RFID Sensor Based Service for Hypermarkets in Jakarta

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27 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 6 μήνες)

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CHAPT
E
R 2




THEORE
T
ICAL FOUNDATION





2.1

RFID


RFID

(Radio

Frequency

Identification)

is

system

or

technology

that trans
m
its

the
identity

(in

the

fo
r
m

of a

unique

serial

n
u
m
ber)

of an

object

or person wirelessly,
using

radio

[8].

RFID

i
s

included

in

auto
m
atic

identification

technologies,

such
as:

barcode, retinal

scans,

etc.

In

o
r
der

RFID

works,

th
e
re

are

t
h
ree

basic
co
m
ponent

needed

in

RFID

sy
st
e
m
,

that

are:

RFID

tag

or

transponder
(tra
n
s
m
itter

+ responder),

RFID reader

or tran
s
ceiver

(transmitter

+ receiver)

al
s
o
called

as

interrogator,

and

a

RFID

contr
o
ll
e
r

or

RFID

ho
s
ts

that

usu
a
lly

in

f
orm
of

PC

or

workstation

running

database

a
nd co
n
t
r
o
l

[7].

In

the

RFID

tag

a
n
d

RFID
reader

there

are

a
n
tenna

attached.

















Fig
u
re

2
.
1

Bas
i
c

B
u
il
d
i
n
g

B
l
o
cks

of an RF
I
D S
y
ste
m
.



S
o
urce: L
a
r
a
n

RFI
D
.

[
7
]







7

8




How

does

RFID

work?

RFID

tags

are

“in
t
errogated”

by

an

R
F
ID

reader.

The

tag
reader

generates

radio

f
r
equency

signal

that

communicates

with

the

tags.

The
reader

also

has

a

recei
v
er that

capt
u
res

a

reply

signal

from

t
he

tags

and

decodes
that

signal.

The

reply

signal

from

the

tags

reflects

the

tag’s

d
ata

co
n
t
ent

[
9].






2.2

RFID Tag



RFID

tags

also

know

as

inlay

is

used

to

store

and

trans
m
it

data

to

the

reader.
RFID

tags

consist

of

a

m
i
crochip

connected

to

an

antenna

that

is

usually

covered
with

a

protective layer

(such

as

a

la
m
inated card)

[10].

So
m
e

tags

m
ay

have
additional

f
eatures

and

capabilities

such

as:

kill/disable,

anti
-
collision, and
security

and

encryption.

Kill/
d
i
s
a
b
le

feature

e
n
a
b
les

t
h
e

tag

to

allow

t
h
e

reader

to
give

“kill

code”

com
m
and

that

will

s
t
op

the

tag

f
unction

o
r

operation
per
m
anently

[
11
]
.

Some

tag

m
ay

have

anti
-
c
olli
s
ion

a
l
g
orithm

m
ake

the

t
a
g
know

how

to

wait

their

turn

when

responding

to

a

reader

[11].

Whenever

there
are

a

lot

of

tags

close

each

other,

the

reader

m
i
ght

be

confuse

to

know

which

tag
is

responding.
W
hile

secur
i
ty

and

encryption

capabi
l
ities per
m
it

the

tag

to
respond only

to

readers

that

can

provide

a

secret

password [11].

9


























Fig
u
re 2
.
2

EA
S

L
a
bel
[
10]




There are

m
any

shapes

of

RFID

tags

such

a
s:

lab
e
l,

ti
c
ket, card,

glass

bead,
integrated, wristband, and

button.

Label

t
a
g

is

a

flat,

thin,

and

flexible

fo
r
m
.
Ticket

tag

is

also

flat,

thin,

and

flexi
b
l
e
.

But,

wh
a
t

m
akes tic
k
et

tag
d
i
ff
erent

with
label

tag

is

ticket

tag

is

on

paper.

Card

tag

is

a

flat,

thin

tag

e
m
bedded in

tough
plastic

for

long

life.

Glass

bead

tag

is

a

s
m
all

tag

in

cylindrical glass

bead

that
usually

used

for

an
i
m
al

tagging

(e.g.

und
e
r

the

skin).

Integrated, the

tag

is
inte
g
rated

into

the

o
b
j
e
ct

it

is

tagging

rath
e
r

t
h
an

applied

a
s

a

sepa
r
at
e
d

label.
W
ristband tag

is

a

tag

inserted

into

a

plastic

wrist

strap.

Button,

a

s
m
all

tag
encapsulated

in

a

ruggedized,

rigid

housing

[12].






RFID

tags

can

be

differentiates

into

three

types:

passive

tags,

active

tags,

and
se
m
i

passive

tags.

RFID

tags

also

can

be

classified into:

read

only,

WORM,

and
read/w
r
ite.

10


















Fig
u
re 2
.
3

R
FI
D

T
a
gs
[
12
]
.






2.2.1

Passive Tags



The

tag

called

as

pa
s
si
v
e

tags

b
eca
u
se there

is

n
o

power

so
u
rce

in

the

tag.

In
passive

RF
I
D

tags,

th
er
e

is

s
i
licon

c
hip.

