History of Turfgrasses

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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History of Turfgrasses


Biblical references: grasses used in Persian
and Arabian gardens


13th century literature referred to the use of
turn on lawn “bowling” areas


The word “turf” is derived from the Sanskrit
“darbhus”, meaning a turf of grass


16
-
17th century, golf and turf areas
developed





History continued


First lawn mower invented by Edwin
Budding , England, 1830


Private lawns developed in Victorian
England, brought to US by English settlers.
Had to wait until the hardwood forests were
cleared to permit grass establishment.
Williamsburg classic example of small turf
areas at
each house
. This was the change.





Origin of Turfgrasses


Most species used for turf are not native to
North America, with the exception of
buffalograss. All the primary species have
been introduced


Most turf species are “forest
-
fringe”
species, which distinguishes them from
taller prairie species





Origin of Turfgrasses


Turfgrasses developed in close association
with domesticated animals. Man thus
unwittingly imposed natural selection on
many of the grasses we now use for turf


Only grasses able to withstand repeated
grazing (close cutting) were able to survive


Many grasses introduced to US as feed for
livestock from the ships, or seed that
“hitched a ride”





Recent History


Tremendous changes in last 40 years

Linked to rising interest in golf, TV


Many new, improved cultivars (cultivated
varieties
-

a named variety)


Pesticide development
-

2,4
-
D one of first


Refined fertilizer programs, inorganic
fertilizers


New equipment such as aerifier, vertical
mower, modern irrigation systems





Size of the Turf Grass Industry


UNITED STATES (1983)


25 To 30 million acres (size of new england)


$25 Billion in annual maintenance COSTS


STATE SURVEYS = $1 BILLION EACH


New York (1982), California (1983), Virginia,
North Carolina (1986) Pennsylvania (1992)





North Carolina Survey (1994)


Over 2 Million Acres


$1 Billion in Annual Maintenance Costs


Over 2 Million Homelawns


76,000 Miles of Roadsides


500 Golf Courses (12 Million Rounds of
Golf)





What Species are Grown in NC?


Tall fescue


52% of total


Bluegrass/fescue


8%


Bermudagrass




7%


Centipedegrass


4%


others: zoysiagrass, ryegrass, bahiagrass,
carpetgrass, St. Augustinegrass





Where’s the Money?

How Golf Courses Allocate $


Labor, Mowing


28.3% of total


Mowing Equipment etc.

15.1%


Labor, Pesticides



8.4%


Fertilizer




7.9%


Labor, Irrigation



3.6%





Segments of the Turf Grass
Industry


Homelawns


Roadsides


Golf Course


Lawn Care


Parks


Athletic Fields


Sod Production


Schools


Commercial Grounds


Cemeteries


Churches


Institutions


Turf Sales


Airports





Selected Turf and Turf
-
related
Occupations


Cemeteries
Management


Consultants


Education/ Extension


Equipment
Manufacturers / Sales


Fertilizer
Manufacturers / Sales


Garden
Stores/Nurseries


Golf Course
Operations


More ...





Selected Turf and Turf
-
related
Occupations


Irrigation Installation
and Design


Journalism,
Newsletters, Etc.


Landscaping /
Construction


Lawn Care


Lawn Service Firms


Lime Production/Sales


Parks Management


Pesticide
Manufactures/Sales


Research


Seed Firms/Sales


Sod Production


Turf Management,
Parks, Etc.





Definitions


Turf


A covering of mowed vegetation
plus

the
medium (soil) in which the grasses are growing


Turfgrass


the
plant community
consisting of certain
species in the
Poaceae

forming a continuous
ground cover with persists under regular
mowing and traffic





Definitions


Grass


Any Plant of the Poacea Family
(Cereals, Forages, Bamboo)


Parallel Venation


Monocot
Having One Cotyledon (Seedling
Leaf) in the Seed





Definitions


Turfgrass culture


Science and practice of establishing and
maintaining turfgrass


Turfgrass management


Encompasses labor supervision, recordkeeping,
budgeting, and cost accounting as well as
culture


Sod


Harvested turf





Definitions


Green


A closely mowed, highly manicured turfgrass
maintained for a specific purpose


Types: golf, bowling, tennis


Native Grass


Originate and persist in a region


Naturalized Grass


Adapt and persist but not originate from the
region





CLASSIFICATION OF MERION
KENTUCKY BLUEGRASS



Kingdom

Plantae


Division

Embryophyta


Subdivision

Phanaerogama


Branch

Angiospermae


Class

Monocotyledoneae


Subclass

Glumiforae


Order

Poales


Family

Poaceae


Subfamily


Pooideae


Tribe

Poeae


Genus

Poa


Species

pratensis


Cultivar

Merion





The Importance of Turf

In 1971 life magazine conducted a survey
and found that 95% of respondents said
"green grass and trees around me" is the
most important environmental factor

