Revised Draft Report

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50
-
2 Howard
Street, Somerville, MA 02144

Phone: (617) 284
-
6230 Fax: (617) 284
-
6239

www.nmrgroupinc.com




REVIEW DRAFT





Submitted to:

The Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund

Connecticut Light and Power

The United
Illuminating Company



Submitted by:

NMR Group, Inc.

Special Thanks to the Following HES Vendors:

Lantern Energy

Competitive Resources
,

Inc.

New England Smart Energy

Group

HE
-
Energy Solutions

New England Conservation Services

Weatherization Baseline Assessment


Revised
Draft Report


9/11/2013

Connecticut Weatherization Baseline Assessment

Review
Draft

NMR

Abstract

In 2011, the State of Connecticut passed Public Act 11
-
9,
An Act Concerning the Establishment
of the Department of Energy and Environmental Prot
ection [DEEP] and Planning for
Connecticut's Energy Future
,

which specifies that the Conservation and Load Management Plan
should propose ways in which the legislation’s stated goal of weatherizing 80% of the residential
units in the state might be achieve
d. As a result of this legislation, the Connecticut Energy
Efficiency Board (EEB) developed a draft weatherization standard that defines what constitutes
weatherization
. NMR Group, Inc. was asked to assess the current state of weatherization in
Connecticut

in an effort to provide DEEP, the EEB, and the electric and gas utilities (“the
Companies”) with information that would assist their planning efforts in pursuit of the
weatherization goal.

Based on visits to 180 single
-
family homes in the state, the evalu
ators determined 26% of the
sampled homes (with a confidence interval of 21% to 31%) comply with the weatherization
standard. Other highlights from the study include the following:



Newer homes are significantly more likely than older homes to comply with the standard.
For example, homes built in 2000 or later have a compliance rate of 87%, while homes
built in 1939 or earlier have a compliance rate of 7%. This relationship is so stro
ng that
targeting homes built prior to 1980 would provide the most effective way of increasing
the percentage of weatherized homes across the state.



Non
-
low
-
income homes (29%) are significantly more likely than low
-
income homes
(15%) to comply with the st
andard. However, due to their small numbers, targeting low
-
income homes will not yield large increases in the number of weatherized homes,
although targeted older homes will capture many low
-
income residences as well.



Compliant homes exceed the standard (w
hen comparing the energy consumption of the
“as built” model to the prescriptive weatherization model) by an average of 9%, while
non
-
compliant homes fall below the standard by an average of 31%.



Just 5% of the sampled homes comply with all applicable pres
criptive requirements.



Compliance with the individual measures listed in the standard ranged from a low of 15%
(floors over unconditioned basements) to a high of 82% (windows).

Compliant homes have a significantly lower average HERS index (score of 96)
than non
-
compliant homes (score of 127). A lower HERS index indicates a more efficient home.




NMR

Contents


E
XECUTIVE
S
UMMARY

................................
................................
................................
....................

I

S
AMPLING
P
LAN

................................
................................
................................
...........................

II

W
EATHERIZATION
A
SSESSMENT

................................
................................
................................
.
III

O
VERVIEW OF
W
EATHERIZATION
R
ESULTS

................................
................................
................

IV

D
ETAILED
W
EATHERIZATION
R
ESULTS

................................
................................
........................

V

Performance
-
Based Results

................................
................................
................................
....

V

Prescriptive
-
Based Results

................................
................................
................................
.

VIII

Performance vs. Prescriptive Results

................................
................................
....................

XI

HERS Ratings by Compliance

................................
................................
...........................

XIII

C
ONCLUSIONS AND
R
ECOMMENDATIONS

................................
................................
................

XIV

1

I
NTRODUCTION

................................
................................
................................
...................

1

1.1

D
ESCRIPTION OF
T
ABLE
F
ORMAT

................................
................................
.......................
2

1.2

O
N
-
SITE
D
ATA
C
OLLECTION

................................
................................
..............................
2

2

S
AMPLING
M
ETHODOLOGY

................................
................................
...............................

6

2.1

S
A
MPLING
P
LAN

................................
................................
................................
.................
6

2.2

W
EIGHTING

................................
................................
................................
........................
8

3

W
EATHERIZATION
A
SSESSMENT

................................
................................
.....................

10

3.1

P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
W
EATHERIZATION
A
SSESSMENT
R
ESULTS

................................
..
10

3.2

P
RESCRIPTIVE
W
EATHERIZATION
A
SSESSMENT

................................
...............................
16

3.3

C
OMPARING
P
ERFORMANCE AND
P
RESCRIPTIVE
C
OMPLIANCE
R
ESULTS

.........................
18

3.4

HERS

R
ATINGS BY
C
OMPLIANCE WITH
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARD

...........................
22

4

G
ENERAL
H
OME
C
HARACTERISTICS
................................
................................
...............

24

5

B
UILDING
E
NVELOPE

................................
................................
................................
.......

31

5.1

C
ALCULATING
A
VERAGE
R
-
VALUE

................................
................................
..................
31

5.2

A
BOVE
-
G
RADE
W
ALLS

................................
................................
................................
....
31

5.2.1

Conditioned to Ambient Walls

................................
................................
..................

31

5.2.2

Other Wall Locations

................................
................................
................................

34

5.2.3

Opportunities and Barriers to Increasing Wall Insulation

................................
.........

36

5.3

C
EILINGS

................................
................................
................................
..........................
37

5.3.1

Opportunities and Barriers to Increasing Ceiling Insulation

................................
.....

41


NMR

5.4

F
LOORS

................................
................................
................................
............................
41

5.4.1

Opportunities and Barriers to Increasing Frame Floor Insulation

.............................

44

5.5

F
OUNDATION
W
ALLS

................................
................................
................................
.......
45

5.5.1

Im
provement Opportunities for Basement Insulation

................................
...............

46

5.6

S
LABS
................................
................................
................................
...............................
47

5.7

R
IM AND
B
AND
J
OIST
I
NSULATION

................................
................................
...................
48

5.8

W
INDOWS AND
S
KYLIGHTS

................................
................................
..............................
49

5.9

I
NFRARED
I
MAGING

................................
................................
................................
..........
52

5.9.1

Recommendations Based on Infrared Images

................................
...........................

53

6

M
ECHANICAL
E
QUIPMENT
................................
................................
...............................

54

6.1

H
E
ATING
S
YSTEMS

................................
................................
................................
...........
54

6.1.1

Primary Heating Fuel

................................
................................
................................

54

6.
1.2

Types of Heating Systems

................................
................................
.........................

55

6.1.3

Heating System Efficiency

................................
................................
........................

56

6.1.4

Heating System Age

................................
................................
................................
..

