che 353 chemical processes - Department of Chemical Engineering

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CHE 110 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMICAL AND
BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING


An
Introduction

to

Chemical

Engineering

via

the

flowsheets

of
operations

and

processes

involved
.
Relevant

phenomena

related

to

these

operations

and

processes
.


Chemical

engineering

curriculum

of
the

Department



Principles

of
material

balance

calculations

of
continuous

steady
-
state

processes
.


Introduction

to

chemical

engineering

economics
.

Course Objectives


Give

students
:



a flavor of chemical engineering discipline,


an ability to formulate and solve material
-
balance problems,to select set of independent
balance equations (degrees of freedom
analysis), and use spreadsheets (EXCEL) in
solving material balances.

Textbook:


David

M.
Himmelblau

& James B.
Riggs
,
Basic

Principles

and

Calculations

in
Chemical

Engineering
, 7th
Edition
,
Prentice

Hall
, 2004

Parts

1
and

2,
Chapters

1
-
12 (
pages

1


395 )

Lecture

Hours
:


Tue
.
3
(KB433),
Wed
. 1,2 (KB433),
Fri
. 5,6,7
(KB433)

Office
Hours
:

Mon
. 10:30


12:30






grading



Exam

I ......... 20%
(
Fri
.
March

30
th

)



Exam

II ....... 20%
(
Fri
. May 1
1

th
)



Final
Exam

... 3
5
%



Quiz

.............. 15%



Attendance
....
10
%
_____________________


Total: 100%

Homework 1

1.
Read Textbook, pages xxi


xxx

2.
Examine ChE 110 web page

3.
Read Description of Chemical Engineering at:

http://www.pafko.com/history/h_intro.html

What is Chemical
Engineering
?

Engineering:


Is the Profession in which a knowledge of
the
mathematical

and
natural sciences

gained by study, experience and practice
is
applied

with judgement to develop ways
to
economically utilize

the
materials

and
forces of nature

for the progressive
well
being of mankind.


Combines the principles of mathematics,
physics,
chemistry

and
biology

with
engineering practices in order to improve
the human environment.





Chemical Engineering:

Chemical engineering

is based on
applications of
chemistry, physics,
mathematics, economics
, and

increasingly,
biology
and
biochemistry
.


Because of this broad
-
based foundation
.. the chemical engineer is

considered the
universal engineer
. ...

It is a Chemical World!


Life is based on the existence of a
very large number of chemical and
biochemical reactions that take place
continously.

Photosynthesis:


CO
2

+ H
2
O + (sunlight)


(CH
2
O)n + O
2



Respiration:


C
6
H
12
O
6

+ 6O
2



6CO
2

+ 6H
2
O + 673 Kcal


A
Chemical

Engineer
:


1.
develops

or

designs

a
new

process

or


2.
re
-
designs
,
improves
,
or

troubleshoots

a
process
, in
order

to

make

or

do
something

as
economically
,
safely
,
and

efficiently

as
possible
.


A
process

is
any

operation

(
or

group

of
operations
)
which

allow

something

to

be
accomplished
.

A
chemical

engineering

process

is a
process

that

takes

one

material

or

bit of
energy

(
or

a
combination
)
and

makes

from

it
another

material

or

bit of
energy

(
or

combination
).

(Natural

Resources)

Important responsibility in utilizing
scarce

natural resources:


Maintaining a clean environment
(air, water, earth)


Providing for enough, clean energy (fossil fuels,
wind, sun, hydraulic, geothermal, biomass,
atomic, fuel cells...)


Providing for enough, healthy food (animals,
vegetables)


Avoiding depletion of essential elements (C,N,
O, P, K...) and minerals.




10 Significant Achievements of
Chemical Engineering

1.
Splitting the atom, isolating isotopes (medicine, biology,
archaelogy)

2.
The plastic age (bakalite, polyethylene, polystyrene...)

3.
Human reactor, analogy with complex chemical processes

4.
Wonder drugs for the masses (low price, high volume)

5.
Sythetic fibers (textiles industry)

6.
Liquified air (nitrogen, oxygen, argon)

7.
Environmental protection (catalytic converters, waste
treatment)

8.
Food (fertilizers, biotechnology, food processing)

9.
Petrochemicals (gasoline, plastics, rubber, synthetic
fibers...)

10.
Synthetic rubber (tires, gaskets, hoses, conveyor belts,
shoes)


http://www.pafko.com/history/h_intro.html


Broad Spectrum of Chemical Engineering


Most versatile of all engineers.

