RFID: Radio Frequency ID

cribabsurdΗλεκτρονική - Συσκευές

27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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1

RFID: Radio Frequency ID


Depending who you ask, RFID tags
constitute:



1. the best thing to happen to business
since the cog or sliced bread.


2. the biggest threat to personal privacy
since the crowbar.

2

RFID


Imagine the grocery store of the future.


You fill your cart with groceries and proceed to the
payment desk.



Without the necessity of placing all of your items
on some crazy conveyor belt,


you simply proceed to the payment desk where a
clerk hands you a debit receipt that shows the cost
of all of your groceries and the remaining balance
in your checking account.


No scanning...no pin number....no hassles.



3

4

Metro's prototype store in
Rheinberg, Germany


Offers an early glimpse of the supermarket
of the future.


You start by grabbing a cart and swiping an
ID card through a reader mounted on the
handle.


Now the cart announces your presence to
every kiosk, display shelf, and electronic
price tag as you move through the store.


The cart also has a console that generates
a shopping list based on your purchasing
habits and a map to navigate the aisles.


5

RFID Grocery Store

6

Benefits of the RFID store:


Dynamic Pricing

Prices will be updated each night in response to real
-
time
fluctuations of supply and demand.


Tag Anonymizer

After checkout, shoppers have the option of anonymizing
their RFID tags. The procedure can't eliminate a tag's serial
number, but it can delete any product information.


Advertising Display

Shoppers strolling by will be served custom ads based on
buying habits and demographic profile.


Checkout Pass

No more waiting in line. An RFID reader will instantly scan
all the items in your cart and debit your card accordingly.

7

Veggie Vision?


Information Kiosk

Customers will learn about the vintage, region, and varietal of a
food selection
-

and even get food pairing ideas by waving the
food item at the reader.


Smart Shelves

Inventory data will be refreshed in real time by readers embedded
in the shelves. The information will be sent to everyone in the
supply chain: retailers, distributors, and manufacturers.


Cart
-
Top Computing

A Wi
-
Fi
-
enabled touchscreen on the handle of each cart will read
a shopper's ID card, suggest items for purchase based on
previous visits, and guide customers to the shelves where the
listed items are located.


Veggie Vision

A self
-
serve scale with built
-
in digicam will identify produce by
size, shape, and color, then print price labels. Eventually, it will
generate an RFID tag for each item.


8

What is RFID


RFID tags are specially coded devices; they may be
glass, pieces of cloth or plastic


RFID tags send information to transmitters over radio
frequencies.


Unlike bar codes, which must be scanned by
lasers, RFID tags can be received by antennas
very far away from the actual tags.


Like so many other high tech items, these RFID
tags used to cost several dollars apiece.


This was obviously cost
-
prohibitive, in that a retailer
could not afford to place a RFID tag on every item
in the store.


However, these tiny transmitters now cost as little as
20 cents apiece, and the price will continue to drop as
these items proliferate throughout out economy.



9

Example: Circular RFID Inlay


Texas Instruments
, a worldwide leader in RFID
technology created two new RFID tags:


A 32.5 millimeter CD/DVD Inlay and the 24.2
millimeter Circular Inlay.


Both inlays are for end
-
user applications including



item
-
level management of electronic materials in libraries,


pharmaceutical products,


consumer products on retail shelves


patient identification in hospitals and patron ID,


ticketing and wireless payment at amusement parks and
sports venues.



Security too!

10

Circular Inlay RFID:


The inlays' ultra
-
thin design allows it to
easily be incorporated
(NOT JUST
PASTED)

into a range of packaging
materials such as


CDs/DVDs


plastic bottles


labels, cardboard boxes



wristbands and keyfobs.


11

Inlays:

The

CD/DVD Inlay

has been specifically
designed to be attached to the case or
molded into the plastic hub in the center
of a CD or DVD.


Applications for the inlay include


Copyright protection of media


item and shelf
-
level identification


tracking of CDs and DVDs in libraries,


tracking retail music or movie rental
stores.

12

RFID Components Block
Diagram

Ethernet
RFID
Reader
RFID Tag
RF Antenna
Network
Workstation
13

Elements of an RFID System

14

Major RFID markets by
frequency

US, Canada

125KHz

13.56MHz

902
-
928MHz

EU Countries

125KHz

13.56MHz

868
-
870MHz

Japan

125KHz

13.56MHz

950
-
956MHz

15

RFID tags at different
frequencies

125 KHz


TI

Philips

Others

13.56 MHz


Tagsys

Philips

TI

Microchip

Others


915 MHz


Intermec

SCS

Matrics

Alien

Philips

TI

2.4 GHz


Intermec

SCS

Hitachi

TI

16

Tag anatomy

Substrate

Tag IC

Antenna

Die attach

17

Tag block diagram

Antenna

Power Supply

Tx Modulator

Rx
Demodulator

Control Logic

(Finite State
machine)

Memory

Cells

Tag Integrated Circuit (IC)

18

What does a reader do?


