ontinu
i
ty

of

h
ea
l
t
h

ca
r
e

(
J
e
ll
ey
m
a
n

&

Sp
e
n
c
e
r
,

2008).

A
p
a
r
t

f
r
om

th
e
s
e k
e
y

f
inding
s
,
th
e
r
e

a
r
e

s
e
v
e
r
a
l

oth
e
r

im
p
o
r
t
a
nt

poin
t
s

th
a
t

we
r
e

n
ot
e
d

a
bout

the
s
tudi
e
s

th
a
t

w
e
r
e

r
e
vi
ewe
d.
F
i
r
s
t,

a
lthou
g
h

th
e
r
e

wa
s

n
o
a
g
r
ee
d

d
e
f
init
i
on

o
f

“high
l
e
v
e
ls

of
r
e
s
id
e
n
ti
a
l

mobil
i
t
y

,

it

wa
s

mo
s
t
o
f
t
e
n

d
e
f
in
e
d

a
s

b
e
ing

g
r
ea
t
e
r

th
a
n 3

m
o
v
e
s

in the

l
i
f
e
time

of

p
r
im
a
r
y

s
c
h
ool

a
n
d

a
dol
e
s
ce
n
t
c
hild
r
e
n,
a
nd this

l
e
v
e
l of

mobility h
a
d
s
t
a
t
i
s
ti
ca
lly
s
igni
f
i
ca
nt

a
s
s
o
c
i
a
tions

w
ith

n
e
g
a
tive
out
c
om
e
s

(
J
e
ll
ey
m
a
n

&

Sp
e
n
ce
r
,

2008).

S
ec
ond,

th
e
r
e
we
r
e

only

th
r
e
e

s
tudi
e
s

t
h
a
t

exa
min
e
d

the
in
f
lu
e
n
c
e

of

r
e
s
i
d
e
nti
a
l

m
ob
i
lity

on

t
he

out
c
o
m
e
s

of

p
r
esc
hool
-
a
g
e
d

c
hild
r
e
n

a
nd

t
he

e
vid
e
n
c
e

on
the
a
ss
o
c
i
a
tion

w
ith

c
hild
o
ut
c
om
e
s

wa
s

mi
xe
d, p
r
im
a
r
i
ly b
eca
u
s
e the
s
tudi
e
s

h
a
d a

s
m
a
ll
s
a
mp
l
e
s
i
z
e

a
nd

we
r
e

u
n
r
e
p
r
e
s
e
nt
a
tiv
e
.

T
h
i
r
d,

J
e
ll
ey
m
a
n

a
nd Sp
e
n
ce
r

did

n
ot

id
e
n
ti
f
y

a
n
y

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n
s
tudi
e
s

in

t
h
e
ir

r
e
vi
ew

17

of

the

22

s
t
u
di
e
s

we
r
e

fr
o
m

the

U
n
i
t
e
d

St
a
t
e
s

a
nd

a

f
u
r
th
e
r

t
h
r
e
e
s
tudi
e
s

fr
o
m

Ca
n
a
d
a
.

Giv
e
n

th
a
t

the

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

c
ont
e
xt is

v
e
r
y

di
ff
e
r
e
nt,

it

i
s

imp
o
r
t
a
nt

to

h
a
ve
s
ome

n
a
ti
o
n
a
lly

r
e
p
r
e
s
e
nt
a
t
i
ve

e
vid
e
n
ce
.


T
h
e
r
e
a
r
e
s
e
v
e
r
a
l l
a
r
g
e
-
s
ca
le
s
tudi
e
s

f
r
om

the
U
nit
e
d S
t
a
t
e
s

th
a
t

a
l
s
o

s
ugg
e
s
t

th
a
t

c
hild
r
e
n

w
ho
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e high
e
r

r
a
t
e
s

of

r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l

mobility
a
r
e
a
t

high
e
r

r
i
s
k

of

s
c
h
ool

d
r
o
p
o
u
t

(
A
s
tone &
M
c
L
a
n
a
h
a
n, 1994),
r
e
p
ea
ti
n
g a g
r
a
de

a
t

s
c
hool, or

b
e
ing
s
u
s
p
e
nd
e
d

or

ex
p
e
ll
e
d

(
Simp
s
o
n

&
F
o
w
l
e
r
,

1994;

