Functional agrobiodiversity and the new biodiversity strategy and CAP reform

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6 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

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Functional agrobiodiversity
andthe new biodiversity
strategy and CAP reform
12 November 2010, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Ladislav Miko,
European Commission
Director ENV B Nature
European Seminar on
European Learning Network on
Functional AgroBiodiversity
￿
Whyisbiodiversityimportant?
￿
State ofbiodiversityin theEU
￿
The policy context
￿
The contribution of farming
STRUCTURE
￿
An ethicalduty
:to conserve the sheer variety of
life on earth; futuregenerations
￿
An environmental asset
:healthy ecosystems play
a vital role in regulating the environment e.g.a
major tool for climate change adaptation
￿
An economic imperative
:ecosystem goods and
services provide a whole range of direct and
indirect economic benefits
WHY DOES IT MATTER?
￿
Provisioning
in the form of harvestable products such as food,
drinking water and raw materials;
￿
Regulating
functions such as carbon sequestration, waste
treatment or slowing the passage of water;
￿
Cultural
services that directly involve people; and
￿
Habitat or supporting
services that are needed to maintain
other services, and which include genetic diversity and
maintenance of all life cycles.
TEEB Report 2008:
«The annual welfare loss generated
by loss of ecosystems services will
amount to 7% of the global annual
consumption by 2050»
ECOSYSTEMS GOODS AND SERVICES
￿
1979
Adoption of the EU Birds Directive
￿
1992
Rio Summit, adoption of the CBD;
adoption of the EU Habitats Directive
￿
1998
:
Biodiversity Strategy
￿
2001:
Heads of Government adopt a target:
Halting biodiversity loss by 2010
￿
2002
:
EU, in the context of the UN
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
agrees a global objective Significantly reduce
the rate of biodiversity loss
￿
2006
:
Commission adopts a Biodiversity
Action Plan with 154 actions to achieve that
objective
and thecurrentprocess
Evolution of Biodiversity Policy
Target 2010: Halt biodiversity loss
Main legislationscontributingand havingan impact
WATER
Framework
Directive
MARINE
Directive
CLIMATE
CHANGE
Policies
BIODIVERSITY
UN Convention
SOIL
DraftDirective
BIRDS
Directive
HABITATS
Directive
BIODIVERSITY
Common
Agriculture
Policy
CommonFisheries
Policy
Regional
Policy
LIFE+
HAVE WE REACHED THE TARGET?
￿
NO, on the basis of the assessment of the Article 17 of the Habitats Directive
and other reports (EEA,BAP)it is clear that the EU will not meet its targets
￿
The drivers of biodiversity loss are
￿Degradation and fragmentation of habitats
￿Over-exploitation of natural resources
￿Contamination
￿Invasive species
￿Climate Change
THE STATE OF BIODIVERSITY IN EU in 2010
Speciesfacingriskof extinction:
up to 25% of European animalsare includedin the IUCN RedList
Source: EEAEU 2010
BiodiversityBaseline
http://www.eea.euro
pa.eu/publications/e
u-2010-biodiversity-
baseline/
POORConservation Status:
62% of habitats and 52% of speciescoveredby Habitats and BirdsDirectives
THE STATE OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN EU in 2010
Whydidwefail?
A combination of different factors,
including:
￿
Poor implementation of legislation
￿
Insufficient funding
￿
Knowledge gaps
￿
Insufficient integration intoother policies
￿
Emerging threats: climate change, invasive species
￿
Lackof awareness
￿
Lackof politicalwill
￿
Policy gaps: soil, invasivespecies, forests
And nowwhat?
2010 InternationalYearofBiodiversity Onthewaytoadopta new
post-2010
targetand a strategytoreachit￿
EU 2020 target& 2050 visionadopted
￿
EU post-2010 strategybeing developed
￿
CBD Missionadopted
￿
CBD StrategicAction Planadopted
For more on EU Biodiversity Policy development see
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/policy/index_en.htm
AT EU LEVEL
March 2010: European SpringCouncil
A NEW VISION FOR 2050
European Union biodiversity and the ecosystem
services it provides 
its natural capital
are
protected, valued and appropriately restored for
biodiversitys
intrinsic value
and for their essential
contribution to
human wellbeing and economic
prosperity
, and so that
catastrophic changes
caused
by the loss of biodiversity are
avoided
.
A NEW TARGET FOR 2020
Halt the loss
of biodiversity and ecosystem services
in the EU and
restore them
insofar as feasible, and
step up the
EU's contribution
to averting
global
biodiversity loss.
AT GLOBALLEVEL
CBD COP10, October2010, Nagoya, Japan
VISIONof the2011-2020 StrategicPlan
Living in harmony with naturewhereBy 2050, biodiversity is
valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem
services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential
for all people.
MISSION of the2011-2020 StrategicPlan
Take effective and urgent action to
halt the loss of biodiversity
in
order to ensure that
by 2020 ecosystems are resilient and continue to
provide essential services
, thereby securing the planets
variety of
life
, and contributing to
human well-being
, and
poverty eradication
;
To ensure this, pressures on biodiversity are reduced, ecosystems are
restored, biological resources are sustainably used and benefits
arising out of utilization of genetic resources are shared in a fair and
equitable manner; adequate financial resources are provided,
capacities are enhanced, biodiversity issues and values
mainstreamed, appropriate policies are effectively implemented, and
decision-making is based on sound science and the precautionary
approach.
How to avoidfailureagain?
