Running head: COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 38115 1

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Community Assessment of Zip Code 38115

NURS 4127 Community Health Nursing

Loewenberg School of Nursing

Morgan Beecham, Katelyn Caffman, Brett Dixon, Christine Gonzoles, Lana Keel, Shannon
Miller, and Regina Wallace

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*Description of the community: Morgan Beecham


When Central Church moved to Hickory Hill in 1981, all that could be seen were fields
and wild pigs were running around according to Reverend Jimmy Latimer. Latimer stated that he
would come to the
church early every Sunday in his pick up truck to unwire the fence that kept
the pigs out and allow the people to come in and pray. (Gibson) Also in August of1981, the
Hickory Ridge Mall was built (Anointed Design, 2010). Then, 1987 was an important year i
Hickory Hill history. The city of Memphis proposed to annex, but the residents resisted. The
residents in the area fought the annexation, even starting an organization, Hickory Area
Residents for Tomorrow (HART). But the city eventually won in 1998, maki
ng the fight against
annexation the longest one in history. (Joomla, 2008)

When the annexation finally took place, the entire community suffered. The Hickory
Ridge Mall especially took a hit. By 2007, the mall’s average occupancy dropped to 52% and
sales d
ropped by half. Retailers began moving their businesses to the newer, more populated
areas of Memphis. On February 5, 2008, and to only make matters worse, a devastating tornado
blew through Memphis. This tornado produced extreme damage to the Hickory Hill

area and the
mall causing many businesses to never again open their doors. Many people believed this would
be the end of the Hickory Hill area, but World Overcomers Outreach Ministries purchased the
mall and property in 2008 with plans to transform the ar
ea beginning with the shopping mall.
(Anointed Design)

Geographic Boundaries:

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Area code 38115 is part of Shelby County, Tennessee. Its boundaries are bordered on the
north by Nonconnah parkway, the east by the city boundary, the west by Mendenhall road, a
the south by Holmes Road and Shelby Drive (Joomla). The 8.78 total square miles of area code
38115 is filled with only 0.01 square mile of water area and is home to over 40,000 residents.
The majority of the population is African American, occupying mor
e than half of the total
number. Mainly, the area is filled with the younger generation living on low
incomes. (U.S.
Census Bureau, 2000)

Windshield Survey:

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*Info about the population: Elaine Keel

The statistics regarding popula
tion demographics in the 38115 zip code show that the
majority of the people living in this area are between ages 25 and 39 with about 13,000
individuals (Movoto, 2011). The next highest age group is 40
64 with about 9,000 individuals
(Movoto, 2011). The
smallest age group that can be found in this area is of people over the age
of 65 with the number right around 3,500 individuals (Movoto, 2011). Females are slightly more
predominant in the area with a little over 21,000, compared to around 19,200 males (
2011). Most of the population was born in the United States, with the majority of them being
born in the south as well (Movoto, 2011). There are approximately 4,500 individuals who were
born in other countries currently living in the 38115 zip cod
e (Movoto, 2011). The nationalities
that rank the highest among the foreign born individuals are the Mexican nationality at nearly
1,700 individuals, followed by the Indian and other Asian nationalities at 500 each (Movoto,
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2011). This being said, there ar
e many other different cultures living in this particular area from
all over the world. Racially, the majority of the population is African American at 24,000
individuals, followed by Caucasians at 12,000 (Movoto, 2011).

Statistics show that a little over

half of the adult population at approximately 13,000
people has only a high school degree, while a quarter of the population has a bachelor’s degree
(Movoto, 2011). There are roughly 3,100 individuals who did not complete high school, and the
smallest gro
up of the population, a little over 1,900 individuals, has a graduate degree (Movoto,
2011). The median income for most families, around 9,000 families approximately, is between
74,000, while the median income for around 6,000 families is less than

(Movoto, 2011). Nearly 1,900 families earn somewhere between $75,000
149,000 per year while
only 282 families in 38115 bring home over $150,000 annually (Movoto, 2011).

The number one occupation type in the 38115 zip code is in the areas of educa
tion and
health, as teachers or healthcare workers (Movoto, 2011). Retail work is the next most common
type of occupation that the working adult in this area has, followed lastly by warehouse work
(Movoto, 2011). The least amount of people in this communit
y, at a mere 22 individuals, work in
agriculture, be it fishing, hunting, or forestry (Movoto, 2011). A little over 21,000 individuals in
this community are employed, compared to 985 who are currently unemployed (Movoto, 2011).