W
o
od,

H
a
l
fo
n,

S
ca
r
l
a
t
a
,

N
ewac
h
ec
k

&

N
e
ss
i
m,

1993).
T
he
r
ea
s
o
n
s

th
a
t

high
e
r
l
e
v
e
ls

of

r
e
s
id
e
nti
a
l

m
o
bil
i
ty in
f
lu
e
n
c
e
c
hild
r
e
n

n
e
g
a
t
iv
e
ly u
s
u
a
lly
ce
nt
r
e
s

a
r
o
u
n
d

a
ss
o
c
i
a
t
e
d
di
sr
u
p
tio
n
s

to

s
o
c
i
a
l

c
onn
e
c
tions

w
ith
i
n

n
e
ighbou
r
hoo
d
s
,

p
a
r
ti
c
ul
a
r
ly if

c
hild
r
e
n

h
a
ve to

move
s
c
hoo
l
s

a
nd m
a
ke

n
e
w

f
r
i
e
n
ds

(
D
o
c
k
e
r
y

e
t
a
l., 2010;
J
e
l
l
ey
m
a
n & Sp
e
n
ce
r
, 2008).


N
ew
ly

divo
r
ce
d

p
a
r
e
n
t
s

a
nd

th
e
ir

c
hild
r
e
n

h
a
ve

a

hi
g
h
e
r

r
a
te

o
f

r
e
s
id
e
n
ti
a
l

m
o
bility th
a
n

c
oup
l
e
f
a
mili
e
s
.

US

e
vid
e
n
c
e

f
r
om a

l
a
r
ge

longitudin
a
l

s
t
u
dy

s
u
gg
e
s
ts

t
h
a
t

p
a
r
e
nt
a
l

div
o
r
c
e

in
c
r
ea
s
e
s

t
h
e
p
r
ob
a
bility

t
h
a
t

c
hild
r
e
n

w
i
ll

move

out

o
f

th
e
ir

n
e
ig
h
bou
r
h
o
ods

(Sou
t
h,

C
r
o
w
d
e
r
,

&

T
r
e
n
t
,

1998).

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

d
a
ta

a
l
s
o

s
ugg
e
s
t

th
a
t

t
he

mobility

r
a
t
e
s

of

s
ingle
-
p
a
r
e
n
t

f
a
mili
e
s

a
r
e

high
e
r

th
a
n

c
ouple
f
a
mili
e
s

w
ith

c
hild
r
e
n

(
B
e
ll & Hugo, 2000),
a
lt
h
ough

the
r
a
t
e
s

we
r
e
e
quiv
a
l
e
nt

to

c
oup
l
e
f
a
mili
e
s

w
ith
o
ut

c
hild
r
e
n

a
nd

lo
n
e
-
p
e
r
s
on

h
ou
s
e
h
old
s
.
A
l
s
o

in

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
,

21%

o
f

s
i
ngle

p
a
r
e
nt
s
w
ho

mov
e
d

did
s
o

a
s

a

r
e
s
u
lt

of

s
e
p
a
r
a
tion,

w
hile

a
f
u
r
t
h
e
r

15%

mov
e
d

to

r
e
du
c
e

h
ou
s
ing

c
o
s
t
s
(
W
ul
f
f

&

B
e
ll, 1997).


High

l
e
v
e
ls

of

r
e
s
id
e
n
ti
a
l

mobility

a
r
e

a
l
s
o

a

c
h
a
r
ac
t
e
r
i
s
tic

of

the

hom
e
l
e
s
s popul
a
ti
o
n
(
B
a
r
t
holom
ew
,

1999;
M
cCa
ugh
ey
,

1992;

C
h
a
mb
e
r
l
a
in

&

M
ac
K
e
n
z
i
e
,

1998,

2008;

C
h
a
mb
e
r
l
a
i
n
,
J
oh
n
s
on, &
T
h
e
ob
a
ld, 20
0
7;
J
ohn
s
o
n, G
r
ond
a
, &
C
outt
s
, 2008).
W
hile longitud
i
n
a
l d
a
ta on
f
a
mili
e
s

ex
p
e
r
i
e
n
c
ing

h
o
m
e
l
e
ss
n
e
s
s

is

s
p
a
r
s
e
, th
e
r
e

i
s

s
o
me

e
vid
e
n
c
e

t
h
a
t

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n
f
a
mili
e
s

w
h
o
e
xp
e
r
i
e
n
c
e hom
e
l
e
s
s
n
e
s
s

h
a
d

a hi
s
to
r
y of

b
e
ing hi
g
hly mobil
e
.

