Positive Reinforcement - Le Moyne

cowphysicistInternet και Εφαρμογές Web

4 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Lecture 6


Cognitive
-
Behavioral
Approach


Chapters 3 and 5

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2 separate approaches that
have merged over the
years

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Major Theoretical Orientations


Four Orientations Have Dominated


Psychodynamic


Behavioral


Cognitive


Humanistic


Postmodern


a technique which focuses on
changing specific ways the client
acts

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Major Theoretical Orientations


Four Orientations Have Dominated


Psychodynamic


Behavioral


Cognitive


Humanistic


Postmodern


Cognitive theorists believe that our
thinking is conditioned and our behaviors
are a result of this conditioning.


Thus, in order to relieve emotional
distress, we must first help clients change
their thinking

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Behavioral Approach


Three Main Orientations


Classical Conditioning


Pavlov


CS Paired with UCS yields UCR


Operant Conditioning


Skinner (Skinner Box) (see Box 3.2, p. 72)


Positive Reinforcement


Negative Reinforcement


Punishment


Social
-
learning, or Modeling


Bandura


Bobo Dolls

http://www.sott.net/articles/show/136090
-
Transmarginal+Inhibition

http://apbio12007.blogspot.com/2007_11_01_archive.html

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=
-
2953790276071699877

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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Pavlov

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/pa
vlov/readmore.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_conditioning

http://www.sott.net/articles/show/136090
-
Transmarginal+Inhibition


Classical Conditioning


Pavlov


CS Paired with UCS yields
UCR

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http://apbio12007.blogspot.com/2007_11_01_archive.html

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http://apbio12007.blogspot.com/2007_11_01_archive.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.F._Skinner

Principles of Operant Conditioning


Positive Reinforcement


Negative Reinforcement


Schedules of Reinforcement


Generalization


Extinction


Spontaneous Recovery


Discrimination

Skinner
--
Operant
Conditioning

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http://apbio12007.blogspot.com/2007_11_01_archive.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B.F._Skinner

Principles of Operant Conditioning


Positive Reinforcement
-

Positive reinforcement

is the
presentation of something pleasant or rewarding immediately
following a behavior. It makes that behavior more likely to
occur


Negative Reinforcement
-

Negative reinforcement

is when a
particular stimulus is removed after a behavior, and this
causes the behavior to increase as a result


Schedules of Reinforcement
(continuous, variable, fixed interval)

Skinner
--
Operant
Conditioning

Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Multicultural Perspective 1996 Fourth Editionby Allyn & Bacon

by
Allen E. Ivey
,
Mary Bradford Ivey
,
Lynn Simek
-
Morgan

p.286

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Video Clip


Landmarks in Psy Part II on Behavioral
Approach


10 minutes quote at end “Behaviorists
believe that by studying stimuli we can
better understand and control behavior.”



After watching video, gather in a group
and devise a research project about a
stimulus and response:


i.e. does playing violent video games
serve as a stimulus for move violent
behavior among teens.

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(Probably Most Important Theory)

Principles of Operant Conditioning


Positive Reinforcement


Negative Reinforcement


Schedules of Reinforcement


Generalization


Extinction


Spontaneous Recovery


Discrimination

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The “model” modeled
aggressive behavior,
hitting doll with hammer
etc. then measured how
much kids observing
repeated such behaviors.

Albert Bandura

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=
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2953790276071699877

http://www.truveo.com/bandura
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bobo
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doll
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aggression
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gen
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psych/id/2301177096

Bandura
--
Modeling

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Bandura video


Bobo Doll Video


http://video.google.com/videoplay?do
cid=
-
2953790276071699877#docid=
-
4586465813762682933



how he conducted a link to congnitive
Ty as well


http://video.google.com/videoplay?do
cid=
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2953790276071699877



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The Behavioral View of Human Nature


All Behavior is Learned


We are Conditioned by Reinforcers in our
Environment


Antideterministic: What was Learned Can
Be Relearned


Some Applications of the Behavioral
Approach


Token Economy


Learning of Assertive Behavior


Role
-
Playing


Treatment of Phobias


Systematic Desensitization


Spontaneous Recovery


See Box 3.3, p. 74


Jim is given
a coupon
every time
he brings a
pencil and
paper to
class. At the
end of the
week, he
may
exchange
the coupons
for one hour
of free time.


social
learning:
A
counselor
models
assertive
behavior
with Fred.
Fred
subseque
ntly
practices
the
behavior
he just
viewed.


systematic desensitization: Juanita is
taken through a series of relaxation
techniques to help her deal with a phobia
she has been experiencing.

