Biotech Lect-10 - lectureug4

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9 Δεκ 2012 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Microbial Biotechnology

LECTURE
10:

Biotechnology; 3 Credit hours



Atta
-
ur
-
Rahman

School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB)


National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)

The Maldives, glittering from phosphorescent
bacteria

Microorganism


Minute living things unseen by the naked
eyes


Diverse

and

unique

life

form


Ubiquitous

in

nature
;

live

in

soil,

water,

food,

animal

intestines

as

well

as

in

extreme

settings

such

as

glaciers,

hot

springs

and

deep
-
sea

thermal

vents



Microorganisms

Protozoan

Yeast

Mold

Archaeon

Bacterium

Algae

Virus

Microorganism


Used

in

the

production

of

fermented

foods

(
eg
.

beer,

wine,

bread

etc
.
)


Used

in

the

production

of

enzymes

and

bioactive

compounds

for

medical

and

pharmaceuticals


Used

in

bioremediation

and

waste

treatment


Microbial Biotechnology


Application

of

scientific

and

engineering

principles

to

the

processing

of

materials

by

microorganisms

to

create

useful

products

or

processes
.



Microorganisms

utilized

may

be

natural

isolates,

laboratory

selected

mutants

or

microbes

that

have

been

genetically

engineered

using

recombinant

DNA

methods
.



Deals

with

the

prevention

of

deterioration

of

processed

or

manufactured

goods,

environmental

protection

and

with

waste

disposal

system
.



Production

of

antibiotics,

organic

acids

and

enzymes

by

fermentation

of

natural

microbes,

laboratory

selected

mutants

or

microbes

genetically

engineered

using

recombinant

DNA

methods
.


Microbial Biotechnology


development

of

genetically

engineered

plants

with

internal

resistance

to

drought,

frost,

insect

pests

and

infestation



reduction

in

dependency

of

plants

on

chemical

fertilizers

and

identification

of

alternatives

to

expensive

fertilizers



replacement

of

dangerous

chemical

pesticides

with

microbial

pesticides

to

manage

and

control

the

problem

of

pests


Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture


reduction

in

the

reliance

on

chemical

treatments

to

control

weeds

by

engineering

herbicide

tolerance

into

crops



production

of

products

that

have

high

yield

and

enhanced

nutritional

value



development

of

novel

biomass

products

as

foodstuffs,

using

organisms

such

as

algae,

fungi,

bacteria

and

yeast
.


Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture


Food

improved

and

preserved

by

fermentation
.


Fermentation
:


Any

process

that

produces

alcoholic

beverages

or

acidic

dairy

products


Any

spoilage

of

food

by

microorganisms


Any

large
-
scale

microbial

process

occurring

with

or

without

air


All

metabolic

processes

that

release

energy

from

a

sugar

or

other

inorganic

molecule
.


Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture

Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture

Pyruvate

Fermentation
End
-
products

Organisms

Streptococcus
Lactobacillus
Bacillus

Lactic acid

Saccharomyces

Ethanol and CO
2

Propionibacterium

Propionic acid,
acetic acid, CO
2
, H
2

Clostridium

Butyric acid,
butanol, acetone,
isopropyl alcohol,
CO
2

Escherichia
Salmonella

Ethanol, lactic acid,
succinic acid, acetic
acid, CO
2
, H
2

Enterobacter

Ethanol, lactic acid,
formic acid,
butanediol, acetoin,
CO
2
, H
2

During

the

fermentation

process,

microbial

growth

and

metabolism

result

in

the

production

of
:

1
.

enzymes
;

capable

of

breaking

down

carbohydrates,

lipids

and

proteins
.

2
.

vitamins

3
.

antimicrobial

compounds

4
.

texture
-
forming

agents

5
.

amino

acids
;

glutamic

acid,

organic

acids

6
.

flavor

compounds


Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture


Genetically

Modified

(GM)

Beer


Fermentation

carried

by

a

genetically

modified

brewer’s

yeast,

Saccharomyces

cerevisiae
,

containing

glucoamylase

gene

from

a

closely

related

yeast,

Saccharomyces

diastaticus
.


GM

S
.

cerevisiae

increases

the

yield

of

alcohol

and

enable

the

production

of

a

full
-
strength,

low
-
carbohydrate

diet

beer

without

the

use

of

extra

enzymes

after

the

beer

had

been

brewed
.


Produced

by

John

Hammond

and

his

colleagues

at

the

Brewing

Research

Foundation

International

(a

UK

research

organization)
.



Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture


Genetically

Modified

(GM)

Wine


Fermentation

carried

by

a

genetically

modified

yeast,

Saccharomyces

cerevisiae

ML
01
,

containing

gene

for

malolactic

enzyme

from

the

bacterium

Oenococcus

oeni

and

a

malate

permease

gene

from

the

fission

yeast,

Schizosaccharomyces

pombe
.


The

recombinant

yeast

softened

the

wine’s

mouth

feel

by

decreasing

its

acidity,

reduces

buttery

flavor

due

to

lactic

acid

secondary

metabolism
.



The

GM

yeast

is

distributed

by

Springer

Oenologie
,

Lesaffre

Group,

North

America
.



Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture

Oenococcus

oeni

(
malolactic

enzyme gene)

Schizo

saccharomyces
pombe

(malate
permease

gene)

GM
S. cerevisiae

ML01


Genetically Modified (GM)
Saccharomyces
cerevisiae

ML01


The
purpose of the genetically modified
malolactic

wine
yeast ML01 is to
remove the
malic acid
from wines, without
the use of starter cultures.


This
has been achieved by introducing two genes into the
yeast's genome,
mae

1
, which codes for a proton
symport

that permits the transport of malate,
malonate

and
succinate into the yeast cell and
mle

A
, coding for the
malolactic

enzyme that converts L
-
malate to L
-
lactate.


By
not using starter cultures, biogenic amines, which can
have undesirable health effects, will not be formed.

Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture

Genetically

Modified

Vitamin

B
2


Riboflavin
,

a

water
-
soluble

vitamin

that

is

synthesized

by

plants

and

many

microorganisms

but

is

not

produced

by

higher

animals
;

occurs

naturally

in

peas,

beans,

grains,

yeast,

milk,

egg

yolk

and

liver
.



chemically

synthesized

for

use

in

food

and

feed

fortification

and

in

small

amounts

as

a

coloring

agent

in

foods

e
.
g
.

ice

cream,

processed

meat,

fish

products,

sauces

and

soups
.



a

very

pure

product

could

be

produced

using

a

genetically

modified

strain

of

Bacillus

subtilis
.



Microbial
Biotechnology in Food and
Agriculture

Vitamin B2 Crystals
from GM
Bacillus
subtilis