IT120 Final Review

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IT120 Final Review


Final Exams Test Date and Time


IT120
-
101

Friday 12 Dec 08, 08:00 a.m.


IT120
-
102

Thursday 11 Dec 08, 08:00 a.m.


IT120
-
103

Wednesday 10 Dec 08, 4:00 p.m.



There is no retest or make
-
up date.


Test will start on time and door will be closed. Do
not be late.

Final Review IT120


Attached are Chapters 1
-
9 Outlines from the
yellow review sheets handed out in class.


Chapters 11
-
14 are from the take home
questions from last week. If you completed
and turned in the homework, it should cover
all information in chapters 11


14. Remember
the highlighted referenced material you were
to mark in your textbook.

Curriculum Outline Review


1.4.1 Common network operating systems


1.4.2 Windows and Linux NOS Comparison


1.4.4 Evaluating customer resources and requirements


3.2.2 Physical versus logical topology


5.3.4 Network Information Service (NIS)


6.2.3 Windows 2000 and XP Operating Systems


6.3.3 Linux Operating System


7.4.1 Unable to boot from installation media



7.1.5 Hardware requirements


7.2.4 Disk partitions


7.2.5 Partitioning a disk


7.1.7 Identifying hardware using Device Manager


7.2.7 Formatting the disk


7.2.7 Formatting the disk


8.1.1 Installing Windows 2000


8.1.2 Installation of OS add
-
on options


8.3.1 Adding users


8.3.2 Managing user accounts


8.3.3 Functions and Permissions of the Administrator Account


8.4.1 Creating and sharing folders


8.4.3 Passwords and permissions


8.5.1 Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)


8.5.4 Stopping and Starting Services in Windows


8.5.6 Printing in Windows 2000


8.5.7 Scripts


9.1.4 Creating the Linux file system


9.2.4 Configuring network settings


9.4.1 Post
-
installation of applications and programs


9.4.2 Creating Achieves and Basic
makefile

changes

Curriculum Outline Review
con’t


10.1.2 GUI interface


10.1.3 CLI Interface


10.1.5 VI Editor


10.2.4 Creating groups and adding users to groups


10.3.1 Creating/sharing directories


10.3.3 Passwords and permissions


10.3.6 Managing
runlevels



10.4.2 Starting, stopping, and restarting daemons


10.4.10 Scripts


10.4.2 Starting, stopping, and restarting daemons


10.4.9 Printing in a Linux Environment


11.3.1 Using
fdisk
,
mkfs
, and
fsck



11.3.3 Core dumps


11.3.4 Assigning permissions for processes



11.4.1 Disk management


11.4.2 Memory usage


11.4.4 Reviewing daily logs


11.4.5 Checking resource usage on Windows 2000 and Windows XP


12.2.1 Locating hardware drivers for Linux


13.1.11 The
dmesg

command


13.2.4 Using an emergency boot disk in Linux


13.4.3 Using TCP/IP utilities


13.4.3 Using TCP/IP utilities


14.1.1 Accessing security needs


14.1.3 Username and password standards



14.1.4 Virus protection standards


14.3.1 File encryption, auditing, and authentication


14.4.1 Finding patches and upgrades


14.5.5 Using a NOS as a firewall





1.4.1 Common Network Operating
Systems


Common network Operating Systems Include

Common

NOSs and Their Versions

Microsoft Windows

Novell Netware

Linux

Unix

NT

NetWare

HP
-
UX

Red Hat

2000 Server

IntraNetware

Sun Solaris

Caldera

.NET Server

BSD

SuSE

AIX

Slackware

SCO

Debian

1.4.2 Windows and Linux NOS
Comparison

Windows

Linux

Open Source

No

Yes

Modular

No

Yes

text
-
mode interface
functionality

Bootable from a CD

No

Yes

Virus Vulnerability /
Security Features

Very and often releases
patches and security fixes

Not nearly as vulnerable
the operating system was
designed with security in
mind

Supports Multiple Users

Yes

Yes

Text Mode Interface

You can use the command
prompt for some things
but not all.

Anything can be done in
the CLI. The operating
system was designed to
run in the command line
the GUI is

an afterthought.

1.4.4 Evaluating Customer Resources
and Requirements


When working in the networking field. You will often have to evaluate the needs of your employer.


You will be looking at what they require.
Workstations, Servers, Dedicated Appliances, Customer
Resources.


