MSE 608B Online

confidencetoughΔιαχείριση

20 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 10 μήνες)

93 εμφανίσεις

MSE 608B Online


Chapter 2


Managing Personal Stress


Summery


Managing Personal Stress



Chapter Objective:


Improving the Management of Stress



and Time


Identifying Major Elements of Stress


Managing Stress


Eliminating Stressors


Developing Resiliency


Identifying Temporary Stress Reduction Techniques






Improving

the Management of Stress and Time:



Managing stress is one of the most crucial, yet neglected, management
skills in competent manager’s repertoire.


Approximately 550,000,000 workdays are lost each year due to
stress.


It is estimated that businesses in the United States alone will spend more
than $12 billion on stress management training an products this year
(American Institute of Stress, 2000).


Stress can produce devastating effects like inability to concentrate,
anxiety, depression to stomach disorders, low resistance to illness, and
heart diseases.



For organizations, consequences range from absenteeism and job
dissatisfaction to high accident and turnover rates.





Improving

the Management of Stress and Time:


The Role of Management
:


A 25
-
year study of employee surveys revealed that incompetent management
is the largest cause of workplace stress.


When managers experience stress they tend to :


Selectively perceive information


Become very intolerant


Fixate on a single approach to a problem


Adopt a short
-
term perspective


Have less ability to make fine distinctions in problems


Consult and listen to others less


Have less ability to generate creative thoughts


Rely on old habits to cope with current situations






Major Elements of Stress


One way to understand the dynamic of stress is to think of it as the product of
a “force field”. A person’s level of performance in an organization results from
factors that may either complement of contradict one another.

Reactions to Stress
:


The
alarm stage
is increasing anxiety of fear if the stressor is a threat.


The
resistance stage
is when the defense mechanisms predominate and the
body begins to store up excess energy. Five types of defense mechanisms are:


Aggression


Regression


Repression


Withdrawal


Fixation



Major Elements of Stress

Coping with Stress:


Individuals vary in extent to which stressors lead to pathologies and
dysfunctions. Some people are labeled hot reactors.


The best way to manage stress is to eliminate or minimize stressors with:


Enactive
strategies: creating a new environment


Proactive
Strategies: resist the negative effects of stress


Reactive
Strategies: remedies to reduce the effects


Individuals are better off if they can eliminate harmful stressors and the
potentially negative effects of frequent, potent stress reactions.

Managing Stress

Stressors:

Four Key Sources of Stress:


Time Stressors: too much to do in too little time


Work overload


Lack of control


Encounter Stressors: due to interpersonal reactions


Role conflicts


Issue conflicts


Action conflicts


Situational Stressors: arises from the environment


Unfavorable working place


Rapid change


Anticipatory Stressors: potential disagreeable events


Unpleasant expectations


Fear




Eliminating Stressors


Since eliminating stressors is a permanent stress reduction strategy, it is by far
the most desirable, yet impossible to fully achieve.

Management Strategies for Eliminating Stressors:


Time


Effective time management


Effective time management delegating


Encounter


Collaboration and team building


Emotional intelligence


Situational


Work design


Anticipatory


Goal setting


Small wins







Eliminating Stressors

Effective Time Management:

Managing time with an effectiveness approach means that:

1)
Individuals spend their time on important matters, not just urgent matters

2)
People are able to distinguish clearly between what they view as important
versus what they view as urgent.

3)
Results rather that methods are the focus of time management strategies.

4)
People have a reason not to feel guilty when they must say “no”.







Eliminating Stressors

Efficient Time Management:


In addition to effectiveness, it is also important to adopt an efficiency point of
view(accomplishing more by reducing wasted time).


One way to enhance is to be alert to your own tendencies to use time inefficiently.

40 Techniques of an Efficient Time Management:


There are 40 techniques for efficient time management. 20 are applicable to anyone and the
remaining relate to managers. Some rules applicable to anyone are like:


Reading selectively


Making a list of things to accomplish


Keeping everything in place


Prioritizing tasks


Doing one important thing at a time but several trivial thing simultaneously


Not procrastinating








Eliminating Stressors

40 Techniques of an Efficient Time Management:


Some rules that are applicable to managers are like:


Holding routine meetings at the end of the day


Holding short meetings standing up


Setting a time limit


Canceling meetings once in a while


Having agendas, sticking to them and keeping track of time


Not overscheduling the day


Going to subordinates offices for brief meetings


Meeting visitors in the doorway


Keeping the workplace clean


Having a place to work uninterrupted


Having someone else answer the phone calls








Eliminating Stressors

Collaboration:


Another crucial factor that helps eliminate encounter stress is membership in a
stable, closely
-
knit group or community. Stress is alleviated when people feel a part
of a group.