T
he m
o
s
t

r
e
c
e
nt

a
v
a
il
a
ble
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

d
a
ta

i
ndi
ca
te

t
h
a
t

31%

o
f

c
hild
r
e
n
acc
o
m
p
a
n
y
ing

a
dults

acces
s
ing

h
om
e
l
e
s
s
n
es
s
s
upp
o
r
t

s
e
r
vi
ce
s

h
a
d

liv
e
d

i
n

3

or

mo
r
e hom
e
s

in

t
he

1
2

mont
h
s

p
r
ior

to

r
ece
iving

s
upp
o
r
t

a
n
d
ov
e
r

20%

h
a
d liv
e
d in 2
o
r

mo
r
e hom
e
s

in the mon
t
h p
r
ior

to

r
ece
iving
s
upp
or
t

(
A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n
I
n
s
titute of

H
ea
lth

a
nd

We
l
f
a
r
e [
A
I
H
W
],

1999).

Ov
e
r

6
0%

of

th
e
s
e
c
hil
d
r
e
n

h
a
d

ex
p
e
r
i
e
n
ce
d

a
hou
s
e

m
ove

in the

p
r
e
vio
u
s

12 mont
h
s
,
c
o
m
p
a
r
e
d to

the

n
a
tion
a
l
a
v
e
r
a
ge

of

1
5
%

of

a
ll
f
a
mili
e
s
.
1




1

T
h
e

l
a
tt
e
r

pe
r
cen
t
a
g
e

is

ba
s
e
d

o
n t
h
e

a
u
t
ho
r
s


ca
l
c
u
l
a
ti
o
n
s

u
s
i
n
g

T
a
bl
e

2

o
f

ABS

(2009
a
).

T
h
e

i
n
f
l
uen
c
e

o
f
un
s
t
a
b
l
e

hou
si
n
g

o
n

c
h
il
dren

s
we
ll
be
i
n
g

an
d

d
e
v
e
l
opment

A
u
s
t
ra
li
a
n

I
n
s
t
i
t
u
te

o
f

F
am
il
y St
ud
i
es

8





2
.
2

Hous
i
n
g

s
tr
ess


E
v
e
n

w
h
e
r
e

f
a
mili
e
s

a
r
e

n
ot

h
ighly

mobil
e
,

f
in
a
n
c
i
a
l

p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s

s
u
c
h

a
s h
a
ving

d
i
ff
i
c
ulti
e
s

p
ay
i
n
g
the

r
e
nt

or

mo
r
tg
a
ge

(i.
e
.,

h
ou
s
ing

s
t
r
es
s
)

ca
n

h
a
ve

s
i
g
ni
f
i
ca
nt

imp
ac
ts

on

c
hild
r
e
n.

A
t

2003

04,

23%

of

A
u
s
t
r
a
li
a
n

ho
u
s
e
h
o
lds

in

t
he

bot
t
om

4
0
%

of

t
he

in
c
ome

di
s
t
r
ib
u
tion

we
r
e

in

hou
s
i
ng
s
t
r
e
ss
.

T
h
i
s

e
qu
a
t
e
s

to
a
pp
ro
xim
a
t
e
ly

719,000 hou
s
e
h
olds

(
Ya
t
e
s
,
2007).


S
e
v
e
r
a
l

s
tudi
e
s

h
a
ve do
c
um
e
nt
e
d

th
a
t

ho
u
s
ing

a
ff
or
d
a
bility h
a
s

n
e
g
a
tive
c
o
n
s
e
qu
e
n
ce
s

f
o
r
c
hild
r
e
n,

a
lthough

t
he
f
ind
i
ngs

a
r
e not

c
l
ea
r

c
ut.

B
a
r
t
f
i
e
ld

a
nd

Duni
f
on

(200
5
)

f
o
u
nd

th
a
t

th
e
r
e
wa
s

a

l
a
r
ge

a
nd

r
obu
s
t

link b
e
t
wee
n

f
ood

i
n
s
ec
u
r
ity

o
f

hou
s
e
holds

w
i
th

c
hild
r
e
n

a
nd

g
r
ea
t
e
r
m
e
di
a
n

r
e
n
t
s

i
n

the
U
nit
e
d St
a
t
e
s
.