RFID

interro
g
at
o
r

will

r
el
e
ase a

radio
f
requency

t
h
at

will

pow
e
rs

the

s
i
lic
o
n

chip

on

t
h
e

tag

when

it

is

wit
h
in

r
ange
of

the

radio

frequency

field.

W
hen

the

power

to

the

silicon

chip

on

the

tag
m
eets

the

mini
m
u
m

voltage

threshold

it

r
e
quire

to turn

on,

the

silicon

chip

can
then

send

back info
r
m
ation

on

the

sa
m
e

radio frequency

wave.

Because

of

the
tag

needs

radio

frequency

wave

in

order

to

be

turn

on,

the

range

between
reader

and

tag

usually

li
m
ited

to

several

m
eters

[
12].






The

passi
v
e

tags

need

to

communicate

w
ith

po
w
er
f
ul

i
n
te
r
r
o
gators

in

o
r
der

to
run.

Not

only

that,

the

m
e
m
ory

in

the

passive tags

is

s
m
all

(only

a

few
kilobytes).

This

m
akes

the

passive

tags

less

expensive

than

the

active

tags

and
usually

p
as
s
ive

ta
g
s

s
m
all
e
r

than

a
ctive

tags

[
7
]
.

11




Passive

tags

are

c
h
eap and

it

is

alre
a
dy

com
m
on use

in

daily

life

nowadays.
Since

pas
s
ive

tags

p
o
wer

depen
d
s

on

the

Radio

Freque
n
cy e
m
itted

by

the
read
e
r,

it

c
an

last

in
d
e
f
i
nit
e
ly. Passive

tags

can

be

used

in

the

logistic
appli
c
ation by

att
a
ching

them

to

pallets

o
r

c
a
ses

so

th
a
t

it
e
m
s

can

be

traced
easily

[33].






2.2.2

Active Tags



Active

tags

have their

own

power

s
ource

or

on
-
board

power

source.

W
h
en the
tags

need

to

trans
m
it

data

to

the

i
n
t
e
rrog
a
tor
s
,

it

us
e
s

this

on
-
board power
source

for

run

the

trans
m
ission. Because

of

t
h
ese

ta
g
s

uses

its

own

power
source,

it

can

communicate with

less

po
w
erful

interrogators

and

can

have
longer

range

than

passive

tags

and

also

have

higher

data

bandwidth. But,

the
drawback

of

this

tags

are

m
ore

expensive

than

passive

tags

since

it

has

on
-

board

power

source

and the tags

life depend

on

the

battery

life

(approxi
m
ately
up to

10 years)

[7].






2.2.3

Semi Passive Tags



Se
m
i

passi
v
e

ta
g
s

or

al
s
o called

as

s
e
m
i active

tags

have

its

own

power

source
(usually

a

la
m
i
nar,

flexible,

low

c
o
st

batter
y
)

which

can

be

used

for

on

tag
sensing

(e.g.

te
m
perature),

but

not

to

boost

range [12].

S
e
m
i

passive

tags

have
several

advantages

over

passive

tags.

O
n
e

of

the

advantages

is

se
m
i

passive

12




tags

have

l
o
nger

range

b
ecause

for

the

commun
i
cation

to

t
h
e

interrogat
o
r, the
tags

can

use

all

of

the

power

provided

by

the

reader

for

communication

and
use on
-
board

power source

f
o
r power the

chip

[11].






2.2.4

Read Only (RO) Tags



Read

only

tags

contains a

unique

license

plate

nu
m
ber

which

cannot

be
changed

[12].

It

can

only

be

programmed once

by

the

product

m
anufa
c
turer.
Since

it

is

can

only

be

program
m
e
d once,

the

data

in

the

tags

cannot

be
changed

again

forever. Read

only

tags

are

s
i
m
ilar

with

b
arcodes.

Therefore,
read

o
n
ly

tags

can

ea
s
ily

integrate

i
n
to

exi
s
ti
n
g

barco
d
e

s
yste
m
s

[7].

Read
only

tags

are

the

c
h
ea
p
est tags

c
o
mpare to

WORM

tags

and

read

write

tags
[12].






2.2.5

WORM Tags



WORM

is

an

acronym from

write

once

read

m
a
ny.

S
a
m
e

with

read

only

tags,
WORM

tags

can

only

be

program
m
ed

once

and

the

data

cannot

be

changed
f
or

entire li
f
e.

But

what di
ff
erenti
a
te

it

with

r
ead

only

tags

is

that

WO
RM

tags
are

program
m
ed by

end

user.

This

type

of

tags

could

be

used

on

an

assembly
line

to

stamp

the

m
a
nufacturing

date

or

location

onto

a

tag

after

the
production

process is

completed

[7].

13




2.2.6

Read Write (RW) Tags



Read write tags

also

known

as

S
m
a
rt t
a
gs

give

the

end

user

m
ore

flexibility
than read only tags

and

W
O
RM

tags. This type of

tags

can

be

programm
e
d
m
any

ti
m
es

whenever

there

is

infor
m
ation that

need

to

be

updated

or

added.
Read

write

tags

can

s
t
ore

a

l
o
t

of

data

and

have

an

addressable
m
e
m
ory

that
can

be

cha
n
ged

ea
s
ily

[
7].