59

6.2

C
OOLING
S
YSTEMS
................................
................................
................................
...........
61

6.2.1

Capacity of Cooling Systems

................................
................................
....................

63

6.2.2

Efficiency of Cooling Systems

................................
................................
..................

63

6.2.3

Age of Cooling Systems

................................
................................
............................

65

6.3

W
ATER
H
EATING

................................
................................
................................
.............
67

6.3.1

Types of Water Heaters

................................
................................
.............................

67

6.3.2

Water Heater Tank Size

................................
................................
.............................

69

6.3.3

Water Heater Energy Factor

................................
................................
......................

69

6.3.4

Age of Water Heaters

................................
................................
................................

72

7

D
IAGNOSTICS

................................
................................
................................
....................

75

7.1

E
STIMATING
A
IR
L
EAKAGE

................................
................................
..............................
75

7.2

A
IR
L
EAKAGE
R
ESULTS

................................
................................
................................
...
76

7.3

D
UCT
L
EAKAGE
R
ESULTS

................................
................................
................................
81

8

D
UCT
I
NSULATION

................................
................................
................................
............

83

9

V
ENTILATION AND
R
ENEWABLES

................................
................................
....................

86

10

A
PPLIANCES

................................
................................
................................
......................

87


NMR

10.1

ENERGY

STAR
®

A
PPLIANCES

................................
................................
.......................
88

10.2

R
EFRIGERATORS

................................
................................
................................
...............
89

10.3

S
EPAR
ATE
F
REEZERS

................................
................................
................................
........
91

10.4

D
ISHWASHERS

................................
................................
................................
..................
93

10.5

C
LOTHES
W
ASHERS

................................
................................
................................
.........
93

10.6

C
LOTHES
D
RYERS

................................
................................
................................
............
94

11

A
UDIT
OR
R
ATINGS OF
H
OMES AND
E
NERGY
F
EATURES

................................
................

96

12

I
NSPECTION AND
D
ATA
C
OLLECTION
C
HALLENGES

................................
....................

101

12.1

D
ATA
C
OLLECTION
M
ETHODS

................................
................................
.......................
101

12.2

T
IME
C
ONSTRAINTS

................................
................................
................................
.......
101

12.3

A
PPLIANCE
D
ATA

................................
................................
................................
...........
101

12.4

M
ECHANICAL
E
QUIPMENT
D
ATA

................................
................................
...................
102

12.5

W
INDOW
U
-
FA
CTOR AND
SHGC

VALUES

................................
................................
......
102

12.6

F
IELD
P
ROTOCOLS AND
A
SSUMPTIONS

................................
................................
...........
102

12.7

O
CCUPANT
B
EHAVIOR

................................
................................
................................
...
103

A
PPE
NDIX
A

I
NSULATION
G
RADES

................................
................................
.........................

A
1

A
PPENDIX
B

B
UILDING
E
NVELOPE

A
DDITIONAL
D
ETAILS

................................
.................

B
1

B.1

W
INDOWS AND
S
KYLIGHTS

................................
................................
.............................

B
1

B.2

D
OORS
................................
................................
................................
.............................

B
3

A
PPENDIX
C

I
NFRARED
I
MAGING
D
ETAILS AND
E
XAMPLES

................................
.................

C
1

C.1

E
XAMPLES OF
A
IR
L
EAKAGE
U
SING
IR

................................
................................
...........

C
1

C.1.1

Air Leaks at Top Plates, Exterior Walls, and Ceilings

................................
..............

C
2

C.1.2

Air Leaks at Attic Hatches, Windows, Doors, and Baseboard

................................
..

C
4

C.1.3

Air Leaks at Recessed Li
ghting Fixture

................................
................................
....

C
7

C.2

E
XAMPLES OF
I
NSULATION
A
SSESSMENT
U
SING
IR

................................
........................

C
7

C.3

G
OOD
P
RACTICES
I
DENTIFIED
U
SING
IR

................................
................................
.......

C
14

A
PPENDIX
D

M
ODELING
D
ETAILS

................................
................................
..........................

D
1

D.1

A
IR AND
D
UCT
L
EAKAGE
E
STIMATES

................................
................................
.............

D
2

A
PPENDIX
E

M
ECHANICAL
E
QUIPMENT

A
DDITIONAL
D
ETAILS

................................
........

E
1

E.1

A
PPENDIX


H
EATING

................................
................................
................................
.....

E
1

E.2

A
PPENDIX


AC

................................
................................
................................
..............

E
6


NMR

E.3

A
PPENDIX


W
ATER
H
EATERS

................................
................................
......................

E
11

A
PPENDIX
F

A
DDITIONAL
M
APS OF
S
ITE
V
ISIT
D
ISTRIBUTION

................................
.............

F
1

A
PPENDIX
G

T
ELEPHONE
R
ECRUITMENT
S
URVEY
R
ESULTS

................................
................

G
1

A
PPENDIX
H

C
OMPARISON OF
O
NSITE AND
T
ELEPHONE
S
URVEY
R
ESULTS

........................

H
1

A
PPENDIX
I

T
ARGETING
H
OMES TO
I
NCREASE
W
EATHERIZATION

................................
......

I
1



Tables

T
ABLE
E
-
1:

S
AMPLE
D
ESIGN
P
LANNED AND
A
CTUAL
,

WITH
S
AMPLING
E
RROR

.......................

II

T
ABLE
E
-
2:

W
EATHERIZATION
P
RESCRIPTIVE
C
HECKLIST AND
P
ERFORMANCE
M
ODEL
ING
I
NPUTS

................................
................................
................................
...........

III

T
ABLE
E
-
3:

W
EATHERIZATION
A
SSESSMENT

................................
................................
..............

V

T
ABLE
E
-
4:

D
ISTANCE FROM
B
ASELINE OF THE
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
S
TANDARD BY
O
VERALL
E
NERGY
C
ONSUMPTION
(MMB
TU
)

................................
................................

VI

T
ABLE
E
-
5:

W
EATHERIZATION BY
HES

P
ARTICIPATION

................................
........................

VII

T
ABLE
E
-
6:

W
EATHERIZATION BY
H
OME
A
GE

................................
................................
.......

VIII

T
ABLE
E
-
7:

C
OMPLIANCE WITH
P
RESCRIPTIVE
W
EATHERIZATION
R
EQUIREMENTS

...............

X

T
ABLE
E
-
8:

P
RESCRIPTIVE
C
OMPLIANCE AND
E
FFICIENCIES BY
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
C
OMPLIANCE
R
ESULTS
*

................................
................................
................................

XII

T
ABLE
E
-
9:

HERS

R
ATINGS AND
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
C
OMPLIANCE

...............................

XIII

T
ABLE
1
-
1:

E
XAMPLE
T
ABLE

................................
................................
................................
........

