Globalization 2.0 - Ms. Faiza Amir

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4 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, 10/e, DeCenzo/Robbins


Chapter 1


Dynamic Environment of
HRM


Introduction

Strong employees = competitive advantage.

HRM

is a subset of management. It has five main
goals:

Goals

of

HRM

hire

employees

attract

employees

retain

employees

motivate

employees

train

employees

HRM helps employees understand other countries’

political and economic conditions.

Understanding Cultural Environments

Countries have different



values



morals



customs



political, economic, and legal systems


HRM

operates in a global business environment.

Understanding Cultural Environments

TOP 10 LEAST
-
FREE COUNTRIES


1. North Korea


2. Zimbabwe


3. Cuba


4. Burma


5. Eritrea


6. Venezuela


7. Dem. Rep. of Congo


8. Comoros


9. Libya


10. Sao Tome & Principe

The Heritage Foundation’s
Index of Economic Freedom

rates
183 countries on openness to trade, business, investment, and
property rights. The U.S. was #6 in 2009. North Korea is the
most repressed.

2009

Country Rankings, see

www.heritage.org/index/Ranking.aspx

Mostly Unfree: Pakistan Ranked at 121


TOP 10 FREE COUNTRIES



1. Hong Kong


2. Singapore


3. Australia


4. Ireland


5. New Zealand


6. United States


7. Canada


8. Denmark


9. Switzerland


10. United Kingdom


5

Issues and Challanges:



1: Global village



2: Technology



3: Workforce composition changes



4: Workforce composition



5: Changing skill requirements



6: Quality and continuous improvement



7: Work process engineering



8: Contingent workforce



9: Decentralized work sites


10: Employee involvement

Key Challenges for Pakistan


A two
-
tier Pakistan: the formal and informal;
and the creative and the fake


Pak ranks # 3 in the vulnerability index:
climate change & its adverse impacts, natural
disasters, food, energy and water insecurity


Political instability, corruption, social
polarization and lake of policy continuity


Impact of economic downturn, i.e. escalating
costs of energy and food and their adverse
impacts on the living conditions of the poor


Adverse impacts of globalization on industry
and agriculture



Opportunities For Pakistan


Human resources & potential demographic
dividend


Natural endowment, in terms of mineral,
water and land resources


Geographic location at the cross roads of
Asia, for trade, transit and travel


Productivity gap and technology dividend


Way forward: Holistic Development




Government



Social

Entrepreneurship


Enabling


Fiscal


Policy


Enabling


Social


Policy




Private sector



Civil society



Sustainable

Development

The minimum wage was raised from Rs. 4600/
-

to Rs. 6000/
-

in

the year 2008, which will be further enhanced to Rs.7000/
-

there are

increase of about 17%.

The minim wage rate as specified by the Labor
Policy 2010 and Federal Budget 2010
-
11 is now PKR 7,000. the law also
requires that principle of gender equality

All industrial, commercial and other establishments registered

under any law shall pay wages to the employees through Cheque/Bank

transfer.

http://labourwatchpakistan.com/wp

content/uploads/2011/01/labour+poilcy+2010.pdf

If you work for more than 8 hours in a day or more than 48 hours in a week (while
working in a non
-
seasonal factory), you are eligible for this extra/overtime pay. If you are
working in a seasonal factory, you can't be eligible for overtime rate of pay unless you
work for more than 50 hours in a week.

If you are working 8 hours/day, you are eligible for one
-
day holiday in a week.

The provincial government announces festival holidays, and these are usually 12
-
13 in
number. These are provided on full pay. However, if a holiday falls on Sunday, there is
no substitution for it.



http://m.paycheck.pk/main/labour
-
laws/maternity
-
law

Maternity

Benefits

Act

and

Maternity

Benefit

Ordinance,

every

employed

woman

is

entitled

to

a

maximum

of

12

weeks

of

fully

paid

maternity

leave
.

She

can

take

this

leave

six

weeks

before

the

delivery

and

six

weeks

after

the

delivery
.

A

woman

on

maternity

leave

will

be

paid

at

the

rate

equal

to

her

last

paid

wages


Both

the

Labor

Protection

Policy

2006

and

Labor

Policy

2010

talk

about

providing

day

care

facilities

for

the

children

of

working

mothers
.

the

Provincial

government

can

make

rules

requiring

a

factory

wherein

more

than

50

women

are

employed,

a

suitable

room

shall

be

reserved

for

children,

under

the

age

of

six

years,

belonging

to

these

women


First

of

all,

under

the

article

25
-
A

of

constitution

(added

through

18
th

constitutional

amendment

in

2010
),

it

is

now

the

state

responsibility

to

provide

your

children

free

and

compulsory

education

from

age

5

to

16

years
.


The Changing World of Technology

HRM

operates in a technologically changing


environment.


