MSE 608B Online


20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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MSE 608B Online

Chapter 2

Managing Personal Stress


Managing Personal Stress

Chapter Objective:

Improving the Management of Stress

and Time

Identifying Major Elements of Stress

Managing Stress

Eliminating Stressors

Developing Resiliency

Identifying Temporary Stress Reduction Techniques


the Management of Stress and Time:

Managing stress is one of the most crucial, yet neglected, management
skills in competent manager’s repertoire.

Approximately 550,000,000 workdays are lost each year due to

It is estimated that businesses in the United States alone will spend more
than $12 billion on stress management training an products this year
(American Institute of Stress, 2000).

Stress can produce devastating effects like inability to concentrate,
anxiety, depression to stomach disorders, low resistance to illness, and
heart diseases.

For organizations, consequences range from absenteeism and job
dissatisfaction to high accident and turnover rates.


the Management of Stress and Time:

The Role of Management

A 25
year study of employee surveys revealed that incompetent management
is the largest cause of workplace stress.

When managers experience stress they tend to :

Selectively perceive information

Become very intolerant

Fixate on a single approach to a problem

Adopt a short
term perspective

Have less ability to make fine distinctions in problems

Consult and listen to others less

Have less ability to generate creative thoughts

Rely on old habits to cope with current situations

Major Elements of Stress

One way to understand the dynamic of stress is to think of it as the product of
a “force field”. A person’s level of performance in an organization results from
factors that may either complement of contradict one another.

Reactions to Stress

alarm stage
is increasing anxiety of fear if the stressor is a threat.

resistance stage
is when the defense mechanisms predominate and the
body begins to store up excess energy. Five types of defense mechanisms are:






Major Elements of Stress

Coping with Stress:

Individuals vary in extent to which stressors lead to pathologies and
dysfunctions. Some people are labeled hot reactors.

The best way to manage stress is to eliminate or minimize stressors with:

strategies: creating a new environment

Strategies: resist the negative effects of stress

Strategies: remedies to reduce the effects

Individuals are better off if they can eliminate harmful stressors and the
potentially negative effects of frequent, potent stress reactions.

Managing Stress


Four Key Sources of Stress:

Time Stressors: too much to do in too little time

Work overload

Lack of control

Encounter Stressors: due to interpersonal reactions

Role conflicts

Issue conflicts

Action conflicts

Situational Stressors: arises from the environment

Unfavorable working place

Rapid change

Anticipatory Stressors: potential disagreeable events

Unpleasant expectations


Eliminating Stressors

Since eliminating stressors is a permanent stress reduction strategy, it is by far
the most desirable, yet impossible to fully achieve.

Management Strategies for Eliminating Stressors:


Effective time management

Effective time management delegating


Collaboration and team building

Emotional intelligence


Work design


Goal setting

Small wins

Eliminating Stressors

Effective Time Management:

Managing time with an effectiveness approach means that:

Individuals spend their time on important matters, not just urgent matters

People are able to distinguish clearly between what they view as important
versus what they view as urgent.

Results rather that methods are the focus of time management strategies.

People have a reason not to feel guilty when they must say “no”.

Eliminating Stressors

Efficient Time Management:

In addition to effectiveness, it is also important to adopt an efficiency point of
view(accomplishing more by reducing wasted time).

One way to enhance is to be alert to your own tendencies to use time inefficiently.

40 Techniques of an Efficient Time Management:

There are 40 techniques for efficient time management. 20 are applicable to anyone and the
remaining relate to managers. Some rules applicable to anyone are like:

Reading selectively

Making a list of things to accomplish

Keeping everything in place

Prioritizing tasks

Doing one important thing at a time but several trivial thing simultaneously

Not procrastinating

Eliminating Stressors

40 Techniques of an Efficient Time Management:

Some rules that are applicable to managers are like:

Holding routine meetings at the end of the day

Holding short meetings standing up

Setting a time limit

Canceling meetings once in a while

Having agendas, sticking to them and keeping track of time

Not overscheduling the day

Going to subordinates offices for brief meetings

Meeting visitors in the doorway

Keeping the workplace clean

Having a place to work uninterrupted

Having someone else answer the phone calls

Eliminating Stressors


Another crucial factor that helps eliminate encounter stress is membership in a
stable, closely
knit group or community. Stress is alleviated when people feel a part
of a group.