In 1980 Better Homes and Gardens chose
lawns as most important landscaping
element (61%)






Reasons for Turf


Aesthetics


Ornamental Grasses


Mental Relaxation


Recreation


Exercise


Sporting Events





Reasons for Turf


Safety


Reduce Glare


Roadside Stopping


Reduce Fire


Reduce Rodents, Snakes


Reduce Injuries





Reasons for Turf



Environmental Quality


Moderate Temperatures

»
15 Degrees Cooler Than Bare Ground

»
30 Degrees Cooler Than Concrete





Reasons for Turf


Environmental Quality (continued)


Reduce Erosion


Reduce dust, lengthen life of equipment


Reduce noise 30
-
40%


Convert unusable land
-

land fills for
example





Reasons for Turf


Environmental Quality (continued)


Recycle effluent


Release oxygen


Absorb toxic emissions


Reduce allergies (but can also cause
allergies)





Reasons for Turf


Economics


Realtors say landscaping adds 6% to
value


Homeowners say landscaping adds 15%
to selling price


Sell faster


Recovery value 100
-
200% but only 40
-
70% for patio and deck





Sporting Events that Utilize Turf
as a Playing Surface


Archery


Badminton


Baseball


Cricket


Croquet


Football


Frisbee


Golf


Horseracing


Horseshoes


Lawn Bowling


Lawn Darts


Playgrounds


Rugby


Skiing, lawn


Skiing, snow


Soccer


Softball


Steeple Chase


Tetherball


Track & Field


Volleyball





Turf Quality


Turf quality is a function of use, appearance
and playability



There are two categories:


Visual


Functional





Visual Quality


Density

-

number of shoots per area


Texture
-

leaf width


Uniformity
-

even appearance


Color


Growth habit
-

type of shoot growth


Smoothness
-

surface feature that affects quality
and playability

Density

Texture

Uniformity

Smoothness





Functional Quality


Rigidity


Resistence of leaves to compression


Elasticity


Tendency of leaves to spring back


Resiliency


Capacity to absorb shock without
changing surface


Yield


Clippings removed with mowing

Rigidity

Elasticity

Ball Roll

Clippings

Verdure





Functional Quality (continued)


Verdure


Aerial shoots remaining after mowing


Rooting


Amount, depth of root growth


Recuperative capacity


Recovery potential





TEN GOOD REASONS TO
GROW A LAWN

Home Lawns Help the Environment



The next time you're mowing on a hot day,
thinking that green concrete may really be
the answer, consider all of the ways your
lawn returns your favor of good care:





10 Good Reasons to grow a lawn


1. The front lawns of a block of eight
average houses have the cooling effect of
about 70 tons of air conditioning. The
average home central air conditioning unit
has about 3
-
4 ton capacity. Consider how
much energy is saved by those lawns!





10 Good Reasons to grow a lawn


2. On a hot summer day, grass can be 10 to
14 degrees cooler than exposed soil and as
much as 30 degrees cooler than concrete or
asphalt.



3. A 50 by 100 foot well
-
maintained grass
area will create enough oxygen to meet the
needs of a family of four every day.





10 Good Reasons to grow a lawn


4. Acting like a gigantic sponge, lawns absorb all
types of airborne pollutants such as soot, dust and
carbon monoxide, as well as noise.


5. Recent studies show healthy lawns absorb
rainfall six times more effectively than a wheat
field and four times better than a hay field, being
exceeded only by virgin forest. Lawns filter the
moisture to the water table where it can again be
used by everyone.





10 Good Reasons to grow a lawn


6. A Penn State University study showed
"thick lawns slow the velocity of runoff and
allow the water to infiltrate." A healthy,
high quality lawn was at least 10 times
more effective than a patchy lawn with a lot
of weeds.





10 Good Reasons to grow a lawn


7. While a quality turfgrass reduces runoff
water, it also prevents erosion by water or
wind and the loss of valuable topsoil.



8. Homes, sports fields and parks with
healthy lawns provide safer recreational
areas when grass acts as a cushion to reduce
shock and potential injury.





10 Good Reasons to grow a lawn


9. Aesthetically, there can be no argument
that a beautiful lawn is immediately
pleasing to the eye and relaxing in its
appearance.


l0. While some may scorn the work, others
find lawn maintenance requirements an
excellent opportunity to enjoy reasonable
exercise and as a diversion from the hustle
and bustle of life.





Quiz


What is the difference between the
following terms:


A. Turfgrass culture vs turf management?


B. Native vs naturalized grass?


C. Turf vs turfgrass?


D. Density vs texture?


E. Resiliency vs rigidity?