EASA-Policy RFID devices - JAA TO

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27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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1

28/11/2013

EASA policy on passive
RFID devices


Markus Görnemann


Certification Manager Parts & Appliances

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

2

Overview



Identification of Issue


Definition of RFID Devices


Current Experience with RFID Devices


Draft EASA Policy


Further Considerations


European Standards

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

3

Identification of Issue


Passive RFID devices have been used in the Industry
for several years now and first requests from
Aviation Industry have been received. They can be
used in a wide field, ranging from


simple labelling,


to storage of maintenance records,


cargo identification and positioning,


passenger identification and counting.


The use could lead to a reduction in human errors,
safeguard against bogus parts, and better
determination of the modification status for used
parts and as such could improve safety if properly
implemented. In addition this could lead to a
reduction of costs.

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

4

Definition of RFID Devices


Basically there are three possible options for RFID
devices which can be defined as follows

1.
Passive: Employs no on
-
chip power source. This passive
type of RFID device provides information purely by the
backscatter of radiation from an interrogator device or
via inductive coupling;

2.
Battery Assisted Passive (BAP): These are RFID devices
with batteries, but they communicate using the same
backscatter technique as passive devices (devices with
no battery). They use the battery to run the circuitry on
the microchip and sometimes an onboard sensor. They
have a longer read range than a regular passive tag
because all of the energy gathered from the reader can
be reflected back to the reader. They are sometimes
called "semi
-
passive RFID devices."; and,

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

5

Definition of RFID Devices

3.
Active: Employs an integrated or aircraft
onboard power supply to provide information
rather than solely the backscatter energy of
the interrogator. This type of an RFID device
can transmit at a predetermined periodic
polling rate or when activated by an
interrogator device.

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

6

Current Experience with
RFID Devices


Several NAAs within Europe have received requests for use
of these devices onboard aircraft. Their review was made
on the basis of “Non
-
Interference” of the device with
airborne systems. The reviews included environmental
testing of passive RFID devices according to EUROCAE ED
-
14
D/RTCA DO
-
160
D Sections for


Temperature,


Vibration


Shock


Humidity


Fluids


Electromagnetic Compatibility,


as well as Flight Tests on board of commercial airliners.
These entire tests have indicated that the passive RFID
devices worked according to their intended function and
without interference of aircraft systems.

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

7

Current Experience with
RFID Devices



No knowledge has been gained at the
Authority level with “battery
-
assisted
passive” and “active” RFID devices yet from
an airworthiness point of view. Both kinds
need to be assessed separately and are not
covered by the EASA Policy.

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

8

Draft EASA
Policy


The following conditions should be
considered for the use of passive RFID
devices onboard of aircraft:


1.
The RFID devices must not radiate (back
-
scatter) characteristics with harmonics
above a level of
35
dBuv/m. This limit is
established to prevent any unwanted
signals from becoming a possible source for
interference to, or intermodulation with,
required critical or essential aircraft
equipment or systems.;

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

9

Draft EASA
Policy

2.
The frequency assignment for passive
devices must remain outside of the
published aviation frequency bands in order
to prevent their radiation from affecting
critical or essential aircraft systems;


3.
The generation of harmonic frequencies
from the RFID devices will be maintained
such that the fundamental through the
4
th
harmonic frequencies do not impinge upon
any assigned aviation communication or
navigation frequency;

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

10

Draft EASA
Policy (cont.)

4.
The use of passive devices is restricted to
ground operations only, i.e., aircraft not
-
in
-
motion, where the intended interrogation of
any passive RFID device is not conducted
while the aircraft is positioned on an active
taxiway or runway;


5.
The RFID devices must function properly
when installed as required by EASA
Certification Specifications
23
,
25
,
27
and
25.1301
/
1309
as appropriate
;

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

11

Draft EASA
Policy (cont.)

6.
The passive RFID devices must be designed
to operate, on ground, in an aircraft
operational environment with robust radio
frequency stability;


7.
Passive RFID devices comply with
applicable regulations and do not impact
form, fit, or function of installed systems
and equipment;

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

12

Draft EASA
Policy (cont.)

8.
If the “installation/attachment” of the RFID
device is done as a post approval action and
not part of the initial approval, only
companies with knowledgeable personnel
are allowed to carry out the task, e. g.
approved Design, Maintenance or
Production Organisations, approved
Operators.


European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

13

Draft EASA
Policy
-

Remarks



The labelling/identification of parts with
passive RFID devices can be accepted under
certain conditions, as listed above and is not
considered as a change to e.g. an already
approved ETSO article and does not
invalidate the existing ETSOA.

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

14

How to apply the policy?


EASA cannot approve the RFID devices itself
as as part of the aircraft or as equipment.



Best option from EASAs perspective is via an
operational acceptance. That is the reason for
this proposal to the OST. A JAA TGL adressing
the operational needs and taking into account
the conditions mentioned above would be the
easiest way to allow the use of passive RFID
devices onboard aircraft.



Yours views are welcome

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

15

Further Considerations


The EASA Policy Memorandum does not
constitute an operational approval for air
operators, as this remains the responsibility
of the NAAs.



EASA is working together with the FAA to
develop guidance material pertaining to the
development of criteria and performance
specifications for active and battery
-
assisted RFID technologies, including the
pass/fail criteria for these types of device
architecture.

European Aviation Safety Agency

P&A Unit

28/11/2013

16

Questions