Social and Emotional Intelligence:

Social intelligence is the ability to manage your relationships with other people. It
consists of four main dimensions:

A right understanding of others’ emotional and behavioral responses.

A cognitive and emotional understanding of the others’ responses.

An understanding of social behavior.

An ability to solve social problems.

Eliminating Stressors

Eliminating Situational Stressors through Work Design:

Combine tasks: ability of performing a Varity of tasks while working on a whole

Form identifiable work units: formation of natural work units.

Establish customer relationship: customer satisfaction can be achieved.

Increase decision making authority: increasing the autonomy of subordinates

Open feedback channels: knowing what is expected and how task performance is
being evaluated

Stressors through
Prioritizing, goal
setting and small wins:

Goal Setting: reducing stressor by focusing on immediate goal accomplishment
instead of future goals.

Small Wins: tiny but definite change made in desired direction.

Developing Resiliency

Developing resiliency is handling stresses than cannot be eliminated.

The most resilient people are the ones who have achieved a certain degree
of life

Physiological Resiliency:

It is very important because physical condition combine to determine physical

Cardiovascular Conditioning:

An emphasis on physical conditioning in business has resulted partly from overwhelming
evidence that individuals in good physical conditions are better able to cope with stressors than
those in poor physical condition.

An advantage is that it improves mental as well as physical outlook. It also increases self esteem.

Developing Resiliency

Dietary Control
You are what you eat

Eat a variety of foods

Maintain optimal weight

Reduce fat intake

Eat more whole foods

Reduce sugar intake

Reduce sodium intake

Avoid alcohol

Resist caffeine intake

Take vitamin and mineral supplements

Make eating a relaxing time

Developing Resiliency

Psychological Resiliency:

Some people tend to handle stress better because of their psychological
characteristics, referred as resilient personality types.


Feeling in control of one’s life, rather than powerless to shape external events.

Feeling committed to and involved in what one is doing, rather than alienated from

Feeling challenged by new events and experiences not threatened by them.

Type A Personality:

In America about 70% of men and 50% of women exhibit type A personality traits
such as extreme competiveness, strong desire for achievement, haste,
restless, hyper alertness, etc.

Developing Resiliency

The Small
Wins Strategy:

When individuals work for small, tangible outcome, giving them a chance to enjoy
visible success, excitement, and optimism which motivate to accomplish another small

Deep Relaxation Strategies:

Include meditation, yoga, autogenic training of self
hypnosis, biofeedback, and so on.

Most deep relaxation techniques require conditions such as:

A quite environment

A comfortable position

A mental focus

Controlled breathing

A passive attitude

Focused bodily changes


Developing Resiliency

Psychological Resiliency

People who are embedded in supportive social communications are less likely to
experience stress and are better equipped to cope with stress.

Aside from personal friendships, two types of social support system can be
performed as part of manager’s job:

Mentor relationship

Task team

Identifying Temporary Stress Reduction Techniques

Performing short term strategies reduces stress temporarily so that long term stress
stress reduction can be achieved. Techniques are as follows:

Muscle relaxation: easing the tension in muscle groups

Deep breathing: several successive deep breaths that cause mind clearing

Imagery and fantasy: changing the focus to something else

Rehearsal: different scenarios and alternative reactions

Reframing: redefining the situation as manageable


This chapter mainly discussed the meaning of stress and management. Four kinds of
stressors, time, encounter, situational, and anticipatory were elaborated.

Generally, stressors cause negative physiological, psychological, and social reactions in


Coping with stress is important to become resilient

The best way to manage stress is to eliminate it through time management, delegation,
collaboration, interpersonal competence, work redesign, prioritizing, goal setting, and
small wins.

Strategies take an extended period of time to implement.

MSE 608B Online

Case Study

The Case of the Missing Time

The Missing Time


What principles of time and stress management are violated in this case


In the missing time case study, there are violations of time and stress management
such as effective and efficient time management, and eliminating stressors

Effective Time Management Violations:

Chet has a feeling that he is falling behind and is not able to keep up. He realizes
that it might be due to poor scheduling but he still does not know how to handle the
situation. First issue is that Chet should distinguish between important matters and
urgent matters and spend time accordingly. Second, from the managerial point of
view bottom line results are always more important, so his focus should be getting
more things done. Third, he must be able to say no to unimportant tasks which are
time consuming and can be simply done by others.

