Supply Chain Management

cribabsurdΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

61 εμφανίσεις

Supply Chain Management
technologies: RFID and XML

Chapter 2

Slide
2


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

RFID:


Radio Frequency Identification

Reader (transmitter/receiver)

Tags that respond to a radio frequency


Transmits unique Identifier 8
-
12 bytes
(characters) at different frequency


Does not have to be line
-
of
-
sight

Lots of Applications Software

Chapter 2

Slide
3


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Applications

Check out: POS terminal

Inventory tracking (Wal
-
Mart, DoD)

Animal tagging

Secure car key (Toyota)

Purchase gasoline (Mobil)

Doorway access control

Chapter 2

Slide
4


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Passive vs. active tags

Passive tags


Uses transmitter RF signal for power


Long lifespan


Costs start at about twenty cents


Low frequency: range is less than 6 inches


High frequency: range up to 12 inches


Ultrahigh frequency: several yards

Chapter 2

Slide
5


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Active tags

Active tag

Uses a battery to respond

More range, up to 1Km

3
-
5 year battery life

Can cost several dollars

Chapter 2

Slide
6


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

RFID quiz

Q 1: What kind of tags are we using in
lab?

Q 2: Does the orientation of the tag
affect the ability to read its contents?
(try all of the tags)

Q 3: Does placing a tag in a metal can
affect the ability to read its contents?

Q 4: Why is the flat tag Read/Write?



Chapter 2

Slide
7


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

RFID advantages

Less human intervention

Real
-
time information flow as item changes
state:


Off truck


Off shelf


Purchased by customer

Reduce lost or stolen inventory

Machine
-
to
-
machine communication


Package routing

Chapter 2

Slide
8


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

RFID challenges


Interference with object or other readers

Range

Data formats and standardization


Different countries allocate different
frequencies

Cost for readers, tags and system

Chapter 2

Slide
9


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Bar Code vs. RFID scanning

Line of sight

Right
-
side
-
up (must
physically align
carton)

Can tear

Limited amount of
data

No encryption


Can read through
objects

Tag orientation less
of a problem

Can store
megabytes of data,
if needed

Can be encrypted


Chapter 2

Slide
10


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Chapter 2

Slide
11


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Chapter 2

Slide
12


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

UPC versus EPC

Universal Product
Code

For Bar coding

Contains MFR ID
number (5 digits) and
Item Number (5
digits)

Electronic Product Code
for RFID apps.

Contains 96 bits:


EPC manager ID (MFR)


Object class


Serial number

Can track a particular
case of toothpaste !


Chapter 2

Slide
13


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

RFID supply chain integration

Supplier:

Store EPC & pallet
contents on DB

EPC has supplier
-
ID
and database key.

Ship pallet with tag

Buyer /shipper:

Pallet arrives

automatically
scanned for EPC

Get contents from
Supplier DB



Chapter 2

Slide
14


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

RFID future

RFID tag as a sensor


Temperature: spoilage


Package opened: drugs

Larger memory:


Car repair history


Medical history

Can we recycle RFID tags?


Chip
-
kill technology

Privacy:
track movement of people (ID card, E
-
ZPASS) or post
-
sale disposition of items.





Chapter 2

Slide
15


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Supply Chain Management
(SCM)

Definition:

A cross
-
functional inter
-
enterprise
system that uses information technology
to help support and manage the links
between some of a company’s key
business processes and those of its
suppliers, customers, and business
partners

Chapter 2

Slide
16


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

SCM Life Cycle

Chapter 2

Slide
17


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Electronic Data Interchange
(EDI)

Definition:

Involves the electronic exchange of business
transaction documents over the Internet and
other networks between supply chain trading
partners

Standard industry format to send RFQ, PO,
Receiving notice, payment notice, Invoice,
Payment remittance notice, etc.

Now being replaced by Web and XML.

Chapter 2

Slide
18


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

EDI Activities

Chapter 2

Slide
19


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

SCM Planning Functions

Supply Chain Design



optimize
network of suppliers, plants, and
distribution centers


Forecasting customer demand

by
sharing demand and supply forecasts
instantaneously across suppliers and
distributors

Chapter 2

Slide
20


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

SCM Execution Functions

Materials Management



share accurate
inventory and procurement order information,
ensure materials required for production are
available in the right place at the right time.


Collaborative Manufacturing



optimize plans
and schedules while considering resource,
material, and dependency constraints

Chapter 2

Slide
21


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

SCM Execution Functions

Collaborative Fulfillment


order management,
vehicle scheduling, and support the entire
logistics process, including picking, packing,
shipping, and delivery in foreign countries


Supply Chain Event Management



monitor
every stage of the supply chain process, from
price quotation to the moment the customer
receives the product, and receive alerts when
problems arise


visibility!

Chapter 2

Slide
22


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Business Value of SCM

Benefits of SCM:

Reduces production and distribution
costs



More information =>



less inventory, less lead times needed

Improves timeliness of shipments


Increases supply chain “velocity”


More accurate fulfillment


Improves “visibility” of supply chain




Chapter 2

Slide
23


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

SCM Benefits

Fewer employees needed to manage supply
chain

Better customer satisfaction: less stock
-
outs

Strategic relationship with suppliers, enables
new business partnerships:



Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and
Replenishment systems (CPFR).


Collaborative downstream customer
service, marketing, and relationship
management.


Chapter 2

Slide
24


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Technical Challenges of SCM

Acquisition of secure extranet

Software can be confusing,
contradictory and not sculpted to their
needs


difficult to implement.

Emerging standards, high costs.

Chapter 2

Slide
25


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Organizational challenges


Changes company structure:
resistance from
employees wedded to traditional processes, leads to
lack of adequate collaboration among marketing,
production, and inventory management departments
within a company

Supplier reluctance or incompatibility issues.


Lack of proper demand planning knowledge:

leading to inaccurate or overoptimistic demand
forecasts. Need new tools and guidelines.


Chapter 2

Slide
26


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

Fun with XML

Standard way to describe structured
data within an organization or across
the Web (metadata included in file).

Can check validity using a set of rules in
a schema definition (xsd) file, using a
validating XML parser.

Chapter 2

Slide
27


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

XML rules

Each element tag is user
-
defined, within
angle brackets:

<purchaseOrder> … </purchaseOrder>

Each element can have sub
-
parts:


<Address>


<street> 515 Loudon Rd. </street>



<city> Loudonville </city>


</Address>

Chapter 2

Slide
28


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

XML Schema definition file

Rules besides “well
-
formed” XML:


Order of elements



<xsd:sequence> … </sequence>


Data type: string, date or decimal


<xsd:element name=“zip” type=“xsd:decimal” />


Optional elements:



minOccurs=“0”

Chapter 2

Slide
29


Principles of Information Systems,

Fifth Edition

On Your Own

Coors Case worksheet

XML exercise

Online quiz