2

T
ABLE
2
-
1:

S
AMPLE
D
ESIGN
P
LANNED AND
A
CTUAL
,

WITH
S
AMPLING
E
RROR

.........................

6

T
ABLE
2
-
2:

O
NSITE
B
ASELINE
P
ROPORTIONAL
W
EIGHTS

................................
...........................

9

T
ABLE
2
-
3:

R
EVISED
W
EIGHTS
E
XAMPLE

A
IR
C
HANGES PER
H
OUR AT
50

P
ASCALS
*

(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WHERE AIR L
EAKAGE WAS TESTED
)

................................
..................

9

T
ABLE
3
-
1:

W
EATHERIZATION
P
RESCRIPTIVE
C
HECKLIST AND
P
ERFORMANCE
M
ODELING
I
NPUTS

................................
................................
................................
...........

10

T
ABLE
3
-
2:

W
EATHERIZATION
C
OMPLIANCE
R
ATE
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................

11

T
ABLE
3
-
3:

L
OWER AND
U
PPER
B
OUNDS FOR
W
EATHERIZATION
C
OMPLIANCE
E
STIMATE AT
90%

C
ONFIDENCE
L
EVEL
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
......

11

T
ABLE
3
-
4:

D
ISTANCE
FROM
B
ASELINE OF THE
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
S
TANDARD BY
O
VERALL
E
NERGY
C
ONSUMPTION
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
................

12

T
ABLE
3
-
5:

W
EATHERIZATION
A
SSE
SSMENT BY
C
OUNTY
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

......................

12

T
ABLE
3
-
6:

W
EATHERIZATION BY
HES

P
ARTICIPATION
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

.........................

14

T
ABLE
3
-
7:

W
EATHERIZATION BY
H
OME
A
GE
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
.........

14

T
ABLE
3
-
8:

W
EATHERIZATION BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

..................

15

T
ABLE
3
-
9:

W
EATHERIZATION BY
H
OUSE
T
YPE
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
......

15


NMR

T
ABLE
3
-
10:

C
OMPLIANCE WITH
P
RESCRIPTIVE
W
EATHERIZATION
R
EQUIREMENTS

............

17

T
ABLE
3
-
11:

P
RESCRIPTIVE
C
OMPLIANCE AND
E
FFICIENCIES BY
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
C
OMPLIANCE
R
ESULTS
*

(B
ASE
:

A
LL
H
OMES
)

................................
...................

19

T
ABLE
3
-
12:

P
RESCRIPTI
VE
C
OMPLIANCE AND
S
TATISTICS FOR
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
N
ON
-
C
OMPLIANT
H
OMES BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL
*

(B
ASE
:

A
LL
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
N
ON
-
C
OMPLIANT
H
OMES
)

................................
........................

20

T
ABLE
3
-
13:

P
RESCRIPTIVE
C
OMPLIANCE AND
S
TATISTICS FOR
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
N
ON
-
C
OMPLIANT
H
OMES BY
H
OUSEHOLD
I
NCOME
*

(B
ASE
:

A
LL
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
N
ON
-
C
OMPLIANT
H
OMES
)

................................
........................

21

T
ABLE
3
-
14:

HERS

R
ATINGS AND
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
C
OMPLIANCE
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
HOMES
)

................................
................................
................................
.............................

22

T
ABLE
4
-
1:

S
UMMARY OF
G
ENERAL
H
OME
C
HARACTERISTICS

................................
................

24

T
ABLE
4
-
2:

T
YPES OF
H
OMES

................................
................................
................................
......

25

T
ABLE
4
-
3:

N
UMBER OF
S
TORIES PER
H
OME
................................
................................
..............

25

T
ABLE
4
-
4:

N
UMBER OF
B
EDROOMS PER
H
OME

................................
................................
.........

26

T
ABLE
4
-
5:

W
HEN
H
OME WAS
B
UILT

................................
................................
.........................

26

T
ABLE
4
-
6:

S
QUARE
F
EET OF
C
ONDITIONED
A
REA

................................
................................
....

27

T
ABLE
4
-
7:

B
ASEMENT
T
YPE

................................
................................
................................
.......

27

T
ABLE
4
-
8:

N
UMBER OF
T
HERMOSTATS

................................
................................
.....................

28

T
ABLE
4
-
9:

R
OOM
A
IR
C
ONDITIONERS

................................
................................
.......................

29

T
ABLE
4
-
10:

P
RESENCE

OF
A
SBESTOS OR
V
ERMICULITE

................................
...........................

29

T
ABLE
4
-
11:

F
UEL SOURCE FOR
F
IREPLACE
,

S
TOVE
,

AND
S
PACE
H
EATER

...............................

30

T
ABLE
5
-
1:

C
ONDITIONED TO
A
MBIENT
W
ALLS


R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
HOMES
)

................................
................................
................................
.............................

32

T
ABLE
5
-
2:

T
YPE OF
C
AVITY

I
NSULATION IN
C
ONDITIONED TO
A
MBIENT
W
ALLS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
................................
................................
.........

33

T
ABLE
5
-
3:

C
ONDITIONED TO
A
MBIENT
W
ALLS


F
RAMING
D
ESCRIPTION
*

(B
ASE
:

A
LL
HOMES
)

................................
................................
................................
.............................

33

T
ABLE
5
-
4:

C
ONDITIONED TO
A
MBIENT
W
ALLS


I
NSULATION
I
NSTALLATION
G
RADE
&

V
ERIFICATION
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH INSULA
TION IN CONDITIONED
TO
AMBIENT WALLS
)

................................
................................
................................
..............

34

T
ABLE
5
-
5:

T
YPE OF
C
ONTINUOUS
I
NSULATION
*

ON
C
ONDITIONED TO
A
MBIENT
W
ALLS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
................................
............................

34

T
ABLE
5
-
6:

O
THER
W
ALL
L
OCATIONS

R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
WITH APPLICABLE WALL

LOCATIONS
)

................................
................................
.............

35

T
ABLE
5
-
7:

O
THER
W
ALL
L
OCATIONS
-
I
NSULATION
T
YPE
,

I
NSULATION
G
RADE
,

AND
W
ALL
F
RAMING
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH APPLIC
ABLE WALL LOCATIONS
)

................

36

T
ABLE
5
-
8:

F
LAT
C
EILINGS


R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH FLAT
CEILINGS
)

................................
................................
................................
..........................

37


NMR

T
ABLE
5
-
9:

V
AULTED
C
EILINGS


R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH
VAULTED CEILINGS
)

................................
................................
................................
.........

38

T
ABLE
5
-
10:

S
UMMARY OF
O
THER
C
EILING
A
TTRIBUTES
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH
APPLICABLE CEILING L
OCATIONS
)

................................
................................
..................