The Missing Time

Efficient Time Management Violations:

The main objective of efficient time management is to accomplishing more by
reducing wasted time. Chet violates this type of management because he does not
prioritize planned things before unplanned tasks. Chet, on his way to the company,
realizes that open
end unit scheduling is probably the most important or certainly
the most urgent because the vice president and general manager had asked him to
give it some thoughts. Latter that day, he was not able to even consider the task
that was ranked as the most urgent.

Eliminating Stressors:

Chet violates eliminating stressors because he doesn’t try to eliminate encounter,
situational and anticipatory stressors. Chet only is able to eliminate encounter
stressor by building teams and getting tasks done through each team. Situational
stressor also can be handled by redesigning work and daily activities. Although
Chet tries to set the goals before starting a day, he fails to implement those goals
due to handling of unplanned activities.

The Missing Time


What are the organizational problems in this case?


In the missing time case study, the main problematic organizational factor which is
noticeable is the lack of clarity of responsibilities. Chet asks himself “ do I need an
assistant?” because he is not clear about the daily tasks and priorities, so it is very
difficult for him to plan activities based on the importance of each. Besides, there is
no consistency among the daily tasks that he accomplishes. For example, he is
responsible for hiring a man to assist stockroom foreman which is a simple job. On
the other hand, he attends meetings with top decision makers like vice president of
the company. The organizational problem is that work is not assigned fairly and
equally to right people.

The Missing Time


Which of Chet’s personal characteristics inhibit his effective management of time?


As mentioned in pervious slides, one of the major problems that Chet is facing is the
large volume of unplanned activities. His inability to say “no” to unimportant things
makes him extremely busy. He really needs to rank the daily activities based on
urgency and importance in order to achieve the maximum efficiency.

The Missing Time


If you were hired as a consultant to Chet, what would you advise him?


There is number of things that Chet can do to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

It seems that his response to stressors is normal but still he needs to eliminate the

sources of stress and apply management techniques. Chet needs to be able to hold

routine meetings at the end of the day, hold short meetings stand up, set a time limit

for each activity, cancel meetings once in a while, insists that subordinates suggest

solutions to the problem, have a place uninterrupted to work, etc.

MSE 608B Online

Chapter 5

Gaining Power and Influence


Gaining Power and Influence

Chapter Objective:

Building a Strong Power Base and using

Influence Wisely.

A Balanced View of Power

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Transforming Power into Influence

Building a Strong Power Base and using
Influence Wisely

The big question is that who has the political competence.

Political competence includes large numbers of fearless and ambitious
unseasoned twenty
something flooding the managerial job functions. It
is not something that you born with, but a skill you learn.

A Balanced View of Power

It can be said that right use of power is the most critical element of

Powerful leaders know how o build a strong power base in their organizations
or institutions.

Lack of Power:

Power has different perceptions in different cultures. The negative view of
personal power is common in cultures that place a high value on ascription,
rather than achievement, and on collectivism rather than individualism.
Generally powerful managers can:

Intercede on behalf of someone in trouble

Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinates

Get approval for things beyond budget

Get items on and off the agenda at policy meetings

Get fast access to top decision makers

Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts

A Balanced View of Power

of Power

Managers with an intuitional power orientation use the power to
improve the organization, whereas those with a personal power view of
power tend to use their power for personal gain.

Staying on top the power curve requires:

Gaining power

Converting power effectively into interpersonal influence

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Power is the potential to influence behavior.

The Necessity of Power and Empowerment:

issue is not that we need to avoid the use of power, but we need to learn
how to use it wisely:

Organizations becoming less hierarchical

Decentralizing the flow of information using IT

Having boundless organizations

Having workforce fewer than 100 employees

Two basic factors that identifies one’s power in an organization are:

Personal attributes

Position characteristics

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Sources of Personal Power:

There are four personal characteristics that can be called as sources of power:


Personal attraction




Work related knowledge and experience determines who you are and how
much power you can gain based on the level of expertise.


Interpersonal attraction is another source of personal power

consists of charisma, agreeable behavior, and physical characteristics.