Very broad range of working areas:


Production and utilization of energy


Environmental protection


Pulp and paper


Advanced materials (catalysts, alloys, enzymes, nanomaterials...)


Manufacture of chemicals (dyes, paints, fertilizers, acids....)


Plastics and fibers manufacture


Food Processing


Rubber Industry


Consulting


Metallurgy


Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals


Cosmetics, perfumes and flavors


Instrumentation Development and Marketing


Manufacture of Medical Devices


Government


Patent Law




Chem. Eng.
Departments
in the USA

Where

do
the

chemical

engineers

work
?





45% do ``traditional''
ChE

:

chemical
,
petroleum, plastic, paper, consumer goods




35%
do
``new''
ChE

:

environment
,
consulting, microelectronics, biotech
nology
,
materials




10% go to
ChE

graduate school




10% go to other graduate school (law,
medicine, business)

oil

contract

chemicals

other

pharmaceutical

power

food

education

consultants

water

process



Engineering Profession



Bachelor's



Degree

Master's Degree


Ph.D.

Aerospace

$50,993

$62,930

$72529

Agricultural

$46,172

$53,022



Biomedical



$48,503

$59,667

Chemical

$53,813

$57,260

$79,591

Civil

$43,679

$48,050

$59,625

Computer

$52,464

$60,354

$69,625

Electrical

$51,888

$64,616

$80,206

Environmental

$47,384





Industrial

$49,567

$56,561

$85,000

Materials

$50,982





Mechanical

$50,236

$59,880

$68,229

Mining

$48,643





Nuclear

$51,182

$58,814



Petroleum

$61,156

$58,000



Wages


comparison

Turkish chemical industry

As of 2010 :





13,802 registered firms were operating in the Turkish
Chemical Industry. (48 firms in pharmaceuticals, 4071 in
various chemicals, 9683 in plastics)




The total turnover of Turkish Chemical products

was 123 Billion USD which accounted for the 6.0% of GDP
(gross domestic product) of Turkey.




The chemical industry accounted for almost 30% of the
total manufacturing output.




The total value of imports by the chemical industry was 65.0
Billion USD while exports were 13.0 Billion USD.




Chemical Exports/Manufacturing Ind. Exp. = 0,25




Chemical Imports/Manufacturing Ind. Imp. = 0,47



Subdivisions of the Turkish Chemical Industry

12%

26,00%

24%

37,60%

BASIC

CHEMİCALS

CONSUMER

GOODS

PHARMACEUTICALS

SPECIAL & FINE

CHEMICALS

cosmetics

parfumes

soap

detergents

petrochemicals

plastics

and

synthetic

rubber

synthetic

fibers

basic

inorganic

chemicals

industrial

gases

fertilizers

Paints
,
inks
,

agricultural

sprays
,

plant

oils

Organic

acids

from

fruits


0
2.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.000
12.000
14.000
16.000
18.000
1990
2000
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
million US$


Production of Turkish Chemical Industry


CHEMICAL PRODUCTS IMPORTS OF TURKEY 2001
-
2007
(IN MILLION U.S. DOLLARS)




Chemical

Groups



2001

2002

2007




Plastics

and

plastic

products


1,733

2,382

8,684


Organic

chemicals



1,625

2,227

3,993


Pharmaceuticals



1,087

1,439

3,522


Other

chemicals



484


579

1,536


Paint

material



491


680

1,528


Inorganic

chemicals



356


434

1,103


Fertilizers



266


266


996


Essential

oils

and

cosmetics



237


290


754


Cleaning

materials



150


184


511


Products

related

to

photography



120


133


243


Albuminoid

materials
,
glue

etc



90


119


326


Explosives



6


7


28



Total


6,635

8,398

25,100


CHEMICAL EXPORTS OF TURKEY 2001
-

2007
(IN MILLION U.S. DOLLARS)