Read write tags

is

the

m
ost

expensive

tags compare
to

WORM
t
ags

and

read

only

tags.






2.3

RFID Interrogator



RFID

inte
rr
ogator o
f
t
e
n

called

a
s

RFID

reader

consist

of

antenna

(coupling
ele
m
ent)

a
n
d

radio

fre
q
uency

electronic
m
odule

(tra
n
s
m
itter and

receiver),

and

a
control

unit

[13].

The

antenna

is

used

for

communicating with

RFID

tags
wirele
s
sly

w
hile

t
h
e

el
ec
t
ronic
m
odule

is

used

to

trans
m
it

m
e
ssages

b
e
tween

the
host

co
m
puter

and

all

t
h
e

tags

wit
h
in

RFID

reader

signal

range

[7].

The

reader
has

three

m
ain

functions:

energizing,

de
m
odulating,

and

decoding

[13].

The
reader

is

responsible

for

the

flow

of

data

between the

tags

and

the

host

co
m
puter
[14].

The

module

also

perfor
m
s

s
ecurity

functions

like

encryption/decryption,
user authentication,

and

also

anti
-
collision

function

[7].






Whenever

there

are

two

or

m
ore

tags

placed

cl
o
sed

each

ot
h
er,

the

reader

can

b
e
confused

to

deter
m
ine

which

tag

is

com
m
unicating.

As

a

re
s
ult,

sa
m
e

tags can

be

14




read

twice.

Anti
-
c
o
lli
s
i
on alg
o
rit
h
m
s

can

solve

this

p
r
o
ble
m
.

Anti
-
collision
per
m
its

the

reader

to

read

large

nu
m
b
e
r

of tags

only

once

simultaneously.






Based

on

location, there

are

two

types

of

RFID

int
e
rro
g
ator

the
r
e

a
re

f
i
xe
d
-

position

interrogators

and

portable

inter
r
ogators.

Fixed
-
position interrogators
usually

used

for

track

the

object

move
m
ent through

any

facility

[14].

Fixed
-

position

interrogat
o
rs can

be

placed

in

the

ceili
n
g,

aisles

of

shelves,

d
o
ck

doors,
along

conveyor

belts,

and

in

doorways

[14
]
.

Portable

interrogators are

m
ore
f
l
exible

rather

than

fi
xed
-
position i
n
terrogators.

The

port
a
ble

reader

can

be
mounted

in

forklifts,

trucks,

and

oth
e
r

m
aterial

handling

equip
m
ent

[14].






Reader

i
n
terface

work

b
etween

c
o
re

pr
o
ce
s
sing

functions

and

RFID

hardware
that

enable

RFID

syste
m
s

to

discover,

m
a
nage,

and

control

readers

and

tags [14].
Based

on

reader

i
n
ter
f
a
c
e,

RFID

interrogat
o
rs can

be

divided

into

two

types

that
are

serial

reader

and

n
etwork

rea
d
er.

Serial

reader

is

co
n
necting to

the

host
co
m
puter

by

using

cable.

The

advantage

of

u
s
ing serial

reader

is

that

it

is

provide
more

consistent

communication between

reader

and

the

h
ost

co
m
puter.

T
h
e
drawbacks

o
f

using

serial

reader are

t
h
e

range

between

interrogators

and

the

host
co
m
puter is

li
m
ited

by

the

cable

le
n
gth

and

the

seri
a
l

p
o
rts

are

li
m
ited.

Network
reader

con
n
ects

to

the

host

co
m
puter

by

using

wireless

connection.

Since

it

is
wireless,

the

range

bet
w
een

interrogators
a
nd

host

co
m
puter

is

lon
g
er

than

serial

15






read
e
r.

But

the

drawb
ac
k

is

t
h
at

it

h
a
s

le
s
s

co
n
siste
n
t

co
m
m
unication

between


reader

and

the

host

co
m
puter.


















Fig
u
re 2
.
4

R
FI
D

I
n
te
rr
oga
t
o
r / Reader
[
15]




2.4

Antenna



Both

RFID

tags

and

RFID

int
e
rrog
a
tors have

antenna.

Antenna

enables

the

tags
and

interr
o
gators

co
m
m
unicate each

other.

Antenna

perfor
m
ed

as

coupling
devices

because

it

produces

an

electro
m
agnetic field

to

connect

with

the

tag.
Antenna

design

and

place
m
ent

plays

i
m
portant

role

in

deter
m
ining the

coverage
zone,

range,

and

accuracy

of com
m
unication

[14].






In

the

RFID

tags,

the

antenna

us
u
ally

m
ounted

on

the

sa
m
e

surface

as

the

IC
(inlay

surface).

W
hile

in

the

RFID

interro
g
at
o
rs, the

ant
e
nna

position

can

be
mounted

in

various

place.

In

handheld

interrogators, the

antenna

is

m
ounted

on
the

reader

itself.