Workstations

Stand

Alone
Desktop

Low
-
end

Low
Requirements

High
-
end High
Requirements

Types of Disc/k
drives needed

Servers

servers will have large, high
-
performance hard disks such as Small
Computer System Interface (SCSI)
disks as opposed to Extended IDE
(EIDE) disks

The Larger the Network The more
powerful

the CPU should be, and the
more RAM you want.

Dedicated
Appliances

router

print server

firewall

3.2.2 Physical vs. Logical Topology


Physical topology



The example in Figure shows the physical topology of a network, which
refers to the layout of the devices and media.



An example would be a floor map of a classroom. Laid out exactly.




Logical topology



The example in Figure shows the logical topology of a network, which
refers to the paths that signals travel from one point on the network to another (that is, the



way in which data accesses media and transmits packets across it).



An example would be the network map in our classroom. It has crazy symbols and dotted lines
that show the traffic of data over a network. Or the examples of a ring or buss topology in
our books.

5.3.4 Network Information Service (NIS)



Nis is
Linux’s

`Directory Services.


Database, slaves, and Clients
-
Slaves contain copies of the database and
clients retrieve info from the database and slaves.


Config
-
if doing so during the installation process,
selest

it when prompted
and then select the NIS domain name and the IP address of the NIS server.
Otherwise, one must use the
linuxconf

utility.


yppassword
-
changes the password associated with the user account
username

in the NIS database.


ypinit
-

sets up NIS maps on a NIS master server or slave
server.Correct

command Syntax is as follows:


/
usr
/
sbin
/
ypinit

[

-
o] [

-
n

] [

-
q]
-
m

[
SlaveName

...
]

/
usr
/
sbin
/
ypinit

-
s
MasterName


The First command is used to Set up NIS on a NIS Master Server and the
second command will set up NIS on an NIS Slave Server.

6.2.3 Windows 2000 and XP Operating
Systems



Windows 2000 and XP:


They support plug and play technology.


They’re not really made for Servers.


Support FAT32 and NTFS file systems


Offers support for mobile users with APM and ACPI


Very secure networking with plenty of third
-
party applications to give you a hand.


The offline folders feature allows you to access documents even when not connected to
a network.


IPP allows one to manage printers through a browser Interface.


Built
-
in defragmenters allow the user to keep their Hard drives
intace

and conserve
space


Supports Kerberos Security


Xp

has some features not in 2000, like more extensive support, better security, more
user
-
friendly file sharing, better wireless network features, Remote Desktop Control,
GUI improvements, and better multimedia support for movies, music, pictures, and the
like.


6.3.3 Linux Operating System



Red Hat
-
Older, very influential, Introduced RPM


Mandrake
-
created as Red Hat for KDE, has own server
config
. And GUI installation processes.


Caldera,
eDesktop

and
eServer



two releases, one for workstation, one for server. Very
sophisticated GUI. RPM based and not derived from Red Hat


Debian

GNU/Linux
-
Built specifically for non
-
profit use. Highly customizable.


Corel
-
Based on
Debian
, but more user friendly. Not all CLI commands Work.


PPC
-

Made for use with Power PC CPU.


Slackware
-
Entirely
taxt

based for UNIX enthusiasts. Only system that uses
Tarballs

pacckage

management.


Storm
-

Based on
debian

but easier to use, however less dependent on tools as Corel.


SuSe
-
Uses
RPM,uses

DVD
-
rom

software to open packages, and for systems with a DVD
-
rom.


Turbo
-
Made from Red Hat, Just for Servers


Yellow Dog
-
runs on Power PC. For Macs, essentially.


LOAF
-
Linux on a floppy. Very small.

7.4.1 Unable to boot from installation
media



Troubleshooting when the computer will not boot from a CD rom. Do the
following:


Consult the system BIOS setup menu. A hotkey sequence will probably be needed
and it varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.


Make sure the BIOS is capable of supporting and booting from a CD rom.


Check the CD documentation.


Make sure the disc is supported by the OS.


See if another system can boot from or read the CD. If they can, it’s probably the
drive.


Check to make sure the disk is free of scratches and other nasty stuff like dust,
fingerprints, and such.


Check the CD Drive itself, make sure everything’s hooked up correctly and the like,
as well as Master/Slave configuration and cable select.


7.1.5 Hardware requirements



when a NOS is created there are system requirements that must be met
these are the minimum requirements. When choosing a NOS version to
install, verify that the key elements of the system hardware meet the
minimum requirements of the NOS. These key areas are CPU type
(architecture), CPU speed (measured in megahertz [MHz] or gigahertz
[GHz]), amount of RAM, and amount of available hard disk space. NOS
vendors create these minimum requirements so that administrators can
build their machines for optimal use. To find the minimum requirements
you can look on the NOS vendors website also sometimes the list will be
on the
cd
/
dvd

containing the actual NOS.