Social and Emotional Intelligence:


Social intelligence is the ability to manage your relationships with other people. It
consists of four main dimensions:


A right understanding of others’ emotional and behavioral responses.


A cognitive and emotional understanding of the others’ responses.


An understanding of social behavior.


An ability to solve social problems.





Eliminating Stressors

Eliminating Situational Stressors through Work Design:


Combine tasks: ability of performing a Varity of tasks while working on a whole
project.


Form identifiable work units: formation of natural work units.


Establish customer relationship: customer satisfaction can be achieved.


Increase decision making authority: increasing the autonomy of subordinates


Open feedback channels: knowing what is expected and how task performance is
being evaluated

Eliminating
Anticipatory
Stressors through
Prioritizing, goal
setting and small wins:


Goal Setting: reducing stressor by focusing on immediate goal accomplishment
instead of future goals.


Small Wins: tiny but definite change made in desired direction.



Developing Resiliency


Developing resiliency is handling stresses than cannot be eliminated.


The most resilient people are the ones who have achieved a certain degree
of life
balance
.

Physiological Resiliency:


It is very important because physical condition combine to determine physical
resiliency.


Cardiovascular Conditioning:


An emphasis on physical conditioning in business has resulted partly from overwhelming
evidence that individuals in good physical conditions are better able to cope with stressors than
those in poor physical condition.


An advantage is that it improves mental as well as physical outlook. It also increases self esteem.





Developing Resiliency


Dietary Control
:
You are what you eat


Eat a variety of foods


Maintain optimal weight


Reduce fat intake


Eat more whole foods


Reduce sugar intake


Reduce sodium intake


Avoid alcohol


Resist caffeine intake


Take vitamin and mineral supplements


Make eating a relaxing time





Developing Resiliency

Psychological Resiliency:


Some people tend to handle stress better because of their psychological
characteristics, referred as resilient personality types.

Hardiness:

1)
Feeling in control of one’s life, rather than powerless to shape external events.

2)
Feeling committed to and involved in what one is doing, rather than alienated from
others.

3)
Feeling challenged by new events and experiences not threatened by them.

Type A Personality:


In America about 70% of men and 50% of women exhibit type A personality traits
such as extreme competiveness, strong desire for achievement, haste,
imptience
,
restless, hyper alertness, etc.




Developing Resiliency

The Small
-
Wins Strategy:


When individuals work for small, tangible outcome, giving them a chance to enjoy
visible success, excitement, and optimism which motivate to accomplish another small
win.

Deep Relaxation Strategies:


Include meditation, yoga, autogenic training of self
-
hypnosis, biofeedback, and so on.


Most deep relaxation techniques require conditions such as:


A quite environment


A comfortable position


A mental focus


Controlled breathing


A passive attitude


Focused bodily changes


Repetition




Developing Resiliency

Psychological Resiliency
:


People who are embedded in supportive social communications are less likely to
experience stress and are better equipped to cope with stress.


Aside from personal friendships, two types of social support system can be
performed as part of manager’s job:


Mentor relationship


Task team




Identifying Temporary Stress Reduction Techniques


Performing short term strategies reduces stress temporarily so that long term stress
stress reduction can be achieved. Techniques are as follows:


Muscle relaxation: easing the tension in muscle groups


Deep breathing: several successive deep breaths that cause mind clearing


Imagery and fantasy: changing the focus to something else


Rehearsal: different scenarios and alternative reactions


Reframing: redefining the situation as manageable




Conclusion



This chapter mainly discussed the meaning of stress and management. Four kinds of
stressors, time, encounter, situational, and anticipatory were elaborated.


Generally, stressors cause negative physiological, psychological, and social reactions in


individuals


Coping with stress is important to become resilient


The best way to manage stress is to eliminate it through time management, delegation,
collaboration, interpersonal competence, work redesign, prioritizing, goal setting, and
small wins.


Strategies take an extended period of time to implement.

MSE 608B Online


Case Study


The Case of the Missing Time


The Missing Time

Question
1


What principles of time and stress management are violated in this case
?

Answer

In the missing time case study, there are violations of time and stress management
such as effective and efficient time management, and eliminating stressors
strategies.


Effective Time Management Violations:

Chet has a feeling that he is falling behind and is not able to keep up. He realizes
that it might be due to poor scheduling but he still does not know how to handle the
situation. First issue is that Chet should distinguish between important matters and
urgent matters and spend time accordingly. Second, from the managerial point of
view bottom line results are always more important, so his focus should be getting
more things done. Third, he must be able to say no to unimportant tasks which are
time consuming and can be simply done by others.