40

T
ABLE
5
-
11:

F
RAME
F
LOORS
O
VER
U
NCONDITIONED
B
ASEMENTS


R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH FULL O
R PARTIAL UNCONDITIO
NED
BASEMENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
......................

41

T
ABLE
5
-
12:

F
RAME
F
LOORS
O
VER
G
ARAGES


R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
HOMES WITH CONDITION
ED SPACE OVER A GARA
GE
)

................................
.....................

42

T
ABLE
5
-
13:

O
THER
F
RAME
F
LOORS


R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH
APPLICABLE FLOOR LOC
ATIONS
)

................................
................................
.....................

43

T
ABLE
5
-
14:

S
UMMARY OF
O
THER
F
RAME
F
LOOR
A
TTRIBUTES
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
WITH APPLICABLE FLOO
R LOCATIONS
)

................................
................................
...........

44

T
ABLE
5
-
15:

F
OUNDATION
W
ALLS IN
C
ONDITIONED
S
PACES


R
-
VALUE
S
TATISTICS
*

(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH FOUNDA
TION WALLS ABUTTING
CONDITIONED SPACE
)

........

45

T
ABLE
5
-
16:

S
UMMAR
Y OF
O
THER
C
ONDITIONED
S
PACE
F
OUNDATION
W
ALL
A
TTRIBUTES
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH FOUNDA
TION WALLS ABUTTING
CONDITIONED SPACE
)

................................
................................
................................
.......

46

T
ABL
E
5
-
17:

H
OMES
I
N
N
EED OF
B
ASEMENT
/C
RAWLSPACE
I
NSULATION
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
HOMES WITH AN UNCOND
ITIONED BASEMENT OR
CRAWLSPACE
)

................................
..

46

T
ABLE
5
-
18:

S
UMMARY OF
C
ONDITIONED TO
A
MBIENT
R
IM
/B
AND
J
OISTS

.............................

48

T
ABLE
5
-
19:

S
UMMARY OF
O
THER
R
IM
/B
AND
J
OIST
L
OCATIONS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
W
ITH APPLICABLE JOIST

LOCATIONS
)

................................
................................
.............

49

T
ABLE
5
-
20:

H
OMES WITH
A
LL
E
XTERIOR
W
INDOWS
M
EETING
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARD
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
................................
......................

50

T
ABLE
5
-
21:

T
YPES OF
W
INDOWS BY
P
ERCENT OF
H
OMES

................................
.......................

51

T
ABLE
5
-
22:

T
YPES OF
W
INDOWS BY
P
ERCENT OF
W
INDOW
A
REA

................................
..........

52

T
ABLE
5
-
23:

P
ERCENTAGE OF
S
ITES WITH
I
NFRARED
P
HOTOS

................................
.................

53

T
ABLE
6
-
1:

H
OMES IN
E
ACH
P
RIMARY
F
UEL
C
ATEGORY AND
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

.......................

54

T
ABLE
6
-
2:

P
ERCENT OF
H
OMES WITH
E
ACH
T
YPE OF
H
EATING
S
YSTEM
P
RESENT

...............

56

T
ABLE
6
-
3:

ASHP

E
FFICIENCY
(HSPF)

................................
................................
......................

57

T
ABLE
6
-
4:

B
OILER
AFUE

BY
F
UEL
T
YPE

................................
................................
..................

57

T
ABLE
6
-
5:

F
URNACE
AFUE

BY
F
UEL
T
YPE

................................
................................
...............

58

T
ABLE
6
-
6:

M
EAN
B
OILER AND
F
URNACE
AFUE

BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

................................
.......

58

T
ABLE
6
-
7:

E
FFICIENCIES OF
O
THER
H
EATING
S
YSTEMS

................................
.........................

58

T
ABLE
6
-
8:

ASHP

A
GE

................................
................................
................................
................

59

T
ABLE
6
-
9:

B
OILER
A
GE BY
F
UEL
T
YPE
(
AGE IN YEARS
)

................................
...........................

59

T
ABLE
6
-
10:

F
URNACE
A
GE BY
F
UEL
T
YPE

................................
................................
................

60

T
ABLE
6
-
11:

M
EAN
B
OILER AND
F
URNACE
A
GE BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

................................
........

60

T
ABLE
6
-
12:

P
ERCENT OF
H
OMES WITH
A
NY
T
YPE OF
AC

S
YSTEM

................................
.........

61


NMR

T
ABLE
6
-
13:

P
ERCENT OF
H
OMES WITH
E
ACH
T
YPE OF
AC

S
YSTEM
P
RESENT

.......................

62

T
ABLE
6
-
14:

N
UMBER OF
R
OOM
A
IR
C
ONDITIONING
U
NITS
,

BY
I
NCOME

................................
.

62

T
ABLE
6
-
15:

AC

S
YSTEM
C
APACITY
(
TONS
)

................................
................................
...............

63

T
ABLE
6
-
16:

AC

E
FFICIENCY BY
S
YSTEM
T
YPE

................................
................................
.........

64

T
ABLE
6
-
17:

M
EAN
C
ENTRAL AND
R
OOM
AC

E
FFICIENCY BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

.......................

65

T
ABLE
6
-
18:

AC

A
GE
(
AGE IN YEARS
)

................................
................................
.........................

65

T
ABLE
6
-
19:

M
EAN
AC

S
YSTEM
A
GE BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL
(
AGE IN YEARS
)

...............................

66

T
ABLE
6
-
20:

P
ERCENT OF
H
OMES WITH
E
ACH
T
YPE OF
W
ATER
H
EATE
R
,

BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL AND
I
NCOME

................................
................................
...........................

68

T
ABLE
6
-
21:

V
OLUME OF
W
ATER
H
EATER
T
ANKS
(
GALLONS
)

................................
.................

69

T
ABLE
6
-
22:

C
ONVENTIONAL
S
TORAGE
T
ANK
W
ATER
H
EATER
E
NERGY
F
ACTOR BY
F
UEL
T
YPE

................................
................................
................................
........................

70

T
ABLE
6
-
23:

I
NDIRECT
T
ANK
E
NERGY
F
ACTOR BY
F
UEL
T
YPE

................................
................

70

T
ABLE
6
-
24:

T
ANKLESS
C
OI
L
EF

BY
F
UEL
T
YPE
,

BASED ON
O
CCUPANCY

................................

71

T
ABLE
6
-
25:

I
NSTANTANEOUS
W
ATER
H
EATER
EF

................................
................................
...

71

T
ABLE
6
-
26:

M
EAN
W
ATER
H
EATER
E
NERGY
F
ACTOR BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

.............................

72

T
ABLE
6
-
27:

W
ATER
H
EATER
A
GE BY
S
YSTEM
T
YPE
(
AGE IN YEARS
)

................................
......

