Fairfield University -- Psychology 163 -- Lecture 8 -- Information Processing

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19 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Fairfield University
--

Psychology 163
--

Lecture 8
--

Information Processing

Theories of Cognitive Development


Piaget and Stage Theory


Information
-
Processing & computational
modeling


Core Knowledge & innate predisposition
for knowledge


Vygotsky and socio
-
cultural development

David Klahr (1978)


example of an
Information Processing Breakdown of
mental processes


Information
-
processing approaches: task analysis


Information
-
Processing Theories:
computational modeling


Information
-
processing is not a singular global
theory


Vast Collection of “mini
-
theories”


Begins with picking apart Piaget


micro
-
analysis of development



Precise specifications of the processes involved
in children’s thinking



Global phenomenon can be broken down with
precision


Information
-
Processing Theories:
computational modeling


Task Analysis methodology:



Breakdown of steps


Identification of what the child’s goals, knowledge


& inferences may be


Looking for patterns



Thinking as an unfolding process, not as a static stage


Thinking is dynamic (unfolds over time and in increments;
cognition is “emergent”)


Decision
-
making occurs at multiple layers of analysis

Information
-
Processing Theories: view of
the child


Information
-
Processing Theories: view of
the child


Child as Information Processors
--

Children utilize
“basic processes”, such as:



planning


Analogical (analogy) reasoning


Memory processes


Encoding


Recognition & recall


Rehearsal


Scripts


Selective attention


Speed of processing


Children’s [content] knowledge of their world

Contrasting Piaget to information
-
processing models:
comparing “when they get it” v. “how did they do it”

Information
-
Processing Theories: view of
the child



Piaget


“little scientists”


Information
-
processing


“little computers”


Child as Information Processors
--

Children utilizes
mechanisms such as:



Selective attention


Speed of processing


Children’s [content] knowledge of their world

Connectionist Theories: Neural
-
Networks
Models


realization that infants’ responses
are very “situation dependent”



Connectionist Theories: Neural
-
Networks
Models


Predicated on the notion that cognitive
processes happen in “parallel”


several cognitive processes happening concurrently


Cog. Processes are not in linear
-
sequential order


Learning Rules:


Feedback from other people and environment


Feedback from correct/incorrect responses


“Strength of ‘connection’” (degree of certainty of
the rule) is re
-
calibrated with feedback, resulting
in “learning”



Connectionist (neural
-
network) Theories:
modeling object permanence

Connectionist (neural
-
network) Theories:
modeling object permanence

Connectionist (neural
-
network) Theories:
modeling object permanence

Connectionist (neural
-
network) Theories:
modeling object permanence

Evolution of Information
-
Processing theories:
Dynamic
-
Systems Theories

Evolution of Information
-
Processing theories:
Dynamic
-
Systems Theories

Connectionist (neural
-
network) Theories:
modeling object permanence

Connectionist Theories: Neural
-
Networks
Models



Connectionist Theories: Neural
-
Networks
Models



Connectionist Theories: Neural
-
Networks
Models



Connectionist Theories: Neural
-
Networks
Models



Theories of Cognitive Development


Piaget and Stage Theory


Information
-
Processing & computational
modeling


Core Knowledge & innate predisposition
for knowledge


Vygotsky and socio
-
cultural development

Core Knowledge Theories

Core Knowledge Theories

Core Knowledge Theories

Core Knowledge Theories

Core Knowledge Theories

Core Knowledge Theories

Core Knowledge Theories

Core Knowledge Theories

Theories of Cognitive Development


Piaget and Stage Theory


Information
-
Processing & computational
modeling


Core Knowledge & innate predisposition
for knowledge


Vygotsky and socio
-
cultural development

Sociocultural Theories: The social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning

Vygotsky & Sociocultural Theories: The
inherently social fabric of learning