Biotech Lect-12 - lectureug4

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9 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Microbial Biotechnology


Products from Microorganisms

LECTURE
12:

Biotechnology; 3 Credit hours



Atta
-
ur
-
Rahman

School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB)


National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)

Products from
Microorganisms


A number of commercially important compounds
are produced from microorganism by
biotechnology. That includes;


Metabolites


Enzymes


Antibiotics


Natural Rubber


Fuels


Plastics


1. Metabolites



Two types of metabolites are produced by
microbial cell

1.
Primary metabolite

2.
Secondary metabolite


Primary metabolite


They are produced during the organism growth
phase.


These compound are essential to an organism
metabolism and can be intermediate metabolite
or end products



Metabolites Cont.'s

Secondary Metabolites


They are derived from primary metabolites or the
intermediates of primary metabolites


They are characteristically produced quite late in
the growth cycle


They are not essential for the cell growth or
function


Their specific functions are unknown, these
compound probably give the organism selective
advantage against its competitors in its natural
environment

Primary Metabolites

Secondary Metabolites

Amino Acids

Antibiotics

Vitamins

Pigments

Nucleotides

Toxins

Polysaccharides

Alkaloids

Ethanol

Many active pharmacological
compounds

Acetone

Immuno

suppressor
cyclosporins

etc.

Butanol

Lactic Acid

Metabolites Cont.'s

2. Enzymes


Enzymes isolated from microorganism and
fungi have applications in the production of
food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, industrial
chemicals and detergents


High fructose corn syrup by
Bacillus
amyloliquefaciens

for
β
-
amylase
,
Aspergillus

niger

for
glucoamylase

and
Arthrobacter

sp.
For
glucose
isomerase

Enzymes Cont.’s

Enzymes

Uses

Lipases

Enhance flavor

in cheese making

Lactase

Breaks down lactose to glucose and
galactose
; lactose free milk products

Protease

Detergent additive;

hydrolase
suspended proteins in beer that form
during brewing for a less cloudy
chilled beer

α
-
amylase

Used in production of high fructose
corn syrup

Pectinase

Degrades pectin to soluble
components,

reduce cloudiness in
chilled wine, fruit juice

Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)

Dissolves blood clots


Recombinant DNA technology provides way to
mass produce industrially important enzymes


How???


The search for new microorganism and
enzymes is going on


Less than 1% of the world’s microorganism
have been cultured and characterized


Hence they represent an untapped gold mine

Enzymes Cont.’s


Microbes have adapted to practically every
habitat, they have evolved
complex biochemical
pathways


Scientist are discovering new enzymes from
microorganism, extremophiles, as well as those
found in wastewater that may be applicable to a
variety of industrial processes


Once enzyme and its application identified, it can
be
improved

for enhanced
catalytic properties
,
modified
substrate recognition
through
genetic
engineering

Enzymes Cont.’s


Antibiotics are small metabolites with
antimicrobial activity; produced by Gram +
ve
,
G

ve

and fungi


Their role in nature is to enable the antibiotic
producer to effectively compete for resources
in the environment by
killing

or
inhibiting

the
growth of competitor microorganism

3. Antibiotics

Antibiotics Cont.’s


First antibiotic used was penicillin, discovered in
1929 by
Alexder

Fleming


Antimicrobial drugs act is different ways by


Disrupting the plasma membrane


Inhibiting cell wall synthesis


Inhibiting protein synthesis; translation


Inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis and replication


Inhibiting synthesis of important metabolites;
folic acid etc.


Antibiotics Cont.’s