Chemical

Groups



2001

2002

2007




Plastics

and

plastic

products



610 679

2,820


Synthetic

fibers

(
continuous
)


108


118

1,260


Synthetic

fibers

(
non
-
continuous
)


56


67

1,044


Cleaning

materials



233


261


516


Inorganic

chemicals



211


219


516


Organic

chemicals



155


64 374


Essential

oil

and

cosmetics



83


98


360


Pharmaceuticals



127


144


357


Paint

material



92


113 356


Other

chemicals



64 76 280


Fertilizers



18 36


84


Albuminoid

materials
,
glue

etc



10


13


55


Explosives



8


9


11


Products

related

to

photography



6


7.8


11__




Total:

1,617

1,820


8,333



Sectors that use Products of Turkish Chemical Industry



Sectors

%

Final Consumption


30,3

Service and Administrative

16,4

Metal
-
Mining, Mechanical and Electrical Eng.

9,0

Agriculture

6,4

Textile

6,3

Construction

5,4

Automot
ive

5,3

Paper and Printing

4,5

Others

16,4

Chemical engineers are trained to
perform a wide range of duties:


Production Supervision


Scale
-
up of Laboratory Processes to Industrial Size


Economic Analyses


Pollution Control


Health and Safety


Automatic Control of Processes


Computer Simulation of Plants for Optimum Operation


Design of In
-
Plant Improvements for more Economical
Operation


Management


Technical Marketing


A typical Chemical Engineering Curriculum

aims to educate its graduates to:


Obtain the necessary knowledge in mathematics, basic sciences,
computing, and engineering that will enable them to solve
problems in the analysis, design, optimization, and control of
components, systems, and processes encountered in the practice
of chemical engineering;


Exercise their competence, creativity, and imagination in design
and research and to synthesize their broad
-
based knowledge
through applications to real
-
world engineering problems;


Cultivate effective communication skills, both oral and written,
especially in technical subject matters;


Develop the necessary attributes for constructive participation in
and leadership of interdisciplinary teams;


Understand and appreciate the professional and
ethical
responsibilities

entailed in engineering practice and research; and


Acquire a sufficiently broad, diverse, and rigorous education to
excel in graduate work in chemical engineering as well as in a
variety of other professional degree programs.


Code of Ethics is based on:




uphold
ing

and advanc
ing

the integrity, honor and
dignity of the engineering profession by:

being honest and impartial and serving with fidelity
employers, clients, and the public;




striv
ing
to increase the competence and prestige
of the engineering profession;




us
ing

knowledge and skill for the enhancement
of human welfare.

Chemical Engineering Curriculum

Engineering/Science Core


İntro. fundamentals

Humanities

Economics

Main Components

1.
Engineering core courses
(math, phys, chem, hum, bio, economics)

2.
Chemical engineering fundamentals
(
ChE 110, 201, 202, 211, 383, 386
)

3.
Chemical engineering science and analysis
(
ChE 232, 302, 321, 333, 334, 342, 353, 401
)

4.
Chemical engineering synthesis and design
(
ChE 342, 433, 462, 475, 492
)

5.
Specialization options (biomolecular
-
,
catalyst technology and reaction
-
,
process
-
, polymer and biopolymer science
and eng.)

Chemical Engineering Fundamentals




ChE 201: Physicochemical Systems

I

Description of physicochemical systems. Laws of thermodynamics.
Changes of state. Solutions and phase equilibria. Chemical equilibrium.
Physical chemistry of surfaces. The kinetic theory. Electrochemistry:
conductance and ionic reactions; electrochemical cells. Laboratory
experiments.





ChE 202: Physicochemical Systems II
Concepts and methods of statistical thermodynamics. Distribution
of molecular states. Schrödinger equation, partition functions, X
-
ray diffraction. Electric and magnetic properties of molecules.
Structure and motion of fluids. Radial distribution functions.
Intermolecular forces. Kinetics of gases, diffusion equation.
Chemical kinetics, rate laws, temparature dependence of reaction
rates, elementary and complex reactions. Eyring's theory.
Laboratory experiments.


