Anil V. Kantak

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Anil V. Kantak

Introduction

Transportation

Introduction

Anil V. Kantak


1

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


2


Transportation System
:


Transportation system consists of:


Fixed facilities


The flow entities


Control system


Transportation system allows people
and goods to overcome friction of geographic
space (going from point A to point B)
efficiently to participate in a timely manner in
some activity.


Fixed Facilities
:


These are physical components of the

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


3


system

that

are

fixed

in

space

and

constitute

network

of

links
.

Fixed

facilities

include

the

roadways,

railway

tracks,

pipes

etc
.

They

also

include

intersections,

transit

terminals,

interchanges,

harbors

and

airports
.

Construction

of

the

fixed

facilities

is

a

subject

of

civil

engineering
.


Flow

Entities
:

Flow

entities

are

units

that

traverse

fixed

facilities
.

They

include

vehicles,

container

units,

cars,

railroad

cars

etc
.

In

case

of

highways

(freeways)

as

a

fixed

facility

it

is

expected

accommodate

a

wide

variety

of


Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


4

CONTROL

SYSTEM

VEHICULAR

CONTROL

FLOW

CONTROL

vehicle

types,

ranging

from

motor

bicycles

to

larger

tractor

trailer

combinations
.

The

control

system

consists

of

vehicular

control

and

flow

control

that

keeps

the

people

achieve

their

activity

goals
.


Vehicular

Control
:

This

refers

to

the

method

and

technology

used

to

guide

individual

vehicles

on

the

fixed

facilities

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


5



to

achieve

a

particular

goal
.

Vehicular

control

must

incorporate

in

it

the

proper

geometric

design

of

fixed

facilities

in

addition

to

the

vehicular

attributes
.


Flow

Control
:


This

refers

to

method

that

permits

the

efficient

and

smooth

operation

of

streams

of

the

vehicles
.

The

method

also

minimizes

conflicts

between

vehicles
.

This

system

includes

various

types

of

signing,

marking,

and

the

signal

systems

and

the

underlying

rules

of

their

operation
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


6


Transportation

Demand
:


Demand

for

transportation

is

either

derived

or

indirect
.

Transportation

systems

are

generated

to

serve

transportation

needs

of

community
.

Community

needs

to

go

to

school,

college,

work,

shopping,

visiting

people

etc
.

This

creates

demand

of

transportation
.

All

these

activities

have

a

schedule

to

fit

to
.

Community

needs

to

efficiently

supply

for

these

needs
.

Efficiently

means

a

balance

between

needs

and

cost

of

construction,

environmental

effects,

convenience,

etc
.

Many

different

types

of

professional

such

as

social

scientist

and

psychiatrists

are

needed

to

strike

the

right

balance
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


7



Transportation

System

Classifications
:

Transportation

systems

may