In

other

cases,

the

ant
e
nna

can

be

m
ounted away

from

a

reader
unit,

for

example:

in

a

p
a
llet tracking

syste
m
,

the

rea
d
er

is

connected

through

the

16






antenna

network

that

for
m
ing

a

well
-
detection

zone

such

as

a

portal

or

a

gate


[14].






There

are

two

types

of

antenna

based

on

p
o
l
a
riz
a
tion

th
a
t

ar
e
:

line
a
r

pola
r
ized
antenna

and

circ
u
l
ar

polarized

anten
n
a.

Linear polarized

wave

radio

frequency

in
linear

pattern

and

circular

polarized

wave

radio

frequency in

circular

pattern.
Linear

polarized

antenna

provides

longer

range

co
m
pared

to

circular

polarized
antenna.

B
u
t,

lin
e
ar

polari
z
ed ante
n
na

is

m
ore

sensitive

to

tag

orie
n
t
ati
o
n rath
e
r
than

circular

polarized

antenna.






















Fig
u
re 2
.
5

L
i
n
ear

P
o
lariz
e
d

(
ri
g
ht)

a
n
d Cir
c
ular Polariz
e
d (left) [
1
5]






2.5

RFID Con
t
roller



RFID

contr
o
ll
e
r

is

t
h
e


b
rains”

of

a
n
y

R
F
ID

system

[7].

Usually

RFID

controll
e
r
is

in

form

of

PC

or

workstation

running

database

or

application

software.

RFID

17




contr
o
ller controls

the

reader

be
h
a
v
i
or.

The

co
n
t
roller can

u
se

data

from

the

tag
that

r
e
trieve by

i
n
terrogators

for

keep

inventory

and

alert

sup
p
lier

for

restocking,
track

object

m
ov
e
m
ent,

verify

identity

and

grant

authorization, and

debit

an
account

[7].






2.6

Communication Type bet
w
een a Reader and a Tag



There

are

two

fields

that

differe
n
tiate the

area

between

a

read
e
r

and

a

tag
communication

that

are:

near

f
i
e
l
d

and

far

f
i
e
l
d.

Near

field

is

the

area

between

a
read
e
r

ante
n
na

and

one

f
ull

wavele
n
gth of

the

radio

f
requen
c
y

wave

e
m
itted

by
the

antenna.

W
hile

the

area

beyond

one

f
u
ll

w
a
velength of

the

radio

frequency
e
m
itted from

a

reader antenna is

kno
w
n

as

far

field

[15].

N
e
ar

field

communication

usually

used

by

RFID

system

that

working

in

low

frequency

and
high

frequency. The

RFID

system

that

is

operating

in

ultra

high

frequency and
m
i
crowave

frequency

use far

field

communication.






Based

on

the

tags

type,

there

are

three

types

of

communication

between

a

reader
and

a

tag

that

are:

m
odulated

bac
k
scatt
e
r,

trans
m
itter

type,

and

transponder

type.

18






2.6.1

Modulated

Backscatter


Modulated

backscatter

communication

used

in

passive

and

se
m
i
-
passive

tags.
In

this

communication

type,

the

interrogators

e
m
its

continuous

wave

(C
W
)
radio

frequency

containing AC

power

and

clock

signal

to

the

tag

at

the
frequency

where

the

reader

operate

[
15].

The

reader

always

starts

the
operation

first,

followed

by the

tag.


































Fig
u
re 2
.
6

M
o
dulated Bac
k
s
c
atter

C
o
m
m
unication

[
1
5]




2.6.2

Transmitter Type



Trans
m
itter

type

is

only

used

in

active

tags.

In

t
r
ans
m
itt
e
r

ty
p
e
communication,

the

tag

broadcasts

its

m
e
ssage

to

the

environ
m
ent

in

regular

19






intervals,

irrespective

of

the

pre
s
ence

or

absence

of

a

reader

[15].

Contrary

to
modulated

backscatt
e
r

type,

here

the

tag

start

operation

first,

followed

by

the

int
e
rrog
a
tor
s
.




















Fig
u
re 2
.
7

T
r
a
n
s
m
i
t
ter

T
y
pe C
o
m
m
unicati
o
n [
1
5]







2.6.3

Transponder Type



Transponder

communication

used

only

in

special

type

of

active

tags

that

is
transponders.

In

transponder

type

communication,

the

tag

goes

to

a

“sleep”

or
into

a

dor
m
a
nt

stage

in

the

absence

of

i
n
terrogation

from

a

r
eader

[15].

In

this
type,

the

ta
g
s

will

s
end a

m
essage

to

the

r
e
ader

p
erio
d
ically

to check

if

t
h
ere

is
any

reader

read

t
h
e

m
essage.

Then,

w
h
enever

a

reader

read

the

m
essage,

it
will

send in
s
t
ru
c
tion

to

the

tags

to

“w
ake

up”.