7.2.4 Disk partitions



In order to efficiently use the storage space on a hard disk, the disk is divided into sections
called partitions or slices. Each partition, or slice, is a logical division of the hard disk. A disk
can have one or more partitions. Typically a network server is created with multiple
partitions before the NOS is installed, this can allow the following advantages to the user:


Multiple operating systems can be installed on the same disk.


Data can be physically separated from the system files to provide security, file management,
and/or fault tolerance.


A specific partition, called a swap partition, can be created in order to supplement the system
RAM and enhance performance.


Each partition after creation must be formatted before use. A windows partition is give
symbolic letters from the English alphabet beginning with the letter C and so according what
position it was formatted in and if there are other drives such as a CD/DVD rom.


There are three types of partitions that can exist on a hard drive. A primary partition is the
same as an original partition. Extended partitions are variations of a primary partition, which
acts as a placeholder for logical partitions. Logical partitions are partitions that are created
within the extended partitions. On any operating system, there can be up to four primary
partitions or three primary partitions and one extended partition.

7.2.5 Partitioning a disk



Information about the number of partitions, their size, and their location on the disk is kept in the first sector of the dis
k.
This information is called the partition table. Partition tables can conform to one of several formats, including DOS and
BSD/Sun. On systems that use a DOS
-
type partition table, such as Windows and Linux, the first sector of the disk is
sometimes called the Master Boot Record (MBR) or the Master Boot Sector. The partition table includes information that
tells the OS which partitions are bootable. A bootable partition is a partition that contains an operating system. When
manually defining partitions, a partition must be configured to be bootable in order to be able to boot from it.


FDISK: Most NOS installation software includes a program called FDISK. FDISK stands for fixed disk. FDISK programs are
designed to manipulate the partition table of a hard disk. A FDISK program can be used to create partitions, delete
partitions, and set partitions as "active". Linux provides a version of FDISK as well, although the version that Linux uses i
s
fdisk
, with all lowercase letters. The Linux version of
fdisk

is test
-
based as well but provides a more flexible means of
partitioning a hard disk than does Microsoft version.


Linux Install
-
time tools: Linux provides its own tools that can be used when installing a Linux
-
only system. These are GUI
tools that are much more easier to use than
fdisk
. This is probably the best way and easiest way to partition a Linux system.
First Nondestructive Interactive Partitioning Splitting (FIPS) is included in the installation CD that come with most of the
Linux distributions. FIPS is a large partitioning tool that can be used to split a FAT partition into two partitions. FIPS is

mo
st
commonly used on Windows systems that need to make a separate partition to install Linux on. FIPS does this by first
splitting the existing FAT partition. Then the user can delete that partition and installing Linux on that new partition


There are two rules that generally should be followed when portioning a hard drive. A good idea is to use a cross
-
platform
partitioning tool like Partition Magic. As described before, this partitioning tool can be used to partition a hard drive for

us
e
with just about any operating system. If using a third
-
party partitioning tool is not an option then the next best idea is to us
e
the partitioning tool that come with the OS. Linux and Windows 2000/XP come with their own partitioning tools that can be
used during the installation of the OS.



7.1.7 Identifying hardware using
Device Manager



Previously, the devices were installed only if the user installed the
device drivers. Today, PCI
-
based plug
-
and
-
play is the new method. It
is still easy to see which devices have not had drivers installed. In
the Windows 2000 OS, the device will appear with a yellow
question mark next to the device name in Device Manager


Windows 2000:In Windows 2000, the easiest way to identify if the
hardware driver has not been installed is to look at the device and
see if it has a question mark in a yellow circle next to it. This icon
means Windows 2000 recognized the device but could not find a
suitable driver for it. In Device Manager, the user has the option to
update driver. The user can tell Windows 2000 to search the CD or
the Internet for the most suitable driver. The user can also delete
the driver and reboot the PC and Windows will prompt the user
again to search for a suitable driver
.