H
a
r
kn
es
s

a
nd N
ew
m
an

(2005)

r
e
po
r
t
e
d

t
h
a
t

c
hi
l
d
r
e
n

living
i
n
a
r
ea
s

w
ith

the l
ea
s
t

a
ff
o
r
d
a
b
le hou
s
ing m
a
r
k
e
ts

h
a
d
w
o
r
s
e
e
du
ca
tion
a
l out
c
om
e
s

th
a
n

tho
s
e
w
h
o
did

not.
T
h
e
ir

s
tudy
s
ugg
e
s
ts

the

e
ff
ec
t

m
a
y

be

c
u
m
ul
a
tiv
e
,

a
s

as
s
o
c
i
a
tio
n
s

b
e
t
wee
n

hou
s
i
n
g
a
ff
o
r
d
a
bil
i
ty

a
nd

e
du
ca
tio
n
a
l

out
c
om
e
s

we
r
e

s
t
r
ong
e
r

f
or

old
e
r

c
hi
l
d
r
e
n

(
12

17
yea
rs
)

t
h
an
y
oung
e
r

c
hild
r
e
n

(
6

11).

H
o
we
v
e
r
,

a
noth
e
r

l
a
r
ge
-
s
ca
le

U
S

s
tudy
s
ugg
e
s
t
e
d

t
h
a
t

c
hil
d
r
e
n

living

i
n
a
r
ea
s

w
ith

high
e
r

ho
u
s
ing

c
o
s
t
s

f
a
r
e
d

no

w
o
rs
e

o
n

c
o
g
nitive

t
e
s
t
s

a
nd

a m
ea
s
u
r
e of

b
e
h
a
vio
u
r
p
r
obl
e
m
s

th
a
n

th
o
s
e

living
i
n lo
we
r

c
o
s
t
a
r
ea
s

(
H
a
r
kn
e
s
s
, N
ew
m
a
n, & Hol
u
pk
a
, 2009).


T
h
e
r
e
a
r
e t
w
o

p
o
s
s
ible
ex
pl
a
n
a
tions

giv
e
n

in

the lit
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
f
or

t
he in
f
lu
e
n
c
e of

h
o
u
s
ing

c
o
s
ts

o
n
c
hild
r
e
n’s

d
e
v
e
lopm
e
n
t.
T
h
e

m
a
teri
a
l
ha
r
d
s
h
ip

e
xpl
a
n
a
ti
o
n

s
ugg
e
s
ts

th
a
t

high
e
r

h
ou
s
i
ng

c
o
s
ts

ca
n
s
igni
f
i
ca
ntly

a
ff
ec
t

p
a
r
e
n
t
s


a
bility

to

p
r
ovide

a
d
e
qu
a
t
e
ly

f
or

th
e
ir

c
hild
r
e
n;

f
or

exa
mpl
e
,

b
e
ing
a
ble

to

a
f
f
o
r
d

f
ood,

s
c
h
o
ol

boo
k
s
,

c
lo
t
h
e
s

a
nd

h
ea
l
t
h

ca
r
e
.

T
he oth
e
r

p
o
t
e
nti
a
l

e
x
pl
a
n
a
tion

i
s
d
e
r
iv
e
d

f
r
om

t
he

f
a
m
ily str
e
ss

mod
e
l

of
ec
onomic

h
a
r
d
s
h
i
p,

w
hi
c
h

p
o
s
tul
a
t
e
s

a

s
e
r
i
e
s

of

m
e
di
a
t
e
d
r
e
l
a
tion
s
hips

b
e
t
wee
n

f
in
a
n
c
i
a
l

h
a
r
d
s
hip, p
a
r
e
n
t
s


m
e
n
t
a
l

h
ea
lth,

c
on
f
li
c
t b
e
t
wee
n

ca
r
e
giv
e
r
s
,
p
a
r
e
nting

p
r
ac
ti
ce
s

a
nd

c
hi
l
d
r
e
n’s

m
e
nt
a
l

h
ea
lth

(
C
ong
e
r

&

D
onn
e
ll
a
n,

2007)