time - Krystian Aparta

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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Cognitive Semantics and
Time Travel


Krystian Aparta

krystian.aparta@gmail.com

www.timetravel.110mb.com

Time Travel



Time travel in physics



still theoretical




Time travel in speculative fiction



actual and heavily researched

Time Travel in fiction



Early

fiction



e
.
g
.

Urashima

Tarou,

720

A
.
D
.



Early

science
-
fiction



e
.
g
.

The

Time

Machine

by

H
.
G
.

Wells,

1895


Time
-
travel Themes



Journey into the past
, future, alternative
past, etc.


Time machines
, consciousness shift


Dopplegangers, paradoxes

(e.g. the
grandfather paradox, ontological paradox,
predestination paradox)

Rationality of time
-
travel


Common themes, but different theories



Science
-
fiction theories based on
everyday rationality


Some problems


clashes

with everyday
rationality


Fans argue

about which theory makes
more sense

Cognitive Semantics


Semantics


the study of meaning



What has meaning, what is meaning


different semantics



Cognitive semantics


meaning=conceptualization

Cognitive Semantics


Many theories
, e.g. conceptual metaphor
theory, conceptual blending theory



Started in the
mid
-
1970s

in the USA



Some names: Fillmore, Lakoff, Rosch,
Johnson, Fauconnier, Turner

Cognitive Semantics


C.S.


the study of
conceptual
structure

(knowledge representation)
and
conceptualization

(meaning
construction)

(Bergen, Evans 2006)



Multidisciplinary



cognitive science
(neurology, cognitive psychology,
cognitive anthropology, etc.)

Embodied experience


Our experience is structured by the nature
of our bodies



Symbols etc. are "prompts" for meaning
construction



Conceptual structure: interactional
properties, relations, scenarios, image
schemata

Conceptualization


Pre
-
consciously constructing content
using conceptual structure



Pre
-
conscious

(in the cognitive
unconscious)



Meaning construction based on embodied
experience: e.g. image schemata

Image schemata


Based on embodied experience



Conceptual structures with
inner logic



This logic also structures more "abstract"
concepts,
constrains

rational reasoning

(e.g. CONTAINMENT)



The inheritance principle in conceptual

metaphor theory

Conceptual blending


Theory of meaning construction (Gilles
Fauconnier, Mark Turner, 1993)



Conceptual structure blended to yield

new structure



Selective projection: the structure in

the blend can be impossible in the input

Will it blend?


Blending is commonplace and pre
-
conscious


Human scale



working to produce global
insight


Compression



compress more diffuse
structure into familiar "frames" in the blend


Incompatibility between the inputs does
not have to matter

This surgeon is a butcher.

Blend:

blended structure, emergent meaning

Input space 1:

SURGEON

Input space 2:

BUTCHER

Generic space:

common structure

Time


blending 3
conceptual domains

1.
Domain of events (E)


Event ordering, type, the subjective
experience of events (episodic memory)

Fauconnier and Turner, 2006

1.
Domain of motion (X)



Sub
-
section of E:
the experience of
motion and movement
with its inner logic



The
Source
-
Path
-
Goal

schema


Motion Event (X) logic


The spatial logic of X becomes the "abstract" logic

of our conceptualizations of Events.


EXAMPLE:



X:

If there is a direct path between A and B,
and we are moving on that path towards B,

it means we are getting closer to B.


E:

If the Polish dinner ends with soy cutlet

and potatoes, the more we eat of soy cutlet
and potatoes, the closer we get to finishing
dinner/eating.

More Motion Logic


The spatial logic of X is the source of such
"objective and rational" aspects of Events as:


Length, order, speed, paralell
development, directionality, etc.


It is impossible to conceptualize events
without this spatial logic.

It is not

a decoration, but the content of our
conceptualization of events.

1.
Universal Events (M)


Blend of 2 sub
-
domains: the
Cyclic Day

and the
Timepiece
.



Cyclic Day
: the compression of the
representation of single events (e.g.
sunrise, nightfall) into a new "concrete"
event


a cyclic day, which we all live
through (morning, afternoon, night, etc).

Universal Events (M)


Timepiece
: representations of recurring
mechanical or natural events (e.g. the
motion of a rod between two points on a
scale)


The structure of the Timepiece network
blends with Cyclic Day
, e.g. the
representation of a certain position of the
rod blends with "Noon" in the Cyclic Day

Universal Events (M)



Blending Timepiece with Cyclic day yields
new, objective, universal and recurring
events, e.g. minutes, seconds, millenia

The E/X/M blend = 'time"


Blending the structure of E/X/M yields

a new reality: universal, actual, abstract,
objective events.



Any concrete "local" event is contained in /
blended with an abstract universal event in
M

The source of the
concretness of time


In the E/X/M blend, representations of
embodied, physical, subjective experience
blend with abstract, objective, universal
events.


This creates an emergent experience:

the subjective, physical and direct
experience of an abstract, objective and
universal event (e.g.
last Friday
).

Travel in space


Representations of complex motion in
space compressed using the Path schema



A blended scenario of motion is created,
with a Path that is abstract, concrete and
actual

More specific models


More specific concepts recruited to
provide better insight



Question:
Today, you"re in London.
Yesterday, you were in Paris. How did
you get here?


A concept recruited for the compression

(e.g. AIRPLANE TRAVEL)

Space travel


Sometimes a more specific model to
compress travel in space is not available.


Question:
Two days ago, you were in the kitchen.
Today, you"re in the living room. How did you get
here?



In such cases, we are left with the Path
schema from the E/X/M blend


in the blend,
we move along the path of TIME

Space
-
time travel


The abstract Path in the E/X/M blend is
still actual and compressess
representations of physical, located
experiences



Science fiction provides a specific model
of motion, which allows the experiencer to
retrace this Path and visit some of the
physical locations that it compresses

Concepts of location


"Normal" models of change of location


based on "physical rules" (e.g. you
can't walk in the air)


New models suspend rules and the writers
try to make up in many ways, based on

a selected model of change of location


E.g. normal human movement


movement
among normal human places


you time
-
travel from the 10th floor to the 9th floor (the
10th hadn't been constructed)

Many interesting options


Paradoxes
: based on the Path schema
logic in causality


"Unpacking" the blend causes
clashes

between the abstractness and
concreteness of a location/event


If the natural human location = mind in
body, the body itself


other scenarios

References


Aparta Krystian
. "Conventional Models of Time and their Extensions in Science
Fiction." Unpublished Master's Thesis. Kraków, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, 2006.
<http://www.timetravel.110mb.com/Aparta_Models_of_Time.pdf>



Bergen, Benjamin K, Vyvyan Evans and Jörg Zinken
. 'the Cognitive Linguistics
Enterprise: An Overview."
<http://www.port.ac.uk/departments/academic/psychology/staff/downloads/filetodownl
oad,68131,en.pdf>



Fauconnier, Giles and Mark Turner



2003
The Way We Think
. New York: Basic Books.


2006 Rethinking Metaphor.
<http://www.cogsci.ucsd.edu/~faucon/RethinkingMetaphor19f06.pdf>



Johnson, Mark.

The Body in the Mind
. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press,
1987.