20









































Fig
u
re 2
.
8

T
r
a
n
s
po
n
d
er T
y
pe

C
o
m
m
unication
[1
5]







2.7

Host and Soft
w
are System



The

host

and

software

system

have

f
our

m
a
in

co
m
ponents that

are:

edge
interface/sy
s
t
e
m
,
m
i
ddleware,

enter
p
rise

bac
k
-
e
n
d

interface,

and

enter
p
rise

back
end.

21




2.7.1

Edge Interface/System



The

m
ain

function

of

edge

system is

to

get

data

from

the

reader,

control

the
reader

behavior, and

u
se

the

rea
d
ers

to

acti
v
ate

the

as
s
ociated

e
x
ternal
actuators

and

anunciator. Edge

system

co
m
bines

the

entire

host

and

software
system

with

the

RFID

hardware

(rea
d
er,

tag,

and

antenna).

Edge

system

is

the
best

p
l
ace

to

hide

the

details

i
n
ter
a
ct
i
on with

a

s
p
ecific

rea
d
er

from

particular
m
anufacture.

There

are

s
o
m
e

other

task

that

ed
g
e

system

can perform

that

are:
re
m
ote

reader

m
anage
m
ent, provide

i
n
telligent

functions,

allow

setting

of
event
-
based

triggers

that

can

auto
m
atically activa
t
e

an

anunciator

or

an
actu
a
tor,

a
n
d

f
ilter

o
u
t

d
uplic
a
t
e

r
e
a
ds

f
rom

di
f
ferent

read
er
s

[
15
]
.






2.7.2

Middle
w
are



Middleware co
m
ponent

is

everything

that

lies

between

edge

system

and
enter
p
rise

b
ack
-
end

interface.

Middlewa
r
e

is the

most

i
m
portant

co
m
ponent

of
the

host

and

software

syste
m
.

Middlewa
r
e

can

p
e
rf
or
m
s

seve
r
al

f
unctio
n
s

lik
e
:

data

sharing

both

inside

and

outside

enterprise,

efficient

m
anag
e
ment of
m
assive

data

produced

by

RFID

syste
m
,

provide

generic

components, enable
loose

coupling

between

edge

system

a
nd

enterprise

back
-
end

interface,

and
open

standard

based

[9].

22




2.7.3

Enterprise Back
-
end
I
nterface



This

co
m
ponent

is

used

to

co
m
bine

m
i
ddleware

co
m
ponent

with

enterprise
back
-
end

component.

Business

process

i
m
pl
e
m
entation

can

be

integrated

in
this

co
m
ponent.

Custo
m
ization is

needed

in

this

co
m
ponent

in

order

to
acti
v
ate

tra
n
saction

and

transfer

data

between

m
i
ddleware a
n
d

the

e
n
ter
p
rise
back
-
end

[15].






2.7.4

Enterprise

Back
-
end



Enterprise

back
-
end

co
m
ponent

e
n
co
m
passes

the

complete

suite

of
applicatio
n
s

and

IT

sy
st
em

of

an

ent
e
rprise.

Enterprise

b
ac
k
-
end

is

the

data
repository and

business

process

engine.

In

a

RFID

syst
e
m

context,

this
co
m
ponent

provides

the

directory

data

for

the

tagged

objects

to

the
m
i
ddleware

co
m
ponent

[15].






2.8

Communi
c
ation
Infra
s
tructure



Communication infrastructure

provides

connectivity

and

enables

security

and
syste
m
s

m
a
nage
m
ent

functionalities

for

different

co
m
ponents

of

an

RFID
syste
m
,

and

is

therefore

an i
m
portant

part

of

the

syste
m
.

It includes

the

wired

and

wirele
s
s

network,

and

serial

co
n
nectio
n
s

between

rea
d
ers,

contr
o
llers, a
n
d
co
m
puters

[15].

23








2.9

RFID Frequency



RFID

basically

based

on

wireless

communication that

generates

and

radiate
electro
m
agnetic

waves

[16].

The

RFID

frequency

m
ust

not

disturb

other

radio
services

like

radio,

television,

m
o
bile

t
e
lephones, etc.

RFID

has

four

radio
frequency ranges

that

are:

low

frequen
c
y

(LF),

high

frequency (HF),

ultra

high
frequency

(UHF), and

m
i
crowave

frequency.






2.9.1

Low

Frequency (LF)



The

frequency

range

for

LF

is

bet
w
een

30

KHz

and

300

KHz,

with

125

KHz
or

134.2

KHz

being

the

typical

frequency

for

LF

RFID

system.

RFID

systems
operating

at

LF

generally

use

passive

t
a
gs,

have

low

data
-
transfer rates

fr
o
m
the

tag

to

the

reader,

and

are

especially good

if

the

operating

environ
m
ent
contains

m
etals,

liquids,

d
i
rt,

snow, or
m
ud

[15].






2.9.2

High Frequency (HF)



The

frequency range

for

HF

is

between

3

MHz

to

30

MHz.

The

typical
frequency for

HF

is

13.56

MHz.

RFID

system

operating

at

HF

uses

p
a
ssive
tags,

has

a

slow

data
-
transfer rate

f
rom

the

tag

to

the

rea
d
er,

and

offers

fair
perfor
m
ance

in

the

p
resence

of

m
etals

and

liquids

[15].