72

T
ABLE
6
-
28:

M
EAN
W
ATER
H
EATER
A
GE BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL
(
AGE IN YEARS
)

........................

73

T
ABLE
7
-
1:

E
STIMATED
A
IR
L
EAKAGE FOR
L
OW
-
I
NCOME
H
OMES

I
NPUTS AND
O
UTPUTS

................................
................................
................................
...........................

76

T
ABLE
7
-
2:

E
STIMATED
A
IR
L
EAKAGE FOR
N
ON
-
L
OW
-
I
NCOME
H
OMES

I
NPUTS AND
O
UTPUTS

................................
................................
................................
...........................

76

T
ABLE
7
-
3:

E
NVELOPE
L
EAKAGE
S
TATISTICS


A
IR
C
HANGES PER
H
OU
R AT
50

P
ASCALS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL SITES WHERE AIR L
EAKAGE WAS TESTED
)

................................
...

77

T
ABLE
7
-
4:

E
NVELOPE
L
EAKAGE
S
TATISTICS


A
IR
C
HANGES PER
H
OUR AT

50

P
ASCALS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL SITES
,

INCLUDES ESTIMATED A
IR LEAKAGE VALUES FO
R
24

SITES
)

................................
................................
................................
................................

79

T
ABLE
7
-
5:

E
NVELOPE
L
EAKAGE
S
TATISTICS BY
H
O
ME
A
GE
(B
ASE
:

A
LL SITES
,

INCLUDES ESTIMATED A
IR LEAKAGE VALUES FO
R
24

SITES
)

................................
..........

80

T
ABLE
7
-
6:

D
UCT
L
EAKAGE TO THE
O
UTSIDE
S
TATISTICS

C
UBIC
F
EET PER
M
INUTE
AT
25

P
ASCALS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL SITES WHERE DUCT
LEAKAGE TO THE OUTSI
DE
TESTS WERE CONDUCTED
)

................................
................................
................................

81

T
ABLE
7
-
7:

D
UCT
L
EAKAGE TO THE
O
UTSIDE
S
TATISTICS BY
H
OME
A
GE
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
SITES WHERE DUCT LEA
KAGE TO THE OUTSIDE
TESTS WERE CONDUCTED
)

...................

82

T
ABLE
8
-
1:

C
HARACTERISTICS OF
D
UCTS AND
D
UCT
I
NSULATION
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
WITH DUCTS
)

................................
................................
................................
.....................

83

T
ABLE
8
-
2:

D
UCTS COMPARED TO
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARDS

................................
..........

84

T
ABLE
8
-
3:

S
UPPLY AND
R
ETURN
D
UCTS
C
OMPARED TO
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARDS

................................
................................
................................
.......................

85

T
ABLE
9
-
1:

W
HOLE
H
OUSE
F
AN
P
RESENCE

................................
................................
...............

86


NMR

T
ABLE
10
-
1:

A
PPLIANCE
S
ATURATIONS

................................
................................
......................

87

T
ABLE
10
-
2:

ENERGY

STAR
-
Q
UALIFIED
A
PPLIANCES

................................
...........................

88

T
ABLE
10
-
3:

ENERGY

STAR
-
Q
UALIFIED
A
PPLIANCES BY
I
NCOME
C
ATEGORY
....................

88

T
ABLE
10
-
4:

Y
EAR OF
M
ANUFACTURE FOR
R
EFRIGERATORS

................................
...................

89

T
ABLE
10
-
5:

E
LECTRICITY
C
ONSUMPTION OF
R
EFRIGERATORS
:

V
ERIFIED
D
ATA
(
K
W
H
/
YEAR
)

................................
................................
................................
.....................

90

T
ABLE
10
-
6:

E
LECTRICITY
C
ONSUMPTION OF
R
EFRIGERATORS
:

V
ERIFIED
D
ATA AND
A
GE
-
B
ASED
D
EFAULTS
(
K
W
H
/
YEAR
)

................................
................................
..............

90

T
ABLE
10
-
7:

Y
EAR OF
M
ANUFACTURE FOR
S
EPARATE
F
REEZERS

................................
............

91

T
ABLE
10
-
8:

E
LECTRICITY
C
ONSUMPTION OF
S
EPARATE
F
REEZERS
:

V
ERIFIED
D
ATA
AND
A
GE
-
B
ASED
D
EFAULTS
(
K
W
H
/
YEAR
)

................................
................................
......

92

T
ABLE
10
-
9:

E
LECTRICITY
C
ONSUMPTION OF
S
EPARATE
F
REEZERS
:

V
E
RIFIED
D
ATA
(
K
W
H
/
YEAR
)

................................
................................
................................
.....................

92

T
ABLE
10
-
10:

Y
EAR OF
M
ANUFACTURE FOR
D
ISHWASHERS

................................
.....................

93

T
ABLE
10
-
11:

Y
EAR OF
M
ANUFACTURE FOR
C
LOTHES
W
ASHERS

................................
............

93

T
ABLE
10
-
12:

T
YPES OF
C
LOTHES
W
ASHERS

................................
................................
.............

94

T
ABLE
10
-
13:

Y
EAR OF
M
ANUFACTURE FOR
C
LOTHES
D
RYERS

................................
...............

94

T
ABLE
10
-
14:

C
LOTHES
D
RYER
F
UEL

................................
................................
.........................

95

T
ABLE
11
-
1:

N
UMBER
O
NE
W
ORST
R
ATED
E
NERGY
F
EATURE FOR
H
OMES
B
ELOW
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARD

................................
................................
.........................

96

T
ABLE
11
-
2:

N
UMBER
O
NE
W
ORST
R
AT
ED
E
NERGY
F
EATURE FOR
H
OMES
B
ELOW
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARD BY
HES

P
ARTICIPATION
(B
ASE
:

H
OMES BELOW
W
X STANDARD FOR PERFO
RMANCE
-
BASED COMPLIANCE
)

................................
.............

97

T
ABLE
11
-
3:

N
UMBER
O
NE
W
ORST
R
ATED
E
NERGY
F
EATURE FOR
H
OMES
B
ELOW
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARD BY
Y
EAR
B
UILT
(B
ASE
:

H
OMES BELOW
W
X
STANDARD FOR PERFORM
ANCE
-
BASED COMPLIANCE
)

................................
....................

98

T
ABLE
11
-
4:

N
UMBER
O
NE
W
ORST
R
ATED
E
NERGY
F
EATURE FOR
H
OMES
B
ELOW
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARD BY
C
OUNTY
(B
ASE
:

H
OMES BELOW
W
X
STANDARD FOR PERFORM
ANCE
-
BASED COMPLIANCE
)

................................
....................