￿
Learn from mistakes
￿
Increaseefforts and makethingsdifferently
￿
Establish a baseline and step upefforts to
fill knowledge gaps
￿
Improve the implementation of EU
legislation, includingthoseonnature
￿
Betterintegrationintootherpolicies
￿
Increasefundingand avoidharmful
subsidies
This implies
Monitoring,
assessment
Establish a baseline
Further develop
indicators
FinaliseNatura 2000
funding needs
assessment
BAP 2010
assessment
Fill knowledge gaps
Launch BISE
Develop strategic
plan
IPBES, TEEB
Address policy gaps
Invasive species
Soil
Ecosystem services
Biophysical maps
Green Infrastructure
Exchange best
practice
EU strategy
This implies
Commission develops a new Strategy; to be adoptedasap
after Nagoya(CBD COP10, October2010)
2020 Headlinetarget:
Haltingthelossof biodiversityand thedegradationof
ecosystemservicesintheEU by2020, and restoring
theminsofarasfeasible, whilesteppinguptheEU
contributiontoavertingglobalbiodiversityloss
ST1
Sustainableland
management
(
agriculture, forestry)
ST2
Sustainableuse
of natural
resources (fisheries)
ST3
Protectinghabitats
and species
(natureconservation)
ST4
Restoration
(GreenInfrastructure)
ST5
Preventingthe
introduction
and spreadof
invasivespecies
ST6
EUscontribution
toglobal
biodiversity
ST LAND MANAGEMENT
-State of agro-and grasslandecosystems
Nearly one third of the area of the Natura 2000 sites is
made up of agro-ecosystems.
￿
Agro-ecosystems cover 28%
of the surface of
Natura 2000 (13% with regularly cultivated and 10%
of agro-ecosystems which need extensive practice,
5% with complex agro ecosystems)
￿
Grassland ecosystems cover 11%
of the total
surface of Natura 2000
STLAND MANAGEMENT
-State ofagro-and grasslandecosystems
￿
Nearly
30 species
of European interest from the
Habitats
Directive are linked
to
agro-ecosystems
￿
Nearly
40 species
from the
Birds
directive are linked to
agro-ecosystems
￿25% of Mammals
of European interest linked to agro-ecosystems are
threatened
￿42% of Birds
of European interest linked to agro-ecosystems are threatened
￿Commonfarmland
birds declined by 20-25% between1990 and 2007
￿
More than
80% of assessments
for
amphibians
and
invertebrates
linked to
agro-ecosystems are unfavourable
￿76%
of the
assessments
of
habitats
linked to
agro-ecosystems
are
unfavourable
￿
89 of the152
grasslandbird
species (
59%
) havean
unfavourable
conservationstatus inEurope
￿
Only
5%
of theassessmentsof
grasslandhabitats
and
15%
of the
species
of European interest arefavourable
￿
Europes
grasslandbutterflies
have
declinedby60%
since1990 and this
reductionshowsno signyetof levellingoff
￿
Extensive agriculture, for instance HNV?
￿
Agriculturalpractices?
￿
A combination based on ecosystem services provided?
￿
Forexample:
￿
x% of farmersengagedinbiodiversityrelatedmeasures
OR
￿
y%land under a contract to deliver benefitsforbiodiversityand ecosystems
OR
￿
y% of CAP direct support directed to contribute to good conservation status
WHAT TO ADDRESS AS A MATTER OF PRIORITY?
SUBTARGET ON LAND MANAGEMENT
FORESTRY
GENETIC VARIETY
Otherelementsof thesub-target:
Functionalagro-
biodiversity
Opportunities for making the most of the
CAP
￿
CAP should focus more on payment for publicgoods
(iefor ecosystem services)
￿
Make more use of pillar 1 by introducing specific
environmental criteria for payments (to reward e.g.
High Nature Value farming, NATURA 2000,
biodiversity set-aside).
￿
Increase environmental focus of Pillar II and increase
funding for agri-environment measures
￿
Set up safeguards to limit environmental damage
from support for investments
HOW TO BETTER USE THE POTENTIAL OF THE CAP?
WHAT POSSIBLE MEASURES TO REACH
THESUBTARGETON LAND MANAGEMENT?
Target 3:
By 2020, at the latest, incentives, including
subsidies, harmful
to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed
in order to
minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and
applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other
relevant international obligations, taking into account national
socio-economic conditions.
Target 7:
By 2020
areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are
managed sustainably
, ensuring conservation of biodiversity.
Target 8:
By 2020,
pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been
brought to levels that are not detrimental
to ecosystem function and
biodiversity.
Target 13:
By 2020, the
genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed
and domesticated animals and of wild relatives
, including other socio-
economically as well as culturally valuable species, is
maintained
, and
strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic
erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity.
TARGETS OF THE CBD 2011-2020 STRATEGIC PLAN
MOST RELEVANT FOR AGRICULTURE
￿
MemberStates
￿
Inter-EC
￿
Stakeholders
￿
StakeholderConsultation(3 June)
￿
Public Internet Consultation
￿
Inputsfromexperts(NGOs, otherexperts)
Consultations
THE WAY AHEAD EU
Adoption
￿
DraftEU strategy+ impactassessment
￿
CBD COP10
￿
Officialprocedure
￿
EU COM: Strategy+ impactassessment
￿
Endorsement? (EU Council? HU Presidency?)
Implementation
More information can be found at:
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature
http://biodiversity.europa.eu/