The Missing Time


Efficient Time Management Violations:

The main objective of efficient time management is to accomplishing more by
reducing wasted time. Chet violates this type of management because he does not
prioritize planned things before unplanned tasks. Chet, on his way to the company,
realizes that open
-
end unit scheduling is probably the most important or certainly
the most urgent because the vice president and general manager had asked him to
give it some thoughts. Latter that day, he was not able to even consider the task
that was ranked as the most urgent.


Eliminating Stressors:

Chet violates eliminating stressors because he doesn’t try to eliminate encounter,
situational and anticipatory stressors. Chet only is able to eliminate encounter
stressor by building teams and getting tasks done through each team. Situational
stressor also can be handled by redesigning work and daily activities. Although
Chet tries to set the goals before starting a day, he fails to implement those goals
due to handling of unplanned activities.



The Missing Time

Question
2


What are the organizational problems in this case?

Answer

In the missing time case study, the main problematic organizational factor which is
noticeable is the lack of clarity of responsibilities. Chet asks himself “ do I need an
assistant?” because he is not clear about the daily tasks and priorities, so it is very
difficult for him to plan activities based on the importance of each. Besides, there is
no consistency among the daily tasks that he accomplishes. For example, he is
responsible for hiring a man to assist stockroom foreman which is a simple job. On
the other hand, he attends meetings with top decision makers like vice president of
the company. The organizational problem is that work is not assigned fairly and
equally to right people.





The Missing Time

Question
3


Which of Chet’s personal characteristics inhibit his effective management of time?

Answer

As mentioned in pervious slides, one of the major problems that Chet is facing is the
large volume of unplanned activities. His inability to say “no” to unimportant things
makes him extremely busy. He really needs to rank the daily activities based on
urgency and importance in order to achieve the maximum efficiency.





The Missing Time

Question
4


If you were hired as a consultant to Chet, what would you advise him?

Answer

There is number of things that Chet can do to increase efficiency and effectiveness.

It seems that his response to stressors is normal but still he needs to eliminate the

sources of stress and apply management techniques. Chet needs to be able to hold

routine meetings at the end of the day, hold short meetings stand up, set a time limit

for each activity, cancel meetings once in a while, insists that subordinates suggest

solutions to the problem, have a place uninterrupted to work, etc.

MSE 608B Online


Chapter 5


Gaining Power and Influence


Summery


Gaining Power and Influence



Chapter Objective:


Building a Strong Power Base and using



Influence Wisely.


A Balanced View of Power


Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power


Transforming Power into Influence





Building a Strong Power Base and using
Influence Wisely



The big question is that who has the political competence.


Political competence includes large numbers of fearless and ambitious
unseasoned twenty
-
something flooding the managerial job functions. It
is not something that you born with, but a skill you learn.

A Balanced View of Power


It can be said that right use of power is the most critical element of
management.


Powerful leaders know how o build a strong power base in their organizations
or institutions.

Lack of Power:


Power has different perceptions in different cultures. The negative view of
personal power is common in cultures that place a high value on ascription,
rather than achievement, and on collectivism rather than individualism.
Generally powerful managers can:


Intercede on behalf of someone in trouble


Get a desirable placement for a talented subordinates


Get approval for things beyond budget


Get items on and off the agenda at policy meetings


Get fast access to top decision makers


Acquire early information about decisions and policy shifts




A Balanced View of Power

Abuse
of Power
:


Managers with an intuitional power orientation use the power to
improve the organization, whereas those with a personal power view of
power tend to use their power for personal gain.


Staying on top the power curve requires:


Gaining power


Converting power effectively into interpersonal influence


Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power


Power is the potential to influence behavior.

The Necessity of Power and Empowerment:


The
issue is not that we need to avoid the use of power, but we need to learn
how to use it wisely:

1)
Organizations becoming less hierarchical

2)
Decentralizing the flow of information using IT

3)
Having boundless organizations

4)
Having workforce fewer than 100 employees


Two basic factors that identifies one’s power in an organization are:


Personal attributes


Position characteristics



Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Sources of Personal Power:


There are four personal characteristics that can be called as sources of power:


Expertise


Personal attraction


Effort


Legitimacy

Expertise:


Work related knowledge and experience determines who you are and how
much power you can gain based on the level of expertise.

Attraction:


Interpersonal attraction is another source of personal power


it
consists of charisma, agreeable behavior, and physical characteristics.



Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Attraction (continued):


Leaders are more likely o be considered charismatic if they:


Express an inspiring vision


Make personal sacrifices


Use non
-
traditional approach to achieve shared goals


Have a seemingly uncanny feel for what is possible


Show sensitivity to member’s needs


Agreeable behavior are the kinds associated with friendship.