24








2.9.3

Ultra High Frequency (UHF)



UHF

frequency

ranges

from

300

M
H
z

to

1

GHz

and

typically

operates

at

915


MHz

int

United

States

and

at

868

MHz

in

Europe.

UHF

s
ystem

can

be

used
by

active

and passive

tags

and has

a

fast d
a
ta
-
tr
a
nsfer

r
a
te

between

the

tag

and
the

reader,

but

perform poorly

in

the

presence of

m
etals

and

liquids.UHF
system

usually

used in

several

international

and

national

ret
a
ilers,

and

the

U.S.
Depart
m
ent

of Defense

[15].






2.9.4

Micro
w
ave Frequency



Microwave

frequency

range

is

m
ore

than

1

GHz

and typically

operates

at

2.45


GHz

or

5.8

GHz.

Microwave frequency

syste
m
s

can

be

used

by

passive

and
se
m
i
-
passive

tags.

This

frequency

has

the

fastest

data

transfer

rate

bet
w
een

the
tag

and

the

reader.

This

frequency perfor
m
s

worse

in

the

presence

of

m
etals
and

liquids

[15].






2.10

Physical
Coupling Method



Physical

coupling

m
ethod

is

used

for

transferred energy

from

the

antenna

to

the
tag.

There

are

three

types

of

coupling
m
ethod in

RFID

system that

are

m
agnetic,
electric,

and

electro
m
agnetic.

25








2.10.1
Magnetic
-
Coupled System



Magnetic coupled

syste
m
s

also

known

as

inductive coupled

systems

or
inductive radio

syste
m
.

The

LF

and

HF

RFID

syste
m
s

b
e
long

to

m
agnetic
coupled

system

[15].






2.10.2 Electric
-
C
o
upled System



Electric

coupled

systems

can

be

referr
i
ng

to

capacitive

coupled

syste
m
.

The


LF

and

HF RFID syste
m
s

belong

to

this

coupled

category

[15].







2.10.3

Electr
o
ma
g
netic
-
Coupled System



RFID

syste
m
s

belonging

to

this

class

are

also

called

backscatter

systems.

The


UHF and

m
i
crowave

RFID
syste
m
s

be
l
ong

to

this

coupled

system

[15].







2.11

RFID Application O
v
e
r
view



RFID

technology

already

been

used

in

m
any

business

applications

in

the

world.
In

auto
m
otive,

RFID

technology

is

used

for

anti
-
theft

im
m
o
bilizers and

passive
-

entry

syste
m
s.


RFID

technology also

a
l
ready

been

used

in

ani
m
al

tracking
system

by

put

the

RFID

tag

inside

the ani
m
al

body.

There

are

m
any

pets who

are

26




tagged

are

returned

to

their

owner

[18].

In

asset

tracking

system,

RFID

technology already

been

used

also.

Hospital

and

phar
m
a
c
ies used

R
FID

for
product

accountability, libraries

use

RFID

for

tracking

t
h
e

b
ook

circ
u
l
ation,

and
sports

and

e
nte
r
t
ain
m
ent

entre
p
rene
u
rs

f
i
nd

that


s
m
art

ticket
s


are

th
e
i
r

ticket

to
a

better

bottom

line

and

happier

custo
m
e
r
s [18].

In

supply

chain

co
m
panies like
WalMart,

T
arget,

Best
B
uy,

etc

have

discovered the

use

of

RFID

technology to
reduce

the

out
-
of
-
stock

losses,

speed

up

the

custo
m
er

purchasing

sy
st
e
m
,

and
keep

inve
nt
ories
a
t

t
h
e

opti
m
al

l
e
vel

[
18
]
.

W
al
-
M
a
rt

f
or
c
ed

their

su
p
pli
e
r

to
i
m
pl
e
m
ent

RFID

technology. Wal
-
Mart

said

its

the

RFID

technology
i
m
ple
m
entation is

su
cc
esses

(
at

l
e
ast

f
or

the

ret
a
il
e
r).

W
al
-
M
a
rt

s
aid

it

had
reduced

16

percent

the

nu
m
ber

of

out
-
o
f
-
stock

products

on

store

shelves

during

29
-
week

period

last

year

[19].

W
al
-
Mart

even

forced

their

top

100

suppliers

to
use RFID technology.






2.12

Tag Collision



A

reader

can

only

communicate with

t
h
e

tags

one

by

one.

Usu
a
lly

tag

colli
s
i
o
n
occurs when

there

are

two

or

more

tags

t
h
at

clo
s
e each

other

and

try

to
communicate

with

the

reader

at

the

sa
m
e

ti
m
e.

In

or
d
er

to

solve

this

proble
m
,
anti
-
collision

algorithm

is

being

used.

Anti
-
collision

alg
o
rit
h
m

per
m
its

t
h
e

read
e
r
to

com
m
un
i
cate

with

the

tags

one

by one

si
m
ultaneously.

27




2.13

Reader Collision



Reader

c
o
llision

occ
u
rs

when

one reader

overlap

with another

reader.