ChE 211: Chemical Engineering Calculations



Calculation methods used in the chemical industry based on the principles of
material and energy balances. Application of equations of state, heat
capacity, enthalpy, chemical reactions, two
-
phase systems, enthalpy
-
concentration diagrams, heats of solution; crystallization, vaporization,
melting, etc. Concepts of simultaneous material and energy balance
calculations of chemical engineering unit operations, unit processes and
related applications.



ChE 383: Probability and Statistics in Chem.Eng.Applications



Fundamental concepts in probability; probability distributions, mathematical
expectations; statistical methods including sampling distributions, point and
interval estimation, hypothesis testing, linear regression, analysis of variance,
as applied in chemical engineering problems. Factoral design of experiments.


ChE 386: Mathematical Modeling
Utilization of mass, energy and momentum balances and rate processes to
describe the behavior of chemical engineering systems. Distributed, lumped
parameter, steady and transient systems. Block diagrams, development of
mathematical models and solution techniques.

Chemical Engineering Science and Analysis


ChE 232: Chemical Engineering I: Fluid Mechanics



Dimensional analysis with applications. Fluid statics and its applications.
Integral and differential mass, energy and momentum balances. Laminar
and turbulent flow of Newtonian fluids. Flow measurements.


ChE 302: Chemical Engineering Laboratory I


Safety assesment. Principles of safety regulations. Survey of
experimental methods. Series of experiments related to unit operations
and unit processes.



ChE 321: Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics


The laws of thermodynamics, equations of state and formulation of
thermodynamic properties of systems. Generalized state properties.
Prediction of behavior of multiphase and multicomponent systems.
Chemical reaction equilibria. Thermodynamic analysis of processes.



ChE 333: Chemical Engineering II: Heat Transfer


Heat transfer by conduction. Heat transfer by convection in single
phase systems and in systems with phase change. Radiation heat
transfer. Analytical, numerical and graphical techniques. Heat
exchange equipment and networks.


ChE 334: Chemical Engineering III: Mass Transfer Operations

General and special forms of the differential equations for mass
transfer. Steady
-
state molecular diffusion. Convective mass
transfer: single
-
phase and interphase transfer. Continuous and
stagewise contacting of immiscible and partially miscible phases: gas
absorption, desorption and liquid
-
liquid extraction. Distillation of
binary mixtures.


ChE 342: Chemical Reaction Kinetics and Reactor Design


Kinetics of homogeneous reactions. Analysis of simple and complex
rate equations; correlation of rate data. Kinetics of heterogenous
reactions. Global rates. Isothermal and non
-
isothermal operation of
homogeneous reactors: ideal batch, plug
-
flow and stirred
-
tank
reactors. Other reactor types. Deviations from ideal performance.


ChE 353: Chemical Processes


A survey of various chemical processes as it is pertinent to the
conventional chemical industry with an eye to the developments
expected in the future. The main aim of the course is to give the
ability to critically analyze complete chemical processes in some
detail.


ChE 401: Chemical Engineering Laboratory II

Continuation of ChE 302, including independent laboratory
projects and presentations.


Chemical Engineering Synthesis and Design


ChE 433: Design of Chemical Processing Units

Basic engineering concepts and accepted procedures as applied to
the design of main process units and auxiliary equipment. Operating
principles of various processing equipment to critically evaluate,
specify and design the most appropriate unit(s) among available
alternatives for specific tasks.



ChE 462: Chemical Plant Design and Economics

Study of fundamental concepts in chemical plant design, organization
of chemicals manufacturing plants and the economic considerations
associated with the investment, feasibility and operation of such
plants. Independent and group projects covering the above topics
related to the existing Turkish conditions.

ChE 475: Process Dynamics and Control

Dynamic modeling of linear and nonlinear chemical processes.
Linerazation. Laplace transforms. Stability of systems. Conventional
feedback controllers. Dynamic behavior of feedback controlled
systems. Controller design using frequency response techniques.
Computer simulation of controlled and uncontrolled systems. Design of
controls using simulation programs.

