FEASIBILITY STUDY OF

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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 11 μήνες)

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FEASIBILITY STUDY OF
HYBRID WOOD STEEL
STRUCTURES

By:Yalda Khorasani




08/11/2010

Feasibility Study of Hybrid Wood
Steel Structures by Yalda
Khorasani

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Outline

Properties of Steel, Wood and Concrete


Types of Hybridization


Case Studies of Hybrid Structures


Software Packages Investigation


Hybrid Steel Frame And Wood Shear Wall
Model




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Timber Structures


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Properties of Steel, Wood and Concrete


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Steel :


Good Tension Capacity


Ductile


Linear Stress Strain Relation


Isotropic


Wood:


Good Compression Capacity


Low tensile Capacity


Stiff


Non
-
Linear Stress Strain Relation


Orthotropic


High Strength/Density Ratio


Hygroscopic Material


Concrete


Good Compression Capacity


Non Linear Stress Strain


Brittle Fracture



Fig 1. Stress Strain Diagram of Steel
-
Tension

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Fig. 2. Stress Strain Diagram of Wood
-
Compression
Parallel to Grain

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Fig. 3. Stress Strain Diagram of Wood

Compression
Perpendicular to Grain

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Fig. 3. Stress Strain Diagram of Concrete
-

Compression

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Advantages of Hybrid Wood Steel Structure


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Increase Load Bearing Capacity



Increased Seismic Performance



Cost Benefits



Increased Durability



Higher Fire Resistance



Allows Pre
-
Fabrication





Types of Hybrid Structure

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Component Level Hybridization


Hybrid Bridge Decks and Slabs


Hybrid Beams/Columns/Braces


Hybrid Joints




Structural Level Hybridization


Hybrid Roof Trusses


Vertical Mixed System


Hybrid Steel Moment Frame and Wood Floor
Diaphragm


Hybrid Frames






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Structural Level Hybridization

Roof trusses
:

combining steel
members in tension with wood
members in compression






Example: in
Southridge

School in
Surry











Fig. 4 Southridge School Roof Structure

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Structural Level Hybridization

Hybrid Frame
:steel as column and
timber as beam



Sainsbury’s Dartmouth warehouse in
Devon, England




Fig 5. Steel Column
-
Glulam Roof

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Structural Level Hybridization

Building structure
consisting of
steel
moment resisting frame
and composite timber
long span floor joist and
plywood flooring


Advantages
:


Cost benefits


Better Seismic
Performance


Construction Benefits




Fig 6. Steel Moment Frame and Wood Diaphragm floor

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Structural Level Hybridization

Vertical Mixed System
:
structural system comprised of
concrete/steel first floor and
wood upper storeys

Advantages
:


Satisfy the Code
requirement for fire
resistance


Increased load bearing
capacity





Fig 7. Concrete first floor, timber structure upper 8 storey

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Component Level Hybridization

Flitch Beam
: A steel plate
sandwiched between two wood
joists and bolted together



Advantages:
Supports heavier loads
over a longer span


Fig 8. Typical flitch beam

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Component Level Hybridization
-
Hybrid Beams

Wood member reinforced with steel
plates
:
wood member reinforced by steel
plates on top and bottom or reinforced
with steel plate in between.



Advantages :


increased in fire resistance



improved buckling capacity



increased in bending strength


Fig. 9 Hybrid wood steel member

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Component Level Hybridization
-
Hybrid Beams

Wooden members with built
-
in
steel materials:
H
-
shape steel
member, square steel bar or
steel plates



Advantages :


increased in fire resistance



improved buckling capacity



increased in bending
strength


Fig. 10 Hybrid wood steel member

Square Steel
Bar
Wooden Member
H
-
Shape
Steel
Member
Glulam
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Component Level Hybridization

Hybrid Bridge Deck: similar to composite
construction where two different
materials are bound together so that they
act together as a single unit from a
structural point of view.



longitudinally laminated prestressed
wood decking


steel girders


shear bulkheads: shear studs in
concrete filled holes


Fig. 11 Hybrid bridge deck

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Component Level Hybridization

Hybrid DuctileTimber Joint: Similar
to post
-
tensioned precast concrete
building systems.


Can be used for beam
-
column, wall
foundation or column
-
foundation

Fig 12. Hybrid Joint

Hybrid Steel Concrete Structure

Type
=Component level

Composite reinforced
concrete and steel moment
frame structures

Advantages
=


Cost saving


Longer span


Minimize field labour

Joint Detail=


Through beam


Through column

Fig. 13. Joint Detail

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Hybrid Steel
-
Timber Structure

Type
= Component Level

Six storey building uses
post
-
tensioned steel tendons
in timber frames and
structural walls.