7.2.7 Formatting the disk


Partitions can be formatted with various
utilities, such as Windows FORMAT.EXE. When
formatting a partition on a Windows NOS,
choose between the following file systems:


New Technology File System (NTFS)
(Recommended for network servers)


FAT32


FAT


7.2.7 Formatting the disk


Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file
system they will use.



ext2



An ext2 file system supports standard Unix file types (regular files, directories, symbolic links,
etc). It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to 255 characters. Versions prior to Red Hat
Linux 7.2 used ext2 file systems by default.


ext3



The ext3 file system is based on the ext2 file system. Its main advantage over ext2 is its
journaling
capabilites
. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system
after a crash as there is no need to scan and check the file system. The ext3 file system is selected
by default and is highly recommended.


physical volume (LVM)



Creating one or more physical volume (LVM) partitions allows you to
create an LVM logical volume.


software RAID



Creating two or more software RAID partitions allows you to create a RAID device.
For more information regarding RAID,


swap



Swap partitions are used to support virtual memory. In other words, data is written to a
swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing.


vfat



The VFAT file system is a Linux file system that is compatible with Microsoft Windows long
filenames on the FAT file system.


8.1.1 Installing Windows 2000


There are a few things to consider before installing Windows 2000. First,
check to make sure that the hardware is capable of running Windows
2000. Microsoft recommends that users observe the following
requirements prior to installing the operating system:



Pentium 133 MHz or higher microprocessor


64 MB RAM


2 GB hard drive or partition with a minimum of 1 GB of free space


VGA monitor


12X CD
-
ROM, minimum


Network card


Understanding the Steps in Windows 2000 Installation



The Setup program


The Setup wizard


Installing Windows networking


Completing the Setup program

8.1.2 Installation of OS add
-
on options


After successfully installing the Windows 2000 operating system,
the user may need some features that are considered add
-
on
options. For example, Internet Information Services (IIS)
should be installed if the user will set up an FTP or web server.
Most of these add
-
ons can be installed from the installation
CD from which the operating system was initially installed.


Other post
-
installation add
-
ons include service
-
packs or updates
to the operating system that have been made since the
installation CD was purchased. These can be downloaded and
installed from the manufacturer website at any time.

8.3.1 Adding users


Before logging on to any Windows 2000 client, a user account must first be created on the appropriate network
server. This account will allow the user to log on to a specific network domain using the account
information created by the system administrator. The task of creating this account in Windows 2000 is
performed with the Computer Management tool. Select
Start > Programs > Administrative Tools >
Computer Management

to display this window.

The Computer Management tool allows a system administrator to manage all aspects of a particular computer,
including authorized users, and in the case of a network server, the authorized users of a network domain.
To create a new user for a local machine, expand the directory tree on the left to reveal the System Tools,
Local Users and Groups. Click the
Users

icon to display the entire existing user accounts in the right half of
the window. Under either the action or right
-
click, select
New User


to display a screen that prompts for
all the necessary account information.

The User name is a required field. It cannot be longer than 20 characters in length, and cannot contain the
symbols below.

/
\

[ ] : | < > + = ; , ? *
.

Both the Full name and Description are for informational purposes only and are not required. After entering all
account information and pressing the
Create

button, the new user will be created and immediately log on
to the computer with the user name and password specified.

8.3.2 Managing user accounts


The Computer Management tool is the primary means for a system administrator to
add and manage users in Windows 2000. These tasks should be much more
intuitive in this GUI environment in comparison to a CLI such as Linux. Instead of
memorizing command names, Windows 2000 users can carry out these operations
in a number of ways, raging from simple menu selections to keyboard commands.

The simplest user management technique is to right
-
click the user name listed in the
right half of the Computer Management window and select the appropriate task
from the menu. From here, the system administrator can instantly choose to
Set
Password, Delete,
or
Rename

the user. Selecting
Properties

can also disable the
account and checking the
Account is disabled

box. These and other user
management options can be found by navigating the remaining menus of the
window. Great care should be taken when using the Delete option since there is
no way to undo such a change.

8.3.3 Functions and Permissions of the
Administrator Account


Typically speaking, when
refering

to any network operating system, like administrator account will
have rights and permissions to control, configure, or change anything in the operating
system. Windows uses a variety of different type of Administer accounts, which are designed
to delegate authority to the various administrator responsibilities. This increases security
because administrator functions will be delegated out to more than one person, based on
the level of access they are given with the type of administrator account they have rights to.
Usually the main administrator account will be assigned to one person, usually an IT manager
or senior level IT engineer.