ChE 492: Project

Inter
-
disciplinary project undertaken by a student, either together
with a small team of other students or individually, under the
supervision of a faculty member. The object is to enable the student
to apply as much of his/her education as possible to the solution of a
specific realistic problem. Students are required to meet on a
regular basis for consultation with, and report orally to their project
supervisor. A written midterm progress report and a final report are
required of each student together with at least one oral report to
his/her classmates



the strong
scientific
,
mathematical
, and
technical
background
found in chemical engineering education is
allowing
the
profession
to
enter new fields.




the largest growth in employment is occurring in up
-
and
-
coming fields which show tremendous potential.

Biotechnology
,
polymers
,
electronics
,
catalyst
design
,
food processing
,
pharmaceuticals
,
environmental
clean
-
up
,
biomedical implants and nano technologies.

all offer possibilities for chemical engineers.




the chemical engineering education needs to respond
to the industrial realities of the profession.


Current Trends:

Specialization Options




1. Biomolecular Engineering


2. Catalyst Technology and Reaction Eng.


3. Polymer and Biopolymer Science and Eng.


4. Process Engineering



Option

1

Biomolecular

Engineering

BIO 351

Microbiology

ChE353

Chemical

Processes

CHEM 415

General
Biochemistry

ChE421

Genetic Engineering Applications in Biotechnology

ChE422

Molecular

Biotechnology

ChE425

Technology

of
Food

Preservation

ChE427

Bioreaction

Engineering

ChE463

Bioprocess

Design


ChE486

Spec. Top. in
ChE
: Protein Interactions: From Molecules to Networks

ChE520

Downstream Processing in Biochemical Engineering

ChE529

Metabolic

Engineering

Option

2

Catalyst Technology and Reaction Engineering

ChE 353

Chemical Processes

ChE 427

Bioreaction Engineering

ChE 440

Heterogenous Catalysis

ChE 441

Hydrogen Technologies

ChE 442

Design of Solid Catalysts

ChE 444

Fuel Cells and Catalysis

ChE 487

Spec. Top. in ChE:Sustainable Energy Technologies

ChE 541

Microreaction Engineering

ChE 542

Analysis of Sustainable Technologies

ChE 543

Catalysis for Green Technologies

ChE 689

Spec. Top. in
ChE:Kinetic

Stud.in

Heterogeneous Cat.

Option

3

Polymer
/
Biopolymer

Science

and

Engineering

ChE 310

Introduction to Macromolecular Systems

ChE 353

Chemical Processes

ChE 412

Structure, Function and Simulation of Biopolymers

ChE 413

Design and Simulation of Macromolecular Systems

ChE

414

Physical Properties of Polymeric Systems

Chem

435

Introduction to Polymer Science and Technology

Chem

487

Polymer Laboratory Experiments

ChE 510

Molecular Thermodynamics in Polymeric and Biolgical Systems

ChE 511

Polymer Processing Principles and Modeling

ChE 512

Hierarchical Modeling of Macromolecular Systems

ChE 516

Computational Biology and Bioinformatics

ChE 531

Mechanical Properties of Polymers

ChE 538

Polymer Applications

CmpE

544

Pattern Recognition

ChE 688

Spec. Top. in
ChE:Folding
, Binding &
Allostery

in
Biomolecular

Machines

Option

4

Process Engineering

ChE 353

Chemical Processes

ChE 426

Food Engineering

ChE 430

Separation Processes

ChE 450

Energy Technologies

ChE 460

Total Quality Engineering in Chemical Industries

ChE 465

Operational and Enviromental Safety of Chemical Plants

ChE 476

Computer Aided Design and Synthesis

ChE 477

Process Optimization

ChE 478

Cost and Risk Engineering

ChE 484

Spec. Top. in ChE:Spectral Methods with Applications to Transport Processes

ChE 550

Statistical Methods in Chemical Processes

ChE 555

Applied Mathematics and Modeling for Chemical Egineers

ChE 566

Process Engineering Strategy

ChE 577

Design and Operation under Uncertainty and Risk

ChE 578

Dynamic Optimization of Chemical Processes