99

T
ABLE
11
-
5:

W
ORST
E
NERGY
F
EATURES BY
R
ANKING
(B
ASE
:

H
OMES BELOW
W
X
STANDARD FOR PERFORM
ANCE
-
BASED COMPLIANCE
)

................................
..................

100

T
ABLE
B
-
1:

T
YPES OF
W
INDOW
F
RAMES BY
P
ERCENT OF
W
INDOW
A
REA

..............................

B
1

T
ABLE
B
-
2:

G
LAZING
P
ERCENTAGE OF
E
XTERIOR
W
ALL
A
REA

................................
..............

B
1

T
ABLE
B
-
3:

P
ERCENT OF
S
OUTH
-
F
ACING
G
LAZING O
N
E
XTERIOR
W
ALLS

..............................

B
2

T
ABLE
B
-
4:

S
KYLIGHTS

................................
................................
................................
...............

B
2

T
ABLE
B
-
5:

E
XTERIOR
D
OORS

................................
................................
................................
....

B
3

T
ABLE
E
-
1:

M
EAN
H
EATING
S
YSTEM
E
FFICIENCY BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

................................
....

E
1

T
ABLE
E
-
2:

M
EAN
H
EATING
S
YSTEM
E
FFICIENCY BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL AND
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

................................
................................
................................
.................

E
2

T
ABLE
E
-
3:

H
EATING
S
YSTEM
A
VERAGE
A
GE BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL
(
AGE IN YEARS
)

.................

E
3


NMR

T
ABLE
E
-
4:

M
EAN
H
EATING
S
YSTEM
A
GE BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL AND
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

................................
................................
................................
...............................

E
3

T
ABLE
E
-
5:

H
EATING
S
YSTE
M
A
GE
R
ANGES

................................
................................
..............

E
4

T
ABLE
E
-
6:

L
OCATION OF
H
EATING
S
YSTEM

................................
................................
.............

E
5

T
ABLE
E
-
7:

H
YDRONIC
H
EAT
P
IPE
I
NSULATION

................................
................................
........

E
6

T
ABLE
E
-
8:

N
UMBER OF
R
OOM
A
IR
C
ONDITIONING
U
NITS
,

BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL AND
I
NCOME

................................
................................
................................
...........

E
6

T
ABLE
E
-
9:

L
OCATION OF
I
NDOOR
C
OIL FOR
C
OOLING
S
YSTEM

................................
.............

E
7

T
ABLE
E
-
10:

L
OCATION OF
I
NDOOR
C
OIL FOR
C
OOLING
S
YSTEM
,

BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL AND
H
OUSEHOLD
I
NCOME

................................
................................
.....

E
8

T
ABLE
E
-
11:

M
EAN
AC

S
YSTEM
E
FFICIENCY
,

BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL AND
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

................................
................................
................................
.................

E
8

T
ABLE
E
-
12:

M
EAN
AC

S
YSTEM
A
GE BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL AND
I
NCOME
L
EVEL
(
AGE IN YEARS
)

................................
................................
................................
.................

E
9

T
ABLE
E
-
13:

AC

S
YSTEM
A
GE
R
ANGES

................................
................................
...................

E
10

T
ABLE
E
-
14:

M
EAN
W
ATER
H
EATER
EF

BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATIN
G
F
UEL AND
I
NCOME
L
EVEL

................................
................................
................................
.............................

E
11

T
ABLE
E
-
15:

M
EAN
W
ATER
H
EATER
A
GE BY
R
EGION AND
I
NCOME
L
EVEL
(
AGE IN
YEARS
)

................................
................................
................................
............................

E
12

T
ABLE
E
-
16:

W
ATER
H
EATER
A
GE
R
ANGES

................................
................................
............

E
13

T
ABLE
E
-
17:

W
ATER
H
EATER
T
ANK
W
RAP
I
NSULATION

................................
........................

E
13

T
ABLE
E
-
18:

H
OMES WITH
W
ATER
H
EATER
P
IPE

I
NSULATION

................................
..............

E
14

T
ABLE
E
-
19:

L
OCATION OF
W
ATER
H
EATER

................................
................................
...........

E
15

T
ABLE
G
-
1:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
C
OUNTY
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT SURVEY
RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
.................

G
1

T
ABLE
G
-
2:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
O
WNERSHIP
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT SURVEY
RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
.................

G
2

T
ABLE
G
-
3:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
H
OUSE
T
YPE
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT SURVEY
RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
.................

G
2

T
ABLE
G
-
4:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT
SURVEY RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
...

G
3

T
ABLE
G
-
5:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
Y
EAR
H
OME WAS
B
UI
LT
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT
SURVEY RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
...

G
3

T
ABLE
G
-
6:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
H
OUSE
S
IZE
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT SURVEY
RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
.................

G
4

T
ABLE
G
-
7:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
H
OUSEHOLD
S
IZE
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT SURVEY
RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
.................

G
4

T
ABLE
G
-
8:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
A
GE
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT SURVEY RE
SPONDENTS
)

..........

G
5

T
ABLE
G
-
9:

S
TUDY
I
NTEREST BY
I
NCOME
L
EVEL
(B
ASE
:

R
ECRUITMENT SURVEY
RESPONDENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
.................

G
5


NMR

T
ABLE
H
-
1:

C
OMPARISON OF
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL

................................
..........................

H
1

T
ABLE
H
-
2:

C
OMPARISON OF
O
WN
ERSHIP
S
TATUS

................................
................................
..

H
1

T
ABLE
H
-
3:

C
OMPARISON OF
H
OUSE
T
YPE

................................
................................
...............

H
1

T
ABLE
H
-
4:

C
OMPARISON OF
H
OME
A
GE

................................
................................
.................

H
2

T
ABLE
H
-
5:

C
OMPARISON OF
N
UMBER OF
B
EDROOMS

................................
.............................

H
2

T
ABLE
I
-
1:

I
NPUT
V
ARIABLES WITH
A
CCOMPANYING
O
DDS
R
ATIO AND
R
ELATIVE
R
ATE

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

I
2

T
ABLE
I
-
2:

I
NPUT
V
ARIABLES AND
PAF

AND
CI

................................
................................
.........

I
3



Figures

F
IGURE
E
-
1:

C
OMPLIANCE WITH THE
W
EATHERIZATION
S
TANDARD

................................
......

IV

F
IGURE
E
-
2:

P
ERCENT
C
HANGE FROM
R
EFERENCE
H
OME
E
NERGY
C
ONSUMPTION

...............

VI

F
IGURE
E
-
3:

C
OMPLIANCE WITH
P
RESCRIPTIVE
W
EATHERIZATION
R
EQUIREMENTS

............

IX

F
IGURE
E
-
4:

HERS

R
ATINGS BY
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
C
OMPLIANCE

................................