Windows 2000 Professional automatically creates a built
-
in administrator account. Use the built
-
in Administrator account to manage the overall computer. If your computer is part of a
domain, use the built
-
in Administrator account to manage the domain configuration. Tasks
done using the Administrator account include creating and modifying user accounts and
groups, managing security policies, creating printers, and assigning permissions and rights to
user accounts to gain access to resources. There is also a built
-
in administrator group, which
regular users can be added to temporarily in the event they need specific permissions to
install or run a program for example.

8.3.3 Functions and Permissions of the
Administrator Account (Continued)

Some of the different types of Administrator account/groups are listed as
follows.


Domain
Admins



Windows automatically adds Domain
Admins

to the
Administrators domain local group so that members of Domain
Admins

can perform administrative tasks on any computer anywhere in the
domain. By default, the Administrator account is a member.


Enterprise
Admins



You can add user accounts to Enterprise
Admins

for
users who should have administrative control for the entire network. By
default, the Administrators built
-
in local group for each domain is a
member of the Enterprise
Admins

global group. By default, the
Administrators account is
a member.

8.4.1 Creating and sharing folders


. Useful for administrators to allow users to share certain folders
on network

. Right Click
-

Select
-

New
-

Folder

. Right Click
-

Select
-

Sharing
-

THEN
Configure information
on
the
Sharing Tab


. ALSO** Administrators may
Map Drives

so that users can
access various drives.

. Administrators typically choose to give password information
for users to login to the Mapped Drives

8.4.3 Passwords and permissions



User names and passwords are given to network users. This helps set security levels for
different users, and helps to allow only the users with the Username/Password to access.


Passwords should be
ATLEAST 5 CHARACTERS.

It is always good for users to use Upper and
Lower Case letters ALONG WITH allowed characters to make the password more complex and
harder to figure out for others


Good Password: f!shngco94 (combo of Upper, lower, and additional characters)


Bad Password:
fsh

(TOO SMALL, easy to figure out, no mix of characters.)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
---
-


PERMISSIONS allow administrators to select what actions a User can or cannot perform on
the NOS. Note** Different Users may need different levels of permissions. IE Operation
Managers may have permissions for User Information, but not Financial Data. Where
Financial accounts may not be able to view information not pertaining to financials.


Permission Types:


READ:

ability to VIEW content of FILES.


WRITE:

Allows the users to MODIFY CONTENT OF FILE


EXECUTE:

Allows User to RUN or OPEN DIRECTORY


8.5.1 Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP)



Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) services on Windows XP is the same as
configuring HTTP services on Windows 2000. By enabling the HTTP service on a
NOS, the computer becomes a web server capable of sending out information over
the World Wide Web (WWW).


Activate the HTTP Services through IIS Internet Information Services (
Goto

control
panel and select Add/Remove Programs, then Add Components)


To view HTTP Service go to the management console, select IIS, and then select
properties for the Default Website under HTTP


Typically the IP address http://127.0.0.1, also known as the loopback IP Address,
can be used on your computer to see if your Service/Server is working.


By default, Windows 2000 will display the file named "localstart.asp“


Make sure to add any documents which need to be viewed to the DOCUMENTS in
the HTTP service. (Just a note
from class)

8.5.1 Hypertext Transfer Protocol
(HTTP)



Configuring Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) services on
Windows XP


computer becomes a web server capable of sending out
information over the World Wide Web


these services are activated and configured through the use of the
Internet Information Services


this tool displays the current computer and the list of available
Internet services.


The HTTP web service is found here under the name Default Web Site.


Once this web service has been started, users can view the system
default web page by submitting the address below to their web
browser.
http://127.0.0.1



referred to as the "loopback" address.


It is a networking standard address that always points to the local
computer.


8.5.4 Stopping and Starting Services in
Windows



Windows provides a Services Management Control screen which
lists all of the services available on the Windows operating system.


The services are displayed in alphabetical order by name. A
description of what each service does is displayed to the right.


The services on the computer that are managed through this
Computer Management utility is call the MMC.


Using the Services tab in the Windows 2000 MMC allows you to
modularly start and stop any service running in Windows 2000.


For example, it is possible to manually stop the Windows 2000 client
from using DHCP or DNS.


Another example would be if the server was a web or ftp server
running IIS (Internet Information Services). Using the MMC, it is
possible to manually stop or start the IIS server.


8.5.6 Printing in Windows 2000



networks enable users to share expensive printing devices


a network can make an expensive high
-
speed printer accessible to many users as if
it were directly attached to their own computers.



administrative control, users can select the service they need for a particular job.
In this way, networks allow for a more efficient use


A print server is a computer dedicated to handling client print jobs in the most
efficient manner. Since it handles requests from multiple clients, a print server is
usually one of the most powerful computers on the network.