This rea
d
er
collision

c
an

causes

two

proble
m
s

that

ar
e
:

sig
na
l

int
e
r
f
eren
c
e

and

m
ultiple

rea
d
s
of

the

sa
m
e

tag

[
17
]
.

Ti
m
e

division multiple

a
cc
esses

(TD
M
A)

can

help

to

avoid
reader

collision.

TDMA instructed

the

reader

to

read

at

different

ti
m
es

rather

than
all

rea
d
ing

at

the

s
a
m
e

ti
m
e

[15].

By

doing

this,

there

will

be

only

one

reader
that

operates

at

a

ti
m
e.






2.14

Ans
w
er to Reset (ATR)



When

a

s
m
a
rt

card

is

powered
-
up by

a

r
e
ader,

it

needs

to

build

a

new

bridge

for
communication

with

t
h
e

read
e
r.

Th
e
re
f
ore, the

tag

will

g
i
ve

answer

to

t
h
e

read
e
r
in

a

f
orm

of

bytes

s
e
quence

th
a
t

will

ex
p
li
c
itly tell

t
h
e

driv
e
r

on

how

to
communicate with

the

tag.

The

ATR

consist

of

f
i
ve

steps:

Initial

C
hara
c
te
r
,
For
m
at

Character,

Interface

Characters, Hist
o
rical

Bytes,

a
nd

Check

Character.
Initial

Char
a
cter will

t
e
ll

the

r
ead
e
r

the

bit

len
g
th

will

be

us
e
d

by

the

s
m
art

c
ard.
The

Fornat

Character

w
ill

pro
v
ide

info
r
m
ation on

how

the

Interface

C
h
aracters
and

Historical

Bytes

will

be

transfe
r
red.

Interface

Characters

hold

infor
m
ation
regar
d
ing

t
h
e capabilities

of

the card

so

that

the

reader

can

a
d
j
u
st

to the

c
a
rd. The
Historical

Bytes

will

tell

the

read
e
r

r
eg
a
rding the

card

in
f
ormation (c
a
rd

build
e
r,
type,

size,

e
t
c.).

Check

Charact
e
r

will

pro
v
ide

a
dditio
n
al

priority

ch
e
ck

f
or

t
h
e
reader

[28].

28








2.15

EPC



Electronic

P
roduct

Code

or EPC

is

a

coding

sche
m
e

that

is

used by RFID system
to

share

infor
m
ation

a
m
ong

each

other.

Sweeney

II (2005)
m
entioned

that

the
EPC

is

the

individual

number

associated

with

an

RFID tagor

chip.

EPC

has two
specific

fu
n
ctions,

which

are:




Nu
m
bering

Sche
m
e:

decide

on how the

data

is

going

to

be

stored

in

the

tag.




Air Int
e
r
f
a
c
e

Protoc
o
l:

d
eter
m
ine

how the

tags

a
nd

read
e
rs

will

communicate.






W
ith

the

new technology,

a

RFID tag

can

s
t
ore

more

data

co
m
pared

to

Universal


Product

Code.

Data

structure

inside

EP
C

is

divided

into

four
p
artitio
n
s:





Header:

a

h
eader

h
o
lds

infor
m
ation

regar
d
ing

what

type of

n
u
m
ber follows

in
the

ne
x
t

p
a
rtition.

This

p
artition

will

help

the

re
a
der

to

i
n
ter
p
ret

in
f
or
m
ation

in
the

next

partition.



EPC

Manager

Nu
m
ber:

Holds

in
f
or
m
ation that

will

i
d
enti
f
y

the

co
m
pany

that
owns
the

product.



Object

Cla
ss
:

it

is

s
i
m
ilar

to

stoc
k
-
ke
e
ping

unit.


Serial

Nu
m
b
er:

holds

in
f
or
m
ation

regarding

the

item

being

tagged.

29







Fig
u
re 2
.
9

E
PC data

Struc
t
ur
e
.

[2
9]






2.16

Bar Code


A

bar

co
d
e

is

a

series

o
f

vertical, alternating black

and

white

stripes

of

varying
widths

that

fo
r
m

a

machine
-
reada
b
le

c
ode

[7].

The

bar

code

sy
m
bol

which

is
re
f
l
ects

las
e
r

lig
h
t

is

r
ead

by

the

scanner.
B
ar

code

also

included in

auto
identification

technology.








Fig
u
re 2
.1
0

B
a
r

C
o
de.
[
7
]
.




2.17

Data

Flow

Diagram



Data

flow

diagram

or

so

called

DFD

is

a

t
ool

that

shows

the f
l
ow

of

data through
a

system

and

the

work

or

processing perfor
m
ed

by

t
h
at

syste
m
.

There

are

t
h
r
e
e
sy
m
bols

and

one

connection

in

D
FD

that

are:

squares

representing external
entities,

rounded

rectangles

represent
i
ng

processes

or

work

to

be

done,

open
-

30






ended

rectangles

representing

data

stores

and

arrows

representing

the

data

flows


direction[20].



