Primary functions:


Remotely power tags when called


Establish a bidirectional data link


Inventory tags, filter results


Communicate with networked server(s)


19

Imbedded or displayed RFID Tags


When RFID tags are
imbedded into product
labels, businesses can
take a complete
inventory of all of the
products on the
shelves in a single
moment, helping to
control inventory,
reduce theft, and cut
costs.

20

RFID Concepts


Define a non
-
contact system that can
monitor and track items or individuals


Provide unique identification that allows
for a wide range of applications


Perform the operation using unobtrusive,
low cost components


Use Wireless Communications
techniques to facilitate the system design

21

RFID Applications


Telemetry or Wireless Data Capture


Active transmission of
information


Flat Tire Indication


Security


Individual Access Control


Electronic Article Surveillance
(EAS)


Theft Prevention


Position and Location Tracking


Wildlife monitoring and tracking


Automobile Tracking


Manufacturing and Processing


Material and Process Monitoring


Supply Chain Management


Inventory Tracking Systems

Presently, RFID tags are commonly
used to track commuters passing
through toll booths.



Also, ranchers often use RFID tags
on cattle to track their progress from
the fields to the processing plants.




The possible uses for this
technology are almost limitless.



22

RFID Technical Design
Considerations


Operating Frequency


Available Frequency Bands


RF Signal Propagation (range, reflections, and material
transmittance)


Interference


Communication Signal


Interrogation Signal with command and control


Response Signal with unique identification and data


Tag Design


Antenna Design


Integrated Circuit Design


Passive or Active Battery Power


Reader and Reader Antenna


Networking Requirements

23

Summary


RFID is a technology that will be pervasive


(spreading everywhere)


A logical extension of emerging wireless technologies


The Universal Product Code (UPC) will be replaced
with Electronic Product Codes (ePC) using RFID


Technology Growth Areas


Wireless Communications, RF Design, DSP, (digital signal
processor) Software


Tag Design Technologies: Integrated Circuits, Antennas,
Power Supply


Reader Design: Antenna, RF, DSP, Digital, Microcontroller,
Network


Distributed Network Design: Networking Software, Database,
Tracking

24

Concern with RFID


Imagine if all of the products you buy were
imbedded with RFID tags.


Theoretically, a retailer could track and record
all of your purchases according to the radio
frequencies transmitted from those products.


Furthermore, traveling down this conspiratorial
road, the Government could also track your
purchases
-

-

even to the point of being able to
stand outside your house and detect and
identify the products that you purchased.



25

Concern with RFID


It is not a stretch of the imagination to
contemplate that this technology could
be used to track people just as well as it
tracks products.


Much like the skin implant that is
currently used to track and identify pets,
RFID tags could be used to track the
location and travel patterns of those
suspected of committing crimes.

26

Think it’s a fantasy?


MSNBC


FDA

(October 2004)


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This is a GIS Slide

of data showing the

Present location of

tagged offenders

that are within 1 mile

from Pittsburgh City

Public Schools


the program used to

Compile this data is

Arcview


28

SHOULD I BE CONCERNED?


Technology, at its core, is neither good or bad.


The morality depends upon how and under what
circumstances it is used.


People were concerned about bar codes when they
first came out.


Using POW’s in WWII as an example, many feared that bar
codes would be used to catalog those who were interned in
prison camps.


That didn’t happen and it hasn't happened today, nor
do I believe that will happen in the near future.



29

Privacy Concerns


In our fast
-
moving society, we have a legitimate
concern about the loss of our privacy.


Steps should be, and thankfully are, being taken to
ensure that our entire lives are not mere databases in
some government computer system.


However, that doesn't mean that we should fear every
new technology that enables businesses to cut costs
and improve efficiency.


That's what made the Model T affordable for middle
-
class
Americans


It’s that same process will enable companies to offer better
products and services for less money.


We all benefit in the long run.

30

Final Thought



Although I love conspiracy stories, I tend to disbelieve
them.


Likewise, I don't think that there is a conspiracy to
track all of the items that you purchase.


If there were such a conspiracy, such tracking could
already be accomplished by simply recording all of
your credit card statements.


There would be no need to invent a new technology to
accomplish something that is already feasible to do.
Nevertheless, if you're still overly concerned about
governmental conspiracies, you'll probably like this line:


"Just because you're paranoid DOESN'T mean they're
not following you!"

31

Demo of RFID


Questions?


Comments?


Concerns?