What is RFID?

cribabsurdΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

77 εμφανίσεις

Muhammad Wasim Raad

1

What is RFID?


RFID is a technology that uses
radio
-
frequency waves to
transfer data between a reader
and a movable item to identify,
categorize, track...


RFID is fast, reliable, and does
not require physical sight or
contact between
reader/scanner and the tagged
item


Muhammad Wasim Raad

2

What is RFID

Radio Frequency Identification

Label

(Transponder)

Reader/Antenna

(Interrogator)

Computer



Tag enters RF field



RF signal powers tag



Tag transmits ID, plus data



Reader captures data



Reader sends data to computer



Computer determines action



Computer instructs reader



Reader transmits data to tag

Muhammad Wasim Raad


RFID Diagram:

Note: The host is the
software

database...


Reader

RF Module

Antenna

Host Computer

RFID Primer

Muhammad Wasim Raad

Note: The RF module
creates

radio frequency (RF)
.
It
receives

and
transmits

RF through the antenna…


Reader

RF

Module

Antenna

Host Computer

RFID Primer

Muhammad Wasim Raad

Note: The RF module
creates

radio frequency (RF)
.
It
receives

and
transmits

RF through the antenna…


Reader

RF

Module

Antenna

Host Computer

RFID Primer

Muhammad Wasim Raad

Note: Tag (transponder) is
interrogated

by the antenna....


Reader

RF Module

Tag

Antenna

Host Computer

RFID Primer

Muhammad Wasim Raad

Note: The antenna captures the
tag ID

number…first as analog
RF waves, then it is converted to digital information.

(Tag ID Communication)


Reader

RF Module

Tag

Antenna

Host Computer

RFID Primer

Muhammad Wasim Raad

8

An RFID Tag Is A Portable
Database


A sophisticated computing and communications device

…A wireless extension of Information Systems

Interrogation Unit

Tx/Rx

Micro

Computer

Computer Network

Antenna

Tag

Radio Tx/Rx

RAM

ROM

CPU

I/O

Pwr Supply

Radio Tx/Rx

RAM

ROM

CPU

I/O

Pwr Supply

Muhammad Wasim Raad

9

Inlays for RFID Tags for
13.56
Mhz

Muhammad Wasim Raad

10

Why use RFID ?


To determine authentication of a
package



To provide automated traceability of
an item

Muhammad Wasim Raad

11

Motivation of using RFID



Generate Revenue



Reduce operating costs

Muhammad Wasim Raad

12

The RFID Reader Anti
-
collision protocol

Muhammad Wasim Raad

13

What is RFID?
--

The
Tags


Tags can be read
-
only or read
-
write


Tag memory can be factory or field
programmed, partitionable, and optionally
permanently locked


Bytes left unlocked

can be rewritten over

more than
100
,
000
times

Muhammad Wasim Raad

14


Tags can be attached to

almost anything:


pallets or cases of product


vehicles


company assets or personnel


items such as apparel,

luggage, laundry


people, livestock, or pets


high value electronics such

as computers, TVs, camcorders

What is RFID?
--

The
Tags

Muhammad Wasim Raad

15

Are All Tags The
Same?

Basic Types:


Active


Tag transmits radio signal


Battery powered memory, radio &
circuitry


High Read Range (
300
feet)


Passive


Tag reflects radio signal from reader


Reader powered


Shorter Read Range (
4
inches
-

15
feet)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

16



Variations:


Memory


Size (
16
bits
-

512
KBytes +)


Read
-
Only, Read/Write or WORM


Type: EEProm, Antifuse, FeRam


Arbitration (Anti
-
collision)


Ability to read/write one or

many tags at a time


Frequency


125
KHz
-

5.8
GHz


Physical Dimensions


Thumbnail to Brick sizes


Price ($
0.50
to $
250
)

Are All Tags The
Same?

Muhammad Wasim Raad

17

Types of Tags
-

Memory
Segmentation



Read Only (Factory Programmed)



WORM
-

Write Once, Read Many
times



Reprogrammable (Field
Programmable)



Read/Write (In
-
Use Programmable)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

18

What are chipless tags?


No IC


Use RF fibers or materials reflect
reader’s signal producing unique serial
no


Cost: 10
-
25 cents each


Tolerates wide range temperature


Less sensitive RF

Muhammad Wasim Raad

19

Chipless tags


2.5
% of RFID market



Expected to become
30
% in
2010



Chipless RFID smart labels have a
range of
10
meters


Muhammad Wasim Raad

20

What is RFID?
--

The
Readers


Readers (interrogators) can be at a
fixed point such as


Entrance/exit


Point of sale


Warehouse



Readers can also be

mobile
--

tethered,

hand
-
held, or wireless

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21

Advantages


Uses normal CMOS processing


basic and ubiquitous


Relative freedom from

regulatory limitations


Well suited for applications

requiring reading small

amounts of data at slow

speeds and minimal distances


Penetrates materials well

(water, tissue, wood, aluminum)

<
150
kHz (
125
kHz &
134
kHz )

Muhammad Wasim Raad

22

Disadvantages:


Does not penetrate or transmit around
metals

(iron, steel)


Handles only small amounts of data


Slow read speeds


Large Antennas
--

compared to higher
frequencies


Minimal Range

<150 kHz (125 kHz & 134 kHz )

Muhammad Wasim Raad

23

Disadvantages:


Tag construction:


is thicker (than
13.56
MHz)


is more expensive (than
13.56
MHz)


more complex

(requires more turns of the induction
coil)

<
150
kHz (
125
kHz &
134
kHz )

Muhammad Wasim Raad

24

13.56
MHz


Advantages


Uses normal CMOS processing
--
basic and
ubiquitous


Well suited for applications requiring
reading small amounts of data and minimal
distances


Penetrates water/tissue well


Simpler antenna design (fewer turns of the
coil); lower costs to build


Higher data rate (than 125 kHz
--
but slower
than higher MHz systems)


Thinner tag construction (than 125 kHz)

Muhammad Wasim Raad

25

Disadvantages


Government regulated frequency

(U.S. versus Europe)


Does not penetrate or transmit around
metals

(unless very thick)


Large Antennas (compared to higher
frequencies)


Larger tag size than higher frequencies


Tag construction: requires more than one
surface to complete a circuit


Minimal Range

13.56
MHz


Muhammad Wasim Raad

26

RFID Applications


Petrol Service Stations


In Singapore, the Mobil petrol service
stations has already introduced RFID
technology to implement their Speed
Pass system to enable drivers to fill up
the petrol and drive away. All
information will be gathered
automatically through RFID smart tags
and customers’ bills can be settled
through the net.

Muhammad Wasim Raad

27



RFID Application in Petrol Service Station

Muhammad Wasim Raad

28

RFID Application in a Factory Canteen



it is very interesting to notice that in the
factory canteen’s environment, RFID tags
are attached at the bottom of the plates
to identify the cooked food and its price.



The staff of the factory need only to pick
up the food on the tray and place the tray
on top of a RFID reader.



The RFID reader will identify the products
and its price. The staff need only to place
the cash card to pay for the food.

Muhammad Wasim Raad

29

Paperless Maintenance Senario at Frankfort
Airport

Muhammad Wasim Raad

30

Configuration of RFID Antennas on doors
in Metro ware house

Muhammad Wasim Raad

31

What is EPC (Electronic
Product Coding)?


EPC is a globally unique serial number
identifying individual item attached
to it


Enables enquiries to be made about
individual item wherever it is in the
global supply chain

Muhammad Wasim Raad

32

The EPC Network


EPCglobal network enable immediate
retrieval accurate trusted
information


EPC network uses RFID+EPC +
internet to allow trading partners to
share this information securely

Muhammad Wasim Raad

33

Benefits EPCglobal RFID
network


Faster and more precise reads


Accurate and trusted data


Lower inventory levels


Fewer out of stock


Better asset utilization


Muhammad Wasim Raad

34

Example and Structure
of An EPC Number

Muhammad Wasim Raad

35

EPC Information Service

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36

EPC meets pharmaceutical supply chain

Muhammad Wasim Raad

37

Case Study:Logistics
processes at HP

Muhammad Wasim Raad

38

Automotive production at
BMW

Muhammad Wasim Raad

39

Event information in
automotive process chain

Muhammad Wasim Raad

40

What is EAS(Electronic
Article Surveillance)?


Books, hairdryers.. Bear small tags
for theft prevention


Initially at book shelf tag has a bit
of
0


At point of sale sales clerk
deactivate tags by setting bit to
1

Muhammad Wasim Raad

41

Smart Shelves


Antennas have to be optimally placed
on shelves


Still expensive, requires numerous
readers


Smart shopper carts scan items and
objects on shelves

Muhammad Wasim Raad

42

Privacy


Privacy bit on tag


Tags belong to consumers


If privacy bit=
1
it will be invisible to
readers


Readers watch on each other: private
tag command


What is blocker tag?

Muhammad Wasim Raad

43

The privacy bit


Blocker tag command can prevent
privacy violations before they occur


A blocker effectively jams readers
that emit private
-
read commands


When it detects it, it simulates all
possible RFID tags in the world
rendering reader incapable

Muhammad Wasim Raad

44

Market Trend

Muhammad Wasim Raad

45

Cost


RFID readers:
1000
$


Tags: >
20
cents.


Active tags:
1
$
-
5
$


Tags will become cost effective when
production inlay very high


Only handful of quality suppliers

Muhammad Wasim Raad

46

Cost continue


Production methods and materials
used to build RFID inlays being
defined


Tag antennas metallic, very expensive
and large size


Chip less Tags much cheaper: .
1
-
10
cents

Muhammad Wasim Raad

47

Future of RFID Tags


Low cost active tags for locating &
tracking objects with limited no of
readers


Higher frequencies: Tags developed
at Siemens lab:
2.5
-
24
Ghz, have
batteries and range extend to
several kilometers

Muhammad Wasim Raad

48

Future continue


Recently, Ultra WIDE BAND (ubw)
can locate objects in
2
&
3
dimensions within few inches


Marketed for asset tracking in
hospitals


The size of wristwatch,
40
grams


Indoor range:
300
feet

Muhammad Wasim Raad

49

Future: Science Fiction


Transparent packages will light up in
moving color advertisement



Disposable smart labels will detect
viruses and specific chemicals

Muhammad Wasim Raad

50

References


www.rfidjournal.com


RFID book by Steven Shepard, McGraw
-
Hill
2005
-
ISBN
-
0
-
07
-
144299
-
5


www.gs
1
uk.org


RFID Field Guide Deploying Radio
Frequency Identification systems By
Manish Bhuptani
-
ISBN
-
0
-
13
-
185355
-
4