The statistics involving h
ousing in this area show that the majority of the houses have
only one person occupying each; the next most common living situation is that of married
couples with children, followed by married couples without children (Movoto, 2011). The fourth
most commo
n type of living situation is of a female house owner with children and no male
present (Movoto, 2011). The smallest percentage of different living situations in this area is of
male house owners with children present and no female (Movoto, 2011). In regar
ds to unmarried
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households, the majority is of male house owners with a live
in female, followed closely by a
female house owner with a live
in male (Movoto, 2011). Roughly 65% of the individuals in
38115 are renters with the remainder being home owners (M
ovoto, 2011). Most renters of the
area pay less than $600 per month to rent their home (Movoto, 2011).

Not much information can be found in regards to specific health values and practices of
zip code 38115. Since the majority of the population is Africa
n American, health values and
practices regarding this population will be discussed. Some examples of folk remedies include
cool baths, applying isopropyl alcohol to the skin, and giving cold drinks and popsicles to cure a
fever (Warner, 2005). Some treatm
ents for colic include catnip and baking soda, while
treatments for teething may be that of the parent giving the child ice cubes, popsicles, or even an
egg (Warner, 2005). These being said, some of these are of an extreme level of folk remedy and
are by n
o means always practiced.

African Americans often have religious reasons behind health care practices and values
and generally rate themselves as having a high quality of life based on whether they have a high
level of familial support and a strong netwo
rk of friends (Gordon et al., n. d.). African Americans
have been shown to be more willing to work as caregivers to their family and friends than
Caucasians (Gordon et al., n. d.). This being said, most African Americans remain at home and
are taken care o
f by a family member or friend other than living in a nursing home (Gordon et
al., n. d.). In regards to health promotion, research shows that African Americans typically do not
practice preventative care such as Pap tests, prostate exams, and breast mammo
grams, as much
as some other cultures (Gordon et al., n. d.).

*Vital stats: Christine Gonzales

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The vital statistics of a community are a valuable tool for nurses. They provide
information on the general well being of the community as well as allow the nu
rse to identify
any potential problems or issues that need to be addressed. The vital statistics of a community
also let nurses or others who have instituted interventions know if the policies and programs that
they have in place are working. While the s
elected community to be addressed in this paper was
Hickory Hill, I was unable to locate statistics specific to this population so will instead discuss
the statistics for Shelby County as a whole.

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human servi
ces the average life
expectancy in Shelby County is 73.2 years. This is 3.3 years less than the median average for all
U.S. counties. At the time of the study, 2009, Shelby County had a population of about 906, 825
people. Of those 906, 825 people, 15.6
% reported that they were in fair to poor health and that
they had an average of 5.1 unhealthy days in the previous month.

The U.S. Department of Health and Human services lists the leading causes of death in
Shelby County, broken down by age group, as:

nder Age 1

*complications of pregnancy/birth

*Birth Defects

Ages 1




Ages 15





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Ages 25



*heart disease




Ages 45


*heart disease

Ages 65+

*heart disease


The fact that homicide is a major cause of death for most age groups over the age of one year
reflects on the high violent crime rate that is occurring in Shelby County. Shelby County is
listed by an article in Forbes
Magazine as the second most dangerous place to live (Greenburg,
2009). The article states that for every 100,000 people 1,218 violent crimes are committed. The
major causes of death for all age groups seem to be the same and are reflective of the lifesty
that is lived in Shelby County. The average resident of Shelby County leads a mostly sedentary
life and consumes a diet that includes a high percentage of fried and processed foods. The high
levels of saturated fats and lack of activity can be risk fa
ctors for heart disease and cancer.

The Department of Health and Human Services is reporting that there were 42, 947 live
births in Shelby County (CHSI, 2009). Shelby County has one of the highest infant mortality
rates in the United States (Leake & Appl
eby, 2008). Craig Leake and David Appleby claim, in
an article written in 2008 for abc news, that a baby dies every 43 hours in Shelby County. The
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Tennessee Commission on children and Youth published a report titled
Kids Count: The State of
the Child in
Tennessee 2009
, which states there were a total of 718 infant deaths in the state of
Tennessee. The majority of these deaths 193 occurred in Shelby County. A few of the causes
for the high levels of infant mortality are poverty, lack of education, and lo
w maternal age. A
community snap shot that was published by the Mobilizing Action Toward Community Health
(MATCH) team at the University of Wisconsin states that in 2009, there were 10,646 premature
deaths (life lost before the age of 75) in Shelby county

Many of the health and morbidity issues that are being expressed in Shelby County can
be helped if the Healthy People 2020 goals are initiated in our communities. Goals that were
part of the Healthy People 2010 such as providing access to health care t
o more individuals
would definitely help the statistics of Shelby County. Many residents in Shelby County are
uninsured and cannot afford the cost to see a medical professional. The 2020 goal for early and
middle childhood that would document and track t
he health and well
being for childhood
populations will help to track the younger populations and allow health care workers and
officials to ensure that a child is getting his needs met and therefore developing a better adjusted

