RFID: OPPORTUNITIES and

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27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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RFID: OPPORTUNITIES

and
CHALLENGES


Yize Chen

History



In 1969, Mario Cardullo presented a RFID
business plan to investors. The application
areas include:

-
Transportation:

automotive vehicle identification,


automatic toll system, electronic license plate, …


-
Banking:

electronic check book, electronic credit card

-
Security:

personnel identification, automatic gates

-
Medical:

identification, patient history







History



In 1971, Mario Cardullo built a first passive
device and demonstrated it to potential users.



In 1973, Mario Cardullo invented the first true
modern RFID system with his U.S patent
3,713,148









History



In 1973, Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle and Robert
Freyman demonstrated early RFID tags at the
Los Alamos National Laboratory.

-
The portable systems, both passive and semi
-
passive, detected the modulated reflect power
and operated at 915 MHz.


-
This technique is used by majority of today’s



RFID tags.









Operating Mechanism


A RFID system is composed of readers
and tags.

-
Readers send out signals that provid
power for a passive tag.

-
A tag captures the signals from a reader to
generate its own power, and send back an
unique digital ID


Operating Mechanism


There are two fundamentally different
RFID design approaches:


Near
-
field RFID: based on magnetic
induction

-
working distance is inversely proportional
to the frequency(d = c/2πf).

-
Works well at low frequency.

Figure 1. Near
-
field power/communication mechanism for RFID tags

operating at less that 100 MHz. [1]

Operating Mechanism

Operating Mechanism


Far
-
field RFID: based on electromagnetic
wave capture

-
Worked on higher frequency greater than
100 MHz.

-
Higher data transfer rate.


Figure 2. Far
-
field power/communication mechanism for RFID tags operating

at greater that 100 MHz. [1]

Operating Mechanism

Current Users


Passports

-
In 1998, the first RFID passports were issued by
Malaysia.

--

personal information.

--

travel history: time, date, and place.

-
In 2006, RFID tags were included in new US
passports.

--

the same information as on the passport.

--

digital picture of the owner.

Current Users


Transportation Payments

-
In 1999, the
SmarTrip card
was introduced for
urban mass
-
transit system in the Washington
D.C.

-
In 1995, The RFID passes were used for public
transport systems throughout Europe.

-
In 1997, the Octopus Card was used for mass
transit payment in Hong Kong

-
The EZ
-
Link cards are used for bus’ and train’s
toll system in Singapore.

Current Users


Libraries

-
Singapore was one of the first to introduce
RFID in libraries.

-
Rockefeller University in New York is the
first academic library in the United States
to utilize this technology.

-
Farmington Community Library in
Michigan is the first public institution.

Opportunity


Barcode

-
There are five billion bar codes being
scanned every day.

-
It becomes an essential part of modern life.


Opportunity


RFID’s advantages over the barcode

-
Combines ID recognition with supply chain
management applications.

-

Unique code.


Challenges


Orientation

-

The alignment between reader’s and tag’s
antenna is critical for an effective
communication.


Solution

-
multiple readers in different angles

-
one reader with many antennas (cost
effective)


Challenge


Reader Coordination

-
more than one reader operates in a close
range, signal “collision” could happen that
generate noisy data.


Solution

-

Define a protocol to allow these systems to
share the available bandwidth.

-
Enhanced signal processing to intelligently
filter out noise.



Challenges


Multiple Standards

-

Several frequencies and standards have
been used for current RFID.


Solution

-

the RFID reader can be built for multiple
standards


Challenges


Manufacturing Costs

-

Current tag’s manufacturing costs are still
too high


Solution

-

Technological innovations and new
process development will reduce the
manufacturing cost.

Challenges


Privacy and Consumer Concerns

-
Leaking personal information

-
Tracking the consumer’s activities.


Solution

-
Kill function: disable the tag after
purchases.

-
Smart tags: rewritable memory in the tag
circuit.

Conclusion


The technical issues mentioned above will
be resolved as more R&D is spent in this
field.


The next major barrier is software system.
Powerful software system is needed to do
sophisticated real
-
time data processing.


With advances in all these fields, RFID will
one day significantly change our modern
life.