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The Human Service Professional's

Use of the Behavioral Approach


One of the Most Commonly Used
Approaches


E.g., Token Economies with the Mentally
Retarded


E.g., Use of Reinforcement (e.g., Weight
Loss, Behavior Change, Stop Smoking)


E.g., Modeling via Role
-
playing


See Box 3.4, p. 75

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Behavior Therapy Session
5.5 min

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
5MCyfMFXR
-
n0


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_science


Adding the Cognitive perspective to the Behavioral

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ABC’s of Cognitive Behavioral Dr. Aldo Pucci, president
of the National Association of Cognitive
-
Behavioral
Therapists 10 min


can watch the first 5 min our
thoughts (not things) cause our feelings and behaviors

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
1AYAJcOcXFE&feature=related


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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_science

Antideterministic: We can
Change Thinking, and
Ultimately Behaviors and
Feelings


Understanding “Why” We
Behave Is Not as Important
as Making Changes in How
We Think



In order to better understand cognitive theory


it is helpful to
understand how it developed


Piaget introduces us this history….

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Jean PIAGET and his
theory



•cognitive development:


•the transformation of
initial inborn schema by the
twin processes of
Assimilation (practice) and
Accommodation
(modification)


seen next
slide for definitions

Jean Piaget

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html

http://www.aozf75.dsl.pipex.com/AS/AS_CogDev/Piaget_Presentation.pdf

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Neural nets

http://userwww.service.emory.edu/~barsalou/Courses/Cognition/Lecture_Notes/T1b
-
4g
-
situated
-
embodied_cognition
-
OUT.pdf



basic operation

•input units detect
environment

•internal units compute
construal of the environment
(as an implicit pattern)

•output units trigger
appropriate actions

•somewhat

schemata: new
cognitive structures, or
new ways of thinking
that are developed as
we learn

Assimilation: the process in
which the child incorporates
new information into his or
her existing cognitive
framework

Accommodation: the
process in which an
individual changes
their previous way of
understanding the
world and adopts a
new method

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Simulating the emergence
of a new schema or way of
thinking about things

Word puzzles
-

cognitively you just
get it now

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Neukrug page 149


Stages of Cognitive Development


Sensorimotor
: Physical and Sensory Experiences (Birth
Through 2)


Preoperational
: Intuitive Understanding: (

seems
obvious

) (Toast example) (2
-
7)


Concrete
-
operational
:

Figure Things Out


Through
Series of Logical Tasks (7
-
11)


Formal
-
operational
: Abstract Thinking (12 and On)

Jean Piaget

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html

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Video clip


Piaget and his stages of
development

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Jean PIAGET and his
theory


Jean Piaget

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html

http://www.aozf75.dsl.pipex.com/AS/AS_CogDev/Piaget_Presentation.pdf

cognitive development takes
place through FOUR fixed age
related stages:

•Stage 1
-
the sensorimotor
stage

•birth to 2 years

•child learns from interaction
with environment

•only at about 6 months
does OBJECT permanence
occur

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Neukrug page 149


According to Piaget, the
child who cannot maintain
mental images and responds
only to the here and now of
experience is in the
Sensorimotor stage

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Author:

Danielle Goldhammer

Creation date:

Thursday, October 2, 2008 3:36:52 PM EDT

Date last modified:

Thursday, October 2, 2008 3:36:52 PM EDT

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Children's Consortium


This week was pretty calm at the center. The one thing I was disappointed to find out, however, was that the girl we had done

th
e home visit with last week never came to center. I think it may have been because she was worried about the staff members be
ing

mandated reporters for CPS. The leader of the Teen Parents & Babies program said she tells all of the girls she worked with a
bo
ut the up front, just so it doesn't come as a surprise to them if she does end up reporting. However, I think this bit of inf
orm
ation scared her so much that she decided not to come. Another opinion voiced by the staff members was that she was a teenage
r s
till, and it's tough for teens to get up early and have the ambition to participate

On the positive side, I went with another staff member
yesterday to do a home visit with the little baby (almost
8 month old) boy, C, who comes to center every day we
offer the Even Start program. His mom is about my age
and we see each other every Tuesday and Thursday, so it
made it a very comfortable visit. It was interesting
watching the baby in his home environment, and
watching the staff member try to do games and learning
exercises with C. We covered some of his toys with a
blanket to see if he tried to pull the blanket off, but he
would always become interested in something else too
quickly to search for the missing toy. The only time he
tried to pull the blanket off was when the staff member
put it on his head, and got C's attention, so that was cool
when he finally realized that. I learned that this all
means he is working toward learning object
permanence (that something exists even when it can't
be seen).


Subject:

RE:Danielle Goldhammer Journal Entry 6



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http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/piaget/index.htm

The
Preoperati
onal child
lacks the
concept of
number
conservati
on.

http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html


Stage 2
-
pre
-
operational stage

•2 to 7 years

•Child is egocentric
-
unable to understand the world
from another’s perspective

•Child unable to CONSERVE

What does CONSERVE mean?

•Children can CONSERVE when they understand that
quantity does not change when appearance changes

Conservation:
The concept
that "liquids and
solids can be
transformed in
shape without
changing their
volume or mass

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http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


Joyce sees a tall thin glass of water and
thinks that it has more volume than a short
wide glass (although each holds the same
amount of water). Joyce is in which of



Piaget's stages? (p. 133)


a. Formal operational




b. Concrete operational



c. Sensorimotor


d. Preoperational


http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/piaget/index.htm

The concrete
operational is capable
of reversible thought
only if they operate
physical objects.


Stage 3
-

•CONCRETE operational stage

•7
-
approx 11 years

•child now able to conserve and can perform quite
complex operations

•but only if ‘real’ objects are ‘at hand’

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


Stage 3
-

•CONCRETE
operational stage



the child cannot perform mental operations
(transformations)

•If Bill is taller than Jim and shorter than John who is the
tallest?

•Without real figures to manipulate the child cannot
answer

http://www.aozf75.dsl.pipex.com/AS/AS_CogDev/Piaget_Presentati
on.pdf

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/



Stage 4


•Aged 11+ ‘Formal Operations’


•The child can now perform logical
operations and abstract reasoning


•According to Piaget not all achieve the
stage of FORMAL OPERATIONS

http://www.aozf75.dsl.pipex.com/AS/AS_CogDev/Piaget_Presentation.pdf

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Here’s a simple example of a task that a concrete operations
child couldn’t do, but which a formal operations teenager or
adult could
--

with a little time and effort.


Consider this rule
about a set of cards that have letters on one side and
numbers on the other:


“If a card has a vowel on one side,
then it has an even number on the other side.”


Take a look at
the cards below and tell me, which cards do I need to turn
over to tell if this rule is actually true?


http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Here’s a simple example of a task that a concrete operations
child couldn’t do, but which a formal operations teenager or
adult could
--

with a little time and effort.


Consider this rule
about a set of cards that have letters on one side and
numbers on the other:


“If a card has a vowel on one side,
then it has an even number on the other side.”


Take a look at
the cards below and tell me, which cards do I need to turn
over to tell if this rule is actually true?


http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/piaget.html

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Which stage are you at?
Can you figure this out?