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Attraction (continued):

Leaders are more likely o be considered charismatic if they:

Express an inspiring vision

Make personal sacrifices

Use non
traditional approach to achieve shared goals

Have a seemingly uncanny feel for what is possible

Show sensitivity to member’s needs

Agreeable behavior are the kinds associated with friendship.

There are evidences that shows people with agreeable personalities become
more influential than those with disagreeable personalities.

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power


One of the most highly prized characteristic of employees is personal effort
because it shows how dependable

and reliable they are.

In addition to obligation, high level of effort can improve other personal
characteristics. It can result in increased responsibility and opportunity through
a process known s cognitive dissonance reduction.

Individuals who work hard on a task tend to increase their knowledge of the

Managing the relationship with your boss helps understand your boss’s pressure
and prioritize your own needs and strengths. You need to understand:

Your boss’s goals and objectives.

The pressure on him or her.

Your boss’s strengths, weaknesses, and blind spots.

His or her preferred work style.

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power


Actions that are in harmony with the prevailing value system are deemed
credible, or legitimate by other organizational members.

Acceptance is the key to personal influence and it can’t be achieved without

All personal characteristics have one thing in common which is the antecedents
of trust. The relationship between trust and power is central to the overall view
of power and influence.

The trustworthiness of a person is a function of two factors:

How likely is that the person can do what he or she says?

How likely is it that the person will do what he or she says?

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power


Actions that are in harmony with the prevailing value system are deemed
credible, or legitimate by other organizational members.

Acceptance is the key to personal influence and it can’t be achieved without

All personal characteristics have one thing in common which is the antecedents
of trust. The relationship between trust and power is central to the overall view
of power and influence.

The trustworthiness of a person is a function of two factors:

How likely is that the person can do what he or she says?

How likely is it that the person will do what he or she says?

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Sources of Position

Four main characteristics of a position account for its potential power in an

: One of the most important ways of gaining power is centrality in a board
network of task and interpersonal relationship. It makes access to information in
communication network easier.

Another critical requirement to build up power is flexibility. It is freedom to
exercise one’s judgment. It requires high ability to improvise, innovate and demonstrate
initiative. Flexibility is also correlated with the life cycle of a position. New task are
definitely more difficult to routinize than old ones.

One measure of visibility is the number of influential people with whom you
normally interact in your organization. That is why people oriented positions are more
powerful than task oriented positions.

The best way to gain visibility is by means of direct
contact and face to face communication.

Alignment of assigned tasks and organizational priorities that are directly
related to the central objective is relevance.

Transforming Power into Influence:

objective is “helping” people to accomplish their tasks and responsibilities in
organization and recognizing the requirements of political influence

Influence Strategies (The Three

Retribution : forcing others to do what you say. The direct approach of it is
threatening and indirect approach is pressure.

want to
do what you say. The direct approach of it
and indirect approach is

Reason : showing others that it makes sense to do what you say.
The direct
approach of it is
presenting facts
and indirect approach is
appealing to
personal values.

Transforming Power into Influence:

The Pros and Cons of Each Strategy:


Pros: it is quick and direct

Cons: stifles commitment and creativity


It has low incidence of resentment

engenders instrumental view of work
and encourages people to feel that the terms
of assignment are open for negotiation.

Reason :

need for surveillance enhanced

: Considerable time required to build trust and requires common goals and values

Transforming Power into Influence:

Exercising Upward Influence

A Special Case of the Reason Strategy:













Transforming Power into Influence:

Neutralizing Retribution Strategies Used by Others:

countervailing power to shift dependence to interdependence

Confront the exploiting individuals directly

Actively resist

Reciprocity Strategies
Used by Others

Examine the intent
of any gift or favor giving activity

Confront individuals who are using manipulative bargaining tactics

Refuse to bargain individuals who use high
pressure tactics

Strategies Used by Others

the adverse effects of compliance on performance

Defend your personal rights

Firmly refuse to comply with the request


The main discussion of this chapter is about linking power to influence and it
cannot be achieved unless by management and strategies.

The sources of power such as personal attributes and position characteristics
were discussed in this chapter.

Abuse of power and its consequences was elaborated.

Transforming power to influence was another important factor of this