Computer-Mediated Communication

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7 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 9 μήνες)

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Computer
-
Mediated
Communication /
Computercommunicatie A

Master IK, CIW, MMI

L.M. Bosveld
-
de Smet

Hoorcollege 1; ma. 4 sept. 2006; 16.00
-
18.00

Two new areas of study


Human
-
Computer Interaction (HCI)


Computer
-
Mediated Communication (CMC)


Definitions


Application areas


Relations


Human Computer Interaction:
definitions



A discipline concerned with the
design
,
evaluation
, and
implementation

of interactive computing systems for
human use and with the study of
major phenomena
surrounding them

(
ACM SIGCHI, 2002
)



The study of the
relationships

which exist between
human users

and the
computer systems

they use in
the performance of their various
tasks

(
Faulkner, 1998
)




Human Computer Interaction:
definitions



The study and practice of
usability

(
Carroll, 2001
)



A
science

and an
art
: scientific foundation of HCI vs. HCI
applications: usability engineering (
Shneiderman
,
2002
)



There is no such thing as HCI; there is only
HHI
(
Hatton
)




HCI: years 60/70

Software engineering

Computer graphics

HCI

Cognitive science

Software psychology

HCI: years 90 and later

Media and information

User interface software and tools

HCI

Usability engineering

Groupware and cooperative activity

HCI concerns



“Will computers ever become easy to use?”


Jef Raskin in
Communications of the ACM,

1997



“Credit for computer crashes?”


Ben Shneiderman in
ACM Ubiquity
, 2000

“Every time your machine crashes, you should get a dollar from the
supplier, and every time you get a dialog box you don’t
understand, you should get a nickel.”



CMC: definitions



A relatively new but rapidly growing
form of interaction

(
Lee & Nass, 2002
)



The
process

by which people create, exchange, and
perceive information using computer systems that
facilitate encoding, transmitting, and decoding messages
(
December, 2003
)



The communication that takes place between people
via

the computer (
Herring, 1996)

CMC: at its broadest, at its smallest


At its broadest CMC can encompass virtually
all computer uses (
Santoro, 1995
)



In general, the term CMC refers to both
task
-
related

and
interpersonal

communication
conducted by computer. This includes
communication both
to

and
through

a
personal or mainframe computer.(
Ferris,
1997
)

CMC: application areas


Computer conferencing


Electronic mail


News groups


Listservs


Discussion forums


Internet Relay Chat


Computer
-
assisted instruction

CMC: promises?


Communication


Social interaction


Exchange of information



Opportunities and limitations.

CMC: benefits over F2F meetings

(Sproull & Kiesler , 1986)



Equal participation



Greater diversity in brainstorming

CMC: reduced social cues



Due to often only text
-
based interaction



Consequence: deregulated interpersonal
behavior:


Flaming


Detachment


Decision aversion


CMC: Media Richness Theory


Media have different abilities to reduce
ambiguity

and
uncertainty
. People will most
likely choose the medium that reduces these
elements the most.

CMC: ambiguity/uncertainty scale


Low
ambiguity/uncertainty








High
ambiguity/uncertainty




Face to face


Video conferencing


Telephone


Instant messaging


Letter


E
-
mail

What do you do when?


Write a letter



Send an e
-
mail message



Send a SMS message



Use the phone

HCI and CMC: differences



HCI: victim


controller interaction


CMC: victim


victim interaction


Social interpersonal interaction


Neutral task
-
related interaction

CMC: specific topics



Interaction and interaction styles


User interface design


Usability evaluation methods


Groupware


Visual communication: Information
visualization; Diagrams and diagrammatic
reasoning

Goals of the course


Get acquainted with some interesting topics in
HCI and CMC


Get more insight into the problem of usability in
various contexts. How to achieve a system that
qualifies as:


Useful


Usable


Used


Critical thinking about approaches and
propositions provided in the literature

CMC: het vak praktisch gezien


15 weken: 1
-
7 en 9
-
15


10 ECTS (280 uur) (18,67 uur p.w.)


Hoor/werkcollege: 2 uur p.w. (toelichting bij,
discussie n.a.v. literatuur)


Practicum: 2 uur p.w. ((programmeer)opdrachten
(VB))


Toetsing: referaat/opdrachten (1/2) + eindtentamen
(1/2)


Literatuur: hoofdstukken uit diverse boeken,
artikelen, reader