There are evidences that shows people with agreeable personalities become
more influential than those with disagreeable personalities.


Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Effort:


One of the most highly prized characteristic of employees is personal effort
because it shows how dependable

and reliable they are.


In addition to obligation, high level of effort can improve other personal
characteristics. It can result in increased responsibility and opportunity through
a process known s cognitive dissonance reduction.


Individuals who work hard on a task tend to increase their knowledge of the
subject.


Managing the relationship with your boss helps understand your boss’s pressure
and prioritize your own needs and strengths. You need to understand:


Your boss’s goals and objectives.


The pressure on him or her.


Your boss’s strengths, weaknesses, and blind spots.


His or her preferred work style.





Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Legitimacy:


Actions that are in harmony with the prevailing value system are deemed
credible, or legitimate by other organizational members.


Acceptance is the key to personal influence and it can’t be achieved without
legitimacy.


All personal characteristics have one thing in common which is the antecedents
of trust. The relationship between trust and power is central to the overall view
of power and influence.


The trustworthiness of a person is a function of two factors:


How likely is that the person can do what he or she says?


How likely is it that the person will do what he or she says?

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Legitimacy:


Actions that are in harmony with the prevailing value system are deemed
credible, or legitimate by other organizational members.


Acceptance is the key to personal influence and it can’t be achieved without
legitimacy.


All personal characteristics have one thing in common which is the antecedents
of trust. The relationship between trust and power is central to the overall view
of power and influence.


The trustworthiness of a person is a function of two factors:


How likely is that the person can do what he or she says?


How likely is it that the person will do what he or she says?

Strategies for Gaining Organizational Power

Sources of Position
-
Power:


Four main characteristics of a position account for its potential power in an
organization:


Centrality
: One of the most important ways of gaining power is centrality in a board
network of task and interpersonal relationship. It makes access to information in
communication network easier.


Flexibility:
Another critical requirement to build up power is flexibility. It is freedom to
exercise one’s judgment. It requires high ability to improvise, innovate and demonstrate
initiative. Flexibility is also correlated with the life cycle of a position. New task are
definitely more difficult to routinize than old ones.


Visibility:
One measure of visibility is the number of influential people with whom you
normally interact in your organization. That is why people oriented positions are more
powerful than task oriented positions.

The best way to gain visibility is by means of direct
contact and face to face communication.


Relevance:
Alignment of assigned tasks and organizational priorities that are directly
related to the central objective is relevance.









Transforming Power into Influence:


The
objective is “helping” people to accomplish their tasks and responsibilities in
organization and recognizing the requirements of political influence
.

Influence Strategies (The Three
Rs
):


Retribution : forcing others to do what you say. The direct approach of it is
threatening and indirect approach is pressure.


Reciprocity
:
helping
others
want to
do what you say. The direct approach of it
is
bargaining
and indirect approach is
obligating.


Reason : showing others that it makes sense to do what you say.
The direct
approach of it is
presenting facts
and indirect approach is
appealing to
personal values.









Transforming Power into Influence:

The Pros and Cons of Each Strategy:


Retribution
:


Pros: it is quick and direct


Cons: stifles commitment and creativity


Reciprocity
:


Pros:
It has low incidence of resentment


Cons
:
engenders instrumental view of work
and encourages people to feel that the terms
of assignment are open for negotiation.


Reason :


Pros:
need for surveillance enhanced


Cons
: Considerable time required to build trust and requires common goals and values



Transforming Power into Influence:

Exercising Upward Influence
-

A Special Case of the Reason Strategy:


Congruence


Credibility


Communication


Compatibility


Solvability


Payoff


Expertise


Responsibility


Presentation


Bundling


Coalitions


Visibility











Transforming Power into Influence:

Neutralizing Retribution Strategies Used by Others:


Use
countervailing power to shift dependence to interdependence


Confront the exploiting individuals directly


Actively resist

Neutralizing
Reciprocity Strategies
Used by Others
:


Examine the intent
of any gift or favor giving activity


Confront individuals who are using manipulative bargaining tactics


Refuse to bargain individuals who use high
-
pressure tactics

Neutralizing
Reason
Strategies Used by Others
:


Explain
the adverse effects of compliance on performance


Defend your personal rights


Firmly refuse to comply with the request




Conclusion:


The main discussion of this chapter is about linking power to influence and it
cannot be achieved unless by management and strategies.


The sources of power such as personal attributes and position characteristics
were discussed in this chapter.


Abuse of power and its consequences was elaborated.


Transforming power to influence was another important factor of this
chapter.