Thomas Friedman:

Globalization 1.0

(1492
-
1800)

Driven by transportation

Globalization 2.0

(1800
-
2000)

Driven by communication

Globalization 3.0

(2000
-
????)

Driven by technology

3.0 fueled by instant communication and the Internet.

Globalization 2.0

(1800
-
2000)

Driven by communication

Globalization 3.0

(2000
-
????)

Driven by technology

Globalization 1.0

(1492
-
1800)

Driven by transportation

Globalization 2.0

(1800
-
2000)

Driven by communication

Globalization 3.0

(2000
-
????)

Driven by technology

Globalization 1.0

(1492
-
1800)

Driven by transportation

Globalization 2.0

(1800
-
2000)

Driven by communication

Globalization 3.0

(2000
-
????)

Driven by technology

Globalization 1.0

(1492
-
1800)

Driven by transportation

Globalization 2.0

(1800
-
2000)

Driven by communication

1.

Learning as a Way of Being

by Peter B. Vaill


2.
Thinking for a Living: How to Get Better Performance and
Results from Knowledge Workers

by Thomas H. Davenport


3.
Information Anxiety 2

by Richard S. Wurman

The Changing World of Technology

The IT field is growing.



Knowledge workers focus on the acquisition and
application of information for decision making.


Some books for aspiring knowledge workers:


The Changing World of Technology

HRM

information systems help to




facilitate HR plans





make decisions faster





clearly define jobs





evaluate performance





provide desirable, cost
-
effective benefits



The Changing World of Technology

HR

managers use technology to:




recruit, hire, and train employees




motivate and monitor workers




research fair compensation packages




communicate throughout the organization




evaluate decentralized employees’


performance



The Changing World of Technology

How Technology Affects HRM Practices



Recruiting
Websites,
(Company and job search)
Esumes
(Scan able keywords)


Employee
Nimble, adaptable, flexible, Team

player Pressurized (24X7 on
schedule)


Training and Development
Career development, Remote and
decentralized courses, Timeliness


Ethics and Employee Rights
Surveillance Software monitoring


Motivating Knowledge Workers


Paying Employees Market Value


Communication
Electronic grapevines, No longer chain of command channels


Decentralized Work Sites


Skill Levels


Legal Concerns
Work
-
life balance


Workforce Diversity

Today’s workers want a healthy work/life
balance.


They



can work any time, from almost anywhere



work more than 40 hours per week



are part of a dual
-
income household


#1 reason

for leaving a company:

lack of work schedule flexibility


Workforce Diversity

HRM

has moved from the melting pot assumption
to celebrating workforce diversity.


The Labor Supply

HR

managers monitor the labor supply.


Trend is to
rightsize
: fit company goals to
workforce numbers.


For agility, companies build a contingent
workforce of




part
-
time workers



temporary workers



contract workers



Continuous Improvement Programs

HR

managers help workers adapt to continuous improvement changes
through retraining, providing answers, and monitoring expectations.

continuous
improvement
components

empowerment

of employees

accurate

measurement

concern for

total quality

focus

on

customer


concern for

continuous

improvement


Continuous improvement

-

making constant efforts to
provide better products
and service to customers


External


Internal

Employee Involvement

It’s all about employee
empowerment through
involvement
, which increases worker productivity
and loyalty.

See

http://workhelp.org/joomla/content/view/284/

for managerial tips on empowering employees.

Employee Involvement Concepts

delegation • participative management

work teams • goal setting • employer training

Delegation


having the authority to make decisions in one’s job


Work teams



workers of various specializations who work
together in an organization


HRM must provide training to help empower employees in their
new roles.


Involvement programs can achieve:


greater productivity


increased employee loyalty and commitment

Other HRM Challenges

Challenges for
HRM:




The recession has brought layoffs and low


morale.




Increased offshoring means jobs can move


overseas, even HR.




Today’s spate of mergers and acquisitions


increase HR’s role.


Multiple tasks


Multiple projects


Multiple bosses


Multiple peers

A Look at Ethics

Code of ethics:

a formal statement of an
organization’s primary values and the ethical rules it
expects members to follow.



HR managers must take part in enforcing ethics rules.

Three views of ethics:

Utilitarian View



decisions are made on the basis of
their outcomes or consequences

Rights View



decisions are made with concern for
respecting and protecting individual liberties and
privileges

Theory of Justice View



decisions are make by
enforcing rules fairly and impartially

True or False?

1. HRM should assume all countries have the same cultures.

False!


2. Technology and information technology have little impact on HRM.

False!


3. Today’s workforce is composed of diverse groups.

True!


4. Rightsizing is a strategy companies use to balance their labor supply.

True!


5. Continuous improvement programs eliminate change in an organization.

False!


6. Employee empowerment increases worker involvement and productivity.

True!


7. HRM is affected by the economy.

True
!


8. HRM can play a vital role in enforcing ethical codes of conduct.

True!