A powerful processor





Adequate hard disk space




Adequate memory



When using printers that connect directly to the network, the print server "routes"
print jobs to the proper printer.


Sharing a Local Printer


To share a printer that is attached to the local computer, go to the Printers folder,
which is accessible through the Control Panel, and then right
-
click, the printer
name. Choose Sharing, click Shared as the option button, and then either enter a
share name or accept the default..


8.5.7 Scripts



Windows 2000 can accommodate many types of scripting
languages using its built
-
in Windows Script Host (WSH).


This component of Windows 2000 and XP enables users to create
scripts using either the VBScript or JavaScript languages.


WSH can also recognize any other scripting language the user
desires. When a text file is created, the user simply names the file
with the appropriate file extension to indicate its scripting language
to WSH. For example, a VBScript file would have a .
vbs

file
extension, whereas a JavaScript file would end with the .
js

extension. Figure displays a file with a .
vbs

extension in Windows
2000.


When either script file is run, WSH handles the code based on these
file extensions.


9.1.4 Creating the Linux file system



Pre
-
Installation Tasks


After specifying the proper parameters for the installation, partition the
hard drive and choose which file system is to be on this Linux system.


Basically when Linux creates the file system, it is formatting the hard drive.
This is the process in which the ext2, ext3, or
Reiser

file system will be
written to the partition.


Low
-
Level and High
-
Level Formatting



There are two types of formatting that may be done. A Low
-
Level format
redefines the physical sectors on the hard drive. A High
-
Level format will
actually create or recreate the file system. Normally hard drives will be
shipped with a low
-
level format; in most cases there is no need to format
the disk. In Linux, using the
fdformat

command will perform a low
-
level
format and the
mkfs

command will perform a high
-
level format.

9.2.4 Configuring network settings



During the installation, the option of configuring the client network
settings and services will be displayed. This may be done after the
installation but it is recommended to do so during the installation.


Normally the system will detect the network card. The steps to do this
may be slightly different depending on the distribution of Linux that is
being installed. At this point a prompt will be displayed for manually
configuring the network settings such as the IP address, subnet mask, host
name, DNS server, and default gateway.


It is equally important to be able to manually configure TCP/IP setting for a
network interface card (NIC) after the installation is complete.


The
ifconfig

utility is the tool used to set up and configure the network
card.


(example)
-

#
ifconfig

eth0 192.168.1.50
netmask

255.255.255.0


9.4.1 Post
-
installation of applications
and programs



Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)


RPM is the most popular type of package manager. Although created by
Red Hat, RPM is supported by just about every major distribution of Linux.


RPM provides the necessary tools such as package databases that are
needed to install and remove programs, however, not all applications or
programs use RPM.


The package database is stored in the
/
var
/lib/rpm

directory.


Debian

Package Manager


Debian

packages are very similar to RPM packages.
Debian

contains a
package database that has the same features as the RPM database,
however, the
Debian

database is stored in the
/
var
/lib/
dpkg

directory. The
difference between
Debian

and RPM packages is that they are not
interchangeable.
Debian

packages cannot be used on a distribution that
supports RPM packages, and vice versus.

9.4.2 Creating Achieves and Basic
makefile changes



Unfortunately, most of the software programs you’ll find aren’t in RPM
package format.


The software packages that you get via anonymous FTP will virtually all be in
the form of a compressed tar file.


If the file ends in .
gz
, it was compressed with the GNU
gzip

program. This is the
most common file
-
compression format for Linux software packages. If the
archive name ends with a .Z, it was compressed with the compress program.
For example, the software package
test.tar.gz

is a tar archive that has been
compressed with
gzip
.


The
cpio

command manipulates files called
cpio

archives. A
cpio

copies files
into or out of a
cpio

or tar archive.


Makefiles

are used for compiling programs and packages. In order to install
some programs it is necessary to compile the binaries and library files.


There is a program called
make

which will let you automatically compile all of
your source files by just typing make.

10.1.3 CLI Interface


10.1.5 VI Editor


10.2.4 Creating groups and adding
users to groups


10.1.2 GUI interface


10.3.1 Creating/sharing directories


10.3.3 Passwords and permissions


10.3.6 Managing
runlevels


10.4.2 Starting, stopping, and
restarting daemons


10.4.10 Scripts


10.4.2 Starting, stopping, and
restarting daemons


10.4.9 Printing in a Linux Environment