Advantages=


Increased seismic
performance


Rapid erection


Economical connections
between the large timber
elements

Fig. 14. Post tensioned members

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Hybrid Concrete
-

Steel
-
Timber
Structure

Type = Component + Structural
Level

Reinforced concrete structure
first storey and the second to
fifth stories have a timber
-
based
hybrid structure with built
-
in
steel materials

Advantages=


Satisfy Code requirement
for fire safety


Increased buckling capacity

Fig. 15. Hybrid members

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ANSYS

Types of analysis:
Static, modal, harmonic,
transient dynamic, spectrum, buckling,
explicit dynamic analysis

Capable of modelling:

Linear and non
-
linear material

Isotropic and Orthotropic material

Composit and layered material





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Table 1. Ansys material library

ANSYS

Linear Material

Non
-
Linear Material

Specialized Material

Elastic Isotripic

Elastic

Inelastic

ViscoElastic

Gasket

Elastic Anisotropic

Hyperelastic

Rate Independant

Curve Fitting

Joint Elastic

Elastic Orthotropic

Multilinear Elastic

Rate Dependant

Prony

Creep









Non Metal Plasticity

Maxwell

Composites









Cast iron





























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SeismoStruct

Types of analysis
: Dynamic and static
time
-
history, conventional and adaptive
pushover, incremental dynamic analysis,
eigenvalue, and non
-
variable static loading

Capable of modelling
: Concrete and steel
but not wood


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Table 2. SeismoStruct material model

SeismoStruct

Steel

Reinforced Concrete

Composites

Bilinear steel model

Trilinear concrete model

Nonlinear FRP
-
confined
concrete model

Menegotto
-
Pinto steel model

Nonlinear constant confinement
concrete model

Superelastic shape
-
memory
alloys model

Monti
-
Nuti steel model

Nonlinear constant confinement
concrete model with tension softening

Trilinear FRP model

Bilinear steel model

Nonlinear variable confinement
concrete model

Elastic material model

Nonlinear constant confinement model
for high
-
strength concrete

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SAPWood

Types of analysis
: Traditional nonlinear
time domain earthquake excitation,
Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA)


Capable of modelling:
Wood structure,
shear wall and dry wall, but not steel
structure.


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Table 3. SAPWood material model

SAP WOOD

Wood Shear Wall Hysteretic Models

Linear

Bilinear

SAWS Ten Parameter Model

Evolutionary Parameter Hysteretic (EPHM) Model

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OpenSees Navigator

Types of analysis
: Static, transient and
eigenvalue

Capable of modelling
:


Linear and non linear material (wood, steel
concrete)


Cannot model layered and composite materials


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Table.4. OpenSees Navigator material model

OpenSees

Navigator

Uni axial Material

nD Material

BoucWen

ElasticCrossAnisotropic3D

Concrete01

ElasticIsotropic

Concrete02

FluidSolidPorous

Concrete03

J2Plasticity

Elastic

MultiaxialCyclicPlasticity

ElasticNoTension

PlaneStress

ElasticPP

PlateFiber

ElasticPPGap

PressureDependMultiYield

Fatigue

PressureDependMultiYield02

Hardening

PressureDependentElastic3D

Hysteretic

PressureIndependMultiYield

MinMax

Template3DElastoPlastic

Parallel



Series

Steel01

Steel02

Viscous

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Shear Wall/Diaphragm

Diaphragms and shear
walls, constructed with
wood structural panels
such as oriented strand
board (OSB) and
plywood, provide the
primary lateral load
resisting system in many
types of construction.

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Fig. 16. OSB Shear Wall

ANSYS Modelling

Steel frame
-
OSB shear
wall


Type analysis: Static


Purpose of analysis: See
the effect of wood shear
wall on deformation of the
steel frame





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10
m
4
m
6
m
35
kN
15
kN
W
460
x
106
W
460
x
106
W
310
x
97
W
310
x
97
W
310
x
97
W
310
x
97
Fig.17 Steel frame wood shear wall model

ANSYS Modelling

Analysis #1
= Steel frame w/o
shear wall

Analysis #2

= Steel frame + shear
wall

Modelling OSB as linear,
orthotropic with average
properties of the 3 layers

Analysis #3

= Steel frame + shear
wall

Modelling OSB as layered
element with three linear
orthotropic layers





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Fig. 18. OSB Shear Wall

Fig. 19. Steel frame modelled with Ansys

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Fig. 20. Steel frame with OSB modelled with
ANSYS

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Table 5. Summary of the result

SUMMARY OF THE RESULT

ANALYSYS #

DEFLECTION(mm)

1

11.05

2

2.07

3

3.1

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