XIV

F
IGURE
2
-
1:

D
ISTRIBUTION OF
S
ITE
V
ISITS

................................
................................
..................

8

F
IGURE
3
-
1:

W
EATHERIZATION
A
SSESSMENT BY
C
OUNTY AND
H
OUSEHOLD
I
NCOME

............

13

F
IGURE
3
-
2:

HERS

R
ATINGS BY
P
ERFORMANCE
-
B
ASED
C
OMPLIANCE
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
HOMES
)

................................
................................
................................
.............................

23

F
IGURE
4
-
1:

E
XAMPLES OF
H
OMES
V
ISITED

................................
................................
..............

25

F
IGURE
5
-
1:

C
ONDITIONED TO
A
MBIENT
W
ALL
R
-
VALUE BY
I
NCOME
S
TATUS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
)

................................
................................
................................
.....................

32

F
IGURE
5
-
2:

F
LAT
C
EILING
R
-
VALUE BY
I
NCOME
S
TATUS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH
FLAT CEILINGS
)

................................
................................
................................
................

38

F
IGURE
5
-
3:

V
AULTED
C
EILING
R
-
VALUE BY
I
NCOME
S
TATUS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES
WITH VAULTED CEILING
S
)

................................
................................
................................

39

F
IGURE
5
-
4:

F
RAME
F
LOOR
O
VER
U
NCONDITIONED
B
ASEMENT
R
-
VALUES BY
I
NCOME
S
TATUS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL HOMES WITH FULL O
R PARTIAL UNCONDITIO
NED
BASEMENTS
)

................................
................................
................................
......................

42

F
IGURE
5
-
5:

F
RAME
F
LOOR
O
VER
G
ARAGE
R
-
VALUES BY
I
NCOME
S
TATUS
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
HOMES WITH CONDITION
ED SPACE OVER A GARA
GE
)

................................
.....................

43

F
IGURE
6
-
1:

P
ERCENT OF
H
OMES WITH
E
ACH
T
YPE OF
H
EATING
S
YSTEM

.............................

55

F
IGURE
6
-
2:

H
EATING
S
YSTEM
A
GE
R
ANGES
(10
-
Y
EAR
I
NCREMENTS
)

................................
....

61

F
IGURE
6
-
3:

C
OOLING
S
YSTEM
A
GE
R
ANGES
(B
ASE
:

A
LL
AC

SYSTEMS
)

................................
.

66

F
IGURE
6
-
4:

P
ERCENT OF
H
OMES WITH
E
ACH
T
YPE OF
W
ATER
H
EATER

................................

67

F
IGURE
6
-
5:

W
ATER
H
EATER
A
GE
R
ANGES
(10
-
Y
EAR
I
NCREMENTS
)

................................
......

74

F
IGURE
7
-
1:

A
IR
C
HANGES PER
H
OUR AT
50

P
ASCALS

L
OW
-
I
NCOME VS
.

N
ON
-
L
OW
-
I
NCOME
H
OMES
(B
ASE
:

A
LL SITES WHERE AIR L
EAKAGE WAS TESTED
)

.......................

78


NMR

F
IGURE
7
-
2:

D
UCT
L
EAKAGE TO THE
O
UTSIDE
CFM25/100

SQ
.

FT
.

L
OW
-
I
NCOME VS
.

N
ON
-
L
OW
-
I
NCOME
H
OMES
(B
ASE
:

A
LL SITES WHERE DUCT
LEAKAGE TO THE
OUTSIDE TESTS WERE C
ONDUCTED
)

................................
................................
.................

82

F
IGURE
A
-
1:

G
RADE
I

C
LOSED
C
ELL
S
PRAY
F
OAM

E
XTERIOR
W
ALLS

...............................

A
2

F
IGURE
A
-
2:

G
RADE
II

F
IBERGLASS
B
ATTS

B
ASEMENT
W
ALLS

................................
...........

A
2

F
IGURE
A
-
3:

G
RADE
III

F
IBERGLASS
B
ATTS

A
TTIC

K
NEEWALLS

................................
........

A
3

F
IGURE
A
-
4:

G
RADE
II

F
IBERGLASS
B
ATTS

F
RAME
F
LOOR

................................
..................

A
3

F
IGURE
A
-
5:

G
RADE
III

F
IBERGLASS
B
ATTS

F
RAME
F
LOOR

................................
................

A
4

F
IGURE
A
-
6:

G
RADE
I

B
LOWN
F
IBERGLASS

A
TTIC

................................
................................

A
4

F
IGURE
C
-
1:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT
A
TTIC
T
OP
P
LATE

................................
................................
....

C
2

F
IGURE
C
-
2:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE THROUGH
C
EILING
F
RAMING

................................
.......................

C
2

F
IGURE
C
-
3:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT
T
OP
P
LATE OF
E
XTERIOR
W
ALL

................................
............

C
3

F
IGURE
C
-
4:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT
T
OP
P
LATE AND
V
AULTED
C
EILING

................................
.......

C
3

F
IGURE
C
-
5:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT AN
E
XTERIOR
D
OOR

................................
................................

C
4

F
IGURE
C
-
6:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT
B
ASEBOARD
T
RIM

................................
................................
....

C
5

F
IGURE
C
-
7:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE THROUGH
B
ASEBOARD AND
O
UTLET

................................
...........

C
5

F
IGURE
C
-
8:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE THROUGH AN
A
TTIC
H
ATCH

................................
.........................

C
6

F
IGURE
C
-
9:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT
F
RAMING AROUND
W
INDOW

................................
...................

C
6

F
IGURE
C
-
10:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT
F
RAMING AROUND
B
ATHROOM
W
INDOW

.............................

C
7

F
IGURE
C
-
11:

A
IR
L
EAKAGE AT A
R
ECESSED
L
IGHT
F
IXTURE

................................
................

C
7

F
IGURE
C
-
12:

M
ISSING
K
NEE
W
ALL
I
NSULATION

................................
................................
....

C
8

F
IGURE
C
-
13:

M
ISSING
A
TTIC
I
NSULATION

................................
................................
..............

C
8

F
IGURE
C
-
14:

M
ISSING
W
ALL
I
NSULATION

................................
................................
...............

C
9

F
IGURE
C
-
15:

S
ETTLING OF
B
LOWN
-
I
N
C
ELLULOSE
I
NSULATION

................................
.........

C
10

F
IGURE
C
-
16:

M
ISSING
A
TTIC
I
NSULATION

................................
................................
............

C
11

F
IGURE
C
-
17:

U
NINSULATED
B
AND
J
OIST

................................
................................
...............

C
11

F
IGURE
C
-
18:

L
IKELY
M
OISTURE
D
AMAGE IN
B
ATHROOM

................................
...................