*Environmental fa
ctors: Kristin Cozzens

Environmental Factors

After completing a windshield survey of the 38115 area of Hickory Hill, it is evident that
the community is but a shadow of its former self. The land is heavily populated with apartment
complexes and discount
strip malls. Within three minutes of driving down Winchester Rd,
several loan offices were noted, including Pay Day Loan, Title Bucks, Fast Check, and others.
There were also several pawn shops, liquor stores, and rent centers. In addition, one mini
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advertised food stamps in their front window. Most of the structures were clearly very old.
There were many vacant buildings along Winchester Rd and Hickory Hill Rd which had
crumbling brick, busted windows, and overgrown grass, enabling crime.

hermore, a bus stop was noted on the corner of Clearbrook St and Winchester Rd.
During the windshield survey, three pedestrians were sitting at the local bus stop, waiting on the
Mata transit system. It appeared that the majority of the population had a
car, although older
vehicles which at times prove to be unreliable. Taxi cabs are also available to Hickory Hill and
the surrounding areas.

Hickory Hill does have a local Fire and Police Department. According to Bianca
Phillips, publisher for the Memphi
s Flyer, violent crimes had a thirty
six percent decrease from
2006 to 2010. In addition, there were fifty
four reported robberies in 2009 in contrast to the one
hundred and seventy
three in 2006.

Unfortunately, many hazards were observed during the wind
shield survey. As stated
early, several of the vacant buildings are unstable and displayed crumbling brick, and the
neighborhood fences had rotting wood in some parts. Furthermore, one of the apartment
complexes had an iron gate surrounding it, but there

was a large portion busted out of it. News
channel 5 reporter, Jason Miles, stated that there was an animal dumping ground found along
Heather Ridge Drive in September 2010. Neighbors in the area noticed a potent odor and when
investigated, found a pile

of pit bull corpses. They were in various stages of decomposition, but
bones were found as well, showing that this was not a new development. The Memphis Police
Department cleared the area and suspected that the dogs had been used as fighting dogs.

n addition, new reporter Jamel Major, of news channel 5, shared that the community was
trying to restore the area of Hickory Hill and demolish some of the vacant, dilapidated buildings,
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as they pose an environmental threat to the community. In the past si
x months, the Marina Cove
Apartments were leveled and there are plans to rebuild a community center in its place this
spring. The apartment complex had been abandoned for over five years and was attracting
vermin of all types.

Meanwhile, much debris was
noted on the side of the roads, along with broken beer
bottles on the sidewalks. The traffic was heavy, adding to the air pollution, and 18
were quite common. There were dry cleaning businesses every mile or so and a plumbing
station on Hickory
Hill Rd. Most of the stores advertised in both English and Spanish. Non
denominational or community churches were many in number, although a couple of them were
also vacant.

*Channels of communication: Brett Dixon

related facilities: Shannon

*Perceptions of the community members: Regina Wallace

*3 priority health care problems written as nursing diagnoses, based on the community
assessment: Katelyn Caffman


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Anointed Design, LLC. (2010). Hickory Ridge Mall: The New Towne Centre. Retrieved from:


Crisis Thwarted by Poverty. Retrieved from:

Gibson, L. Neither fish nor fowl. The Memphis Flyer. Retrieved from:

Gordon et al. (n. d.)
Ethnogeriatric curriculum module: Health and healthcare of African

American elders.

Retrieved from:

Greenburg O’Malley, Z. (2009). America’s Most Dangerous Cities. Retrieved from:


Joomla. (2008). Hickory Hill History. Retrieved from:


Leake, C., Appleby, D. (2008). Tennessee’s High Infant De
ath Rate; Baby Death Public Health
Major, J. (2010, October 11). Crews begin tearing down long
time Hickory Hill eyesore. In

Retrieved March 7, 2011

Match Team. (2010). County Health Rankings. Retrieved from:

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Miles, J. (2010, September 29). Animal dumping grounds disturb Hickory Hill residents. In

Retrieved March 5, 2011

Movoto. (2011). Neighborhood search. Retrieved fr

Phillips, B. (2011, January 13). Bite out of crime. In
Memphis Flyer
. Retrieved March 7, 2011

Tennessee Commission on Children and Youth. (2010). Kids Count: The State of the Child in

Tennessee 2009. Retrieve
d from:

U.S. Census Bureau. (2000). Retrieved from:




U.S. Department of Health &

Human Services. (2009). Community Health Status Indicators

CHSI 2009. Retrieved from:



Warner, J. (2005, March 8). Folk remedies part of African American tradition.

Fox News.

Retrieved from,2933,149791,00.html