Problem solving exercise

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


Neural net model of local
-
sensory
-
to
-
motor
pathways from Laurent (1993)

http://userwww.service.emory.edu/~barsalou/Courses/Cognition/Lecture_Notes/T1b
-
4g
-
situated
-
embodied_cognition
-
OUT.pdf

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_science

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_science


Not Born with Innate Goodness or
Evil, Rational or Irrational Beings


Thinking Can Be Changed
Through Counterconditioning

Antideterministic: We can
Change Thinking, and
Ultimately Behaviors and
Feelings


Understanding “Why” We
Behave Is Not as Important
as Making Changes in How
We Think



Less Emphasis on Qualities of the
Helper/Client Relationship


Stresses Importance of
Extinguishing Past Destructive
Ways of Thinking


Stresses Importance of Practicing
New, Positive Ways of Thinking


Recent Addition: Constructivism


Stresses understanding how
the client makes meaning and
finding ways to change
meaning
-
making system.

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Handout: Obsessive
compulsive daily record of
automatic thoughts

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Cognitive Theory


http://www.cognitivetherapynyc.com/


Video to watch on your own:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gdFovvVJpr8



http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Handouts: constructing an
anxiety hierarchy &
Practice Exercise on
Constructing an Anxiety
hierarchy

Make your own anxiety hierarchy
in pairs?

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Video overview
of CBT to
watch as a
class 6 min

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
ds3wHkwiuCo


http://www.flickr.com/groups/503531@N24/discuss/72157608563260298/


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Final project workshop?

Reading quiz?

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

CBT for a depressed
Mother 3.2 min

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
fCZpUIEUsys&feature=related


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Cognitive applied to
motivational presentation
10 min

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
aCwi3gVn_yA&feature=related


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

http://www.cognitivetherapynyc.com/default.asp?sid=768


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

Podcasts

http://www.cognitivetherapynyc.co
m/Podcast.aspx


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/

http://www.youtube.com/wa
tch?v=LIzm4jiyvXI&NR=1&f
eature=fvwp


Cognitive Therapy: The Case of
Tim


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


Mary can figure things out through a
series of logical tasks but cannot deal
with hypothetical situations. She is in
which of Piaget stages? (p. 133)


a. Formal operational




b. Concrete operational



c. Sensorimotor


d. Preoperational

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


At which of Piaget

s levels of
cognitive development can children
have complex and abstract thoughts?
(p. 133)


a. Concrete operational




b. Preoperational




c. Formal operational


d. Postconventional


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
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caa.org/

Beyond Here FYI


http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


http://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2007/09/19/fortunately
-
i
-
dont
-
make
-
mistakes/

Festinger “cognitive dissonance

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-
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http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


The engine that drives self
-
justification, the energy that produces
the need to justify our actions and decisions


especially the
wrong ones


is an unpleasant feeling that
Festinger

called
“cognitive dissonance.” Cognitive dissonance is a state of tension
that occurs whenever a person holds two cognitions (ideas,
attitudes, beliefs, opinions) that are psychologically inconsistent,
such as “Smoking is a dumb thing to do because it could kill me”
and “I smoke two packs a day.” Dissonance produces mental
discomfort, ranging from minor pangs to deep anguish; people
don’t rest easy until they find a way to reduce it. In this example,
the most direct way for a smoker to reduce dissonance is by
quitting. But if she has tried to quit and failed, now she must
reduce dissonance by convincing herself that smoking isn’t really
so harmful, or that smoking is worth the risk because it helps her
relax or prevents her from gaining weight (and after all, obesity is a
health risk, too), and so on. Most smokers manage to reduce
dissonance in many such ingenious, if self
-
deluding, ways.

http://thesituationist.wordpress.com/2007/09/19/fortunately
-
i
-
dont
-
make
-
mistakes/

http://www.unitedway
-
cny.org/

http://www.ongov.net/DSS/

http://www.ccoc.us/

http://www.afsc.org/default.htm

http://www.ajws.org/

http://www.cnycf.org/cnycf/

http://www.giffordfd.org/

http://www.ldacny.org/

http://www.arcon.org/

http://www.communityalternatives.org/

http://www.contactefr.org/

http://peace
-
caa.org/


Geography of Psychology

http://userwww.service.emory.edu/~barsalou/Courses/Cognition/Lecture_Notes/T1a
-
4g
-
introduction
-
OUT.pdf