C
12

F
IGURE
C
-
19:

O
LD
,

I
NCONSISTENT
V
AULTED
C
EILING
I
NSULATION

................................
.....

C
12

F
IGURE
C
-
20:

P
OOR
I
NSULATION
I
NSTALLATION IN
T
RAY
C
EILING

................................
......

C
13

F
IGURE
C
-
21:

S
PRAY
F
OAM
V
AULTED
C
EILING AND
A
TTIC
W
ALL

................................
.......

C
14

F
IGURE
C
-
22:

W
ELL
I
NSTALLED
W
ALL
I
NSULATION

................................
.............................

C
14

F
IGURE
F
-
1:

D
ISTRIBUTION OF
S
ITE
V
ISITS BY
T
OWN

................................
...............................

F
1

F
IGURE
F
-
2:

S
ITE
V
ISIT
D
ISTRIBUTION BY
C
OUNTY AND
I
NCOME
S
TATUS

..............................

F
2

F
IGURE
F
-
3:

S
ITE
V
ISIT
D
ISTRIBUTION BY
C
OUNTY AND
P
RIMARY
H
EATING
F
UEL

................

F
3

F
IGURE
I
-
1:

D
IAGRAM OF
P
REDICTORS
A
SSOCIATED WITH
R
EDUCED
O
DDS OF
W
EATHERIZATION

................................
................................
................................
............

I
4

Connecticut Weatherization Baseline Assessment


Review
Draft

Page
I

NMR


Executive Summary


In 2011, t
he State of Connecticut passed Public Act 11
-
9
,

An Act Concerning the Establishment
of the Department of Energy and Environmental Protection
[DEEP]

and Planning

for
Connecticut's Energy Future
,
1

which

specifies that the Conservation and Load Management Plan
should
propose

ways in which
the legislation
’s

stated
goal of weatherizing 80% of
the
residential
units in the state might be achieved
. As a result of this legislation, the Connecticut Energy
Efficiency Board
(EEB)

developed a draft weatherization standard
2

(from here on referred to as
the “weatheriza
tion standard” or just “the standard”)
that defines
what constitutes

weatherization
.
NMR Group, Inc., the primary Residential Area evaluation contractor, was asked
to assess the current state of weatherization in Connecticut in an effort to provide DEEP, t
he
EEB, and the electric and gas utilities (

the Companies

) with information that would assist their
planning efforts in
pursuit
of the weatherization goal.

In order to assess future progress toward this goal, DEEP and the EEB determined that they must
fi
rst establish the baseline of homes that currently meet the weatherization standard.
T
he primary
objective of this study is to determine what percentage of single
-
family residential units in
Connecticut currently meet
the
standard. Note, Public Act 11
-
9 encompasses multifamily
residential units as well as single
-
family units. At the request of DEEP and the EEB,
NMR did
not include
multifamily units in this study

(approximately 36% of all units)
,

and all results are
for sing
le
-
family residential units only.

The study included both single
-
family detached (i.e.,
stand
-
alone) and single
-
family attached (e.g., duplex or townhouse) homes. NMR worked with
Home Energy Solutions (HES) vendors to collect the information necessary to e
stimate baseline
weatherization conditions; this report collectively refers to NMR and the vendors as “the Team.”

Secondary research objectives in this report include the following:



Detail what percentage of single
-
family homes with
various
characteristics

(e.g., low

income vs. non
-
low

income, fuel oil vs. natural gas heated homes, etc.) fall above and
below the weatherization threshold.



Characterize the weatherization
-
related features of single
-
family homes in Connecticut.

o

Detail the characteristics of
homes’ thermal envelopes (wall insulation, ceiling
insulation, air infiltration, duct leakage, etc.).

o

Detail the characteristics of homes’ heating, cooling, and water heating
equipment.

o

Detail the characteristics of other energy
-
related features (e.g., app
liances).

The findings detailing the characteristics of homes’ thermal envelopes, mechanical systems, and
other energy
-
related features can be found in the main body of this report.




1

http://www.cga.ct.gov/2011/act/pa/pdf/2011PA
-
00080
-
R00SB
-
01243
-
PA.pdf

2

Connecticut Energy Efficiency Board, “Public Act 11
-
80 Weatherization Definition and Determination,” Memo
provided to Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, June 10, 2012.

Connecticut Weatherization Baseline Assessment


Review
Draft

Page
II

NMR


Sampling Plan

The study focused exclusively on single
-
family homes, bo
th detached (stand
-
alone homes) and
attached (side
-
by
-
side duplexes and townhouses
that have

a wall dividing them from attic to
basement and that pay utilities separately). The evaluators relied on a disproportionately
stratified design that aimed to
achie
ve 10% sampling error or better at the 90% confidence level
across all of Connecticut

and
also
for several subgroups of interest

(
Table
E
-
1
, shaded cells)
.
This level
of precision means that
one can be
90% confident that the results are a reasonably
(±10% or
less
) accurate description of all the
single
-
family homes
in Connecticut.

The T
eam
based a
ll precisions on a coefficient of variation of 0.5.
3

For more details on t
he sampling
methodology
,

see the
Sampling Methodology

section in the main body of the report.

Table
E
-
1
:
Sample
Design Planned and Actual, with Sampling Error

Single
-
family Segment

Planned
Sample Size

Actual Sample
Size

Precision

Overall

180

180

6%

Low
-
income

68

34

14%

Non
-
low
-
income

76

146

7
%

Income eligibility not identified

36
*

0
*

n/a

Fuel oil heat

109

111

8%

All other heating fuels

71
**

69
**

10%

Own

159

177

6%

Rent

21

3

47
%

*
The survey approach for identifying household income asked respondents if their income was above or below a
certain amount based on their family size. This unobtrusive approach meant that
the evaluators

were able to
identify the income status for all participants in the onsite study.

*
*
The evaluators planned for

47 of these homes
to heat with natural gas, and 46 of the homes in the final sample
actually did so
.





3

The coefficient of variation measures the dispersion of data in a ser
ies of data points; it is commonly used to
estimate sampling error when measuring the efficiency of measures installed in weatherization efforts.

Connecticut Weatherization Baseline Assessment


Review
Draft

Page
III

NMR


Weatherization Assessment

The Team assessed compliance with the weatherization standard
by
using the performance
approach described in the memorandum issued by the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Board on
June 10, 2012.
4

Th
is

document states that

in order to comply with the performan
ce
-
based

approach
,

a home must demonstrate modeled energy usage that is equal to or less than the same
home built to the criteria listed in

Table E
-
2
.

Table E
-
2
: Weatherization Prescriptive Checklist and Performance Modeling Inputs

Building Element

Prescriptive Requirements and Modeling
Inputs for Performance Approach

Above Grade Walls