Fig
u
re 2
.1
1 D
a
ta Flow Di
a
g
r
a
m

[21]






2.18

Class Diagram



Class

diagram

shows

objects

classes

that

the

system

is

co
m
p
osed

of

along

with
the

relationships

between

those

object

cla
s
ess

(people, things,

and

data)

by

using
a

graphical

depiction

of

sys
t
e
m
’s

static

obj
e
ct

s
t
ru
c
t
ures

[20].

Class

diagram can
be

used

to

shows

the

logical classes that

needed by

the

business

people and

the
i
m
pl
e
m
entation

classes

that

needed

by the

programmers.

31






2.19

Use
Case Diagram


Use

case

diagram

usually

u
sed

for

d
e
scribes

the

s
y
ste
m
’s

functionality
graphically from

the

perspective of

external

users.

Use

case

represe
n
ted
graphically

by

a

horizontal

ellipse

with

the

na
m
e

of

the

use

ca
s
e

a
p
pearing
above,

bel
o
w

or

inside

the

elli
p
se

[
20].

The

actors in

t
h
e

use

ca
s
e

diagram
represented

by using

hu
m
an

shape

sy
m
bol.





























Fig
u
re 2
.1
2 U
s
e

Case

Di
a
g
r
a
m

[21]






2.20

Flo
w
chart



Flowchart

is

a

g
raphical

presentation

of

the

seq
u
ence

of

t
h
e

system

operation

or
step

by

step

how

the

process

works.

Flowchart

can

be

used

to

define and

analyze

32






processes,

identify

area

of

i
m
prove
m
ent,

a
nd

build

step

by

step

picture

of

the


process for analysis

or discussion

[22].




















































Figure

2.13

Phone

calls

ro
ute

f
l
ow
c
h
art

[
22]

33






2.21

S
w
imlane

Diagram


Sw
i
m
lane

diagram

is

a

type

of flow
c
hart,

and

it

can

be

used to

display

the

sa
m
e
type

of infor
m
ation.

Sw
i
m
lane

diagram

uniqueness

are

that

the

flowchart

object
are

kept

in

lanes,

grouping

them

together

[23].













































Fig
u
re 2
.1
4 O
p
p
o
rt
u
n
ity fl
ow
chart
s
wi
m
lane

dia
g
ram

[23]

34




2.22

Hypermarket



Hyper
m
arket

is

a

vast

self
-
service

war
e
house
-
cu
m
-
retail

outlet

that

co
m
bines

the
features

of

a

super
m
arket, depart
m
ent

store,

discount

store

a
nd

specialty

store

in
one

loc
a
tion

[
7
]
.






2.23

Thread




A thread

is

basically

a

path

of execut
i
on

through

a

progra
m
.

Thread

consist

of a
stack,

the

state

of CPU register,

and

an

entry

in

e
xecution

li
s
t

of

the

syst
e
m
scheduler

[41].






2.24

Multithre
a
ding




Multith
r
eading

is

proc
es
s

m
ultiple

t
h
reads

si
m
ultaneously.

Each

t
h
read

s
hares

all
the

process’s

recourses.

A

program

can

consist of

one

or

m
ore

threads.

A
program

is

executes

when

the

system

sch
e
duler

gives

one

of

its

threads

e
x
ecution
control.

The

system

scheduler will

deter
m
ine t
h
e

prio
r
ity

of

the

threa
d
s.

Threads
with

high
e
r

prio
r
ity

ca
n

co
m
pleted

the

t
a
sk

f
i
r
st

and

t
h
en

let

the

t
h
re
a
ds

with
lower

pri
o
rity

co
m
pleted

the

t
a
sk

[
41
]
.

35




2.25

Wal
-
Mart RFID Solution






Wal
-
Mart,

the

world’s

largest

retailer,

plans

to

introduce

technology

that

uses
radio

signals

to

identify

p
r
oducts.

Then

W
al
-
Mart

held

a
m
e
e
ting

to

discussed

the
RFID

details.

In

the

m
eeting,

re
pr
esentative from

Texas

Instru
m
ent

Inc

and
Richardson
-
based

GlobeRanger

Corp.

attended

the

m
eeting

[42].






Bill

Allen,

e
-
m
arketing

m
anager

for

TI’s

RFID

syste
m
,

said

W
al
-
Mart

endorsed
a

type

of

chip

that

TI

and

several

o
t
her

industry

players

pro
m
oted

and

TI

has
decided to

m
ake.

In
f
or
m
ation can

be

added

to

the

“read

a
n
d

write”

chip

m
ultiple
ti
m
es.

The

chip

will

b
e

adapta
b
l
e

to

product

categories

and

ulti
m
ately

will
contain

serial

nu
m
bers

on individual

packaging

[
42].






In

2006,

Texas

Instru
m
ent

Inc

m
ade

an

announce
m
ent

that

it

had

beco
m
e

the
first

supplier

of

Wal
-
Mart to

ship

pallets

and

cases

with

Gen

2

RFID

tags

[43].
Wal
-
Mart

also

bought

15,000

RFID

reader

from

Odin

Technologies, split
between

Alien

ALR
-
9800 and

I
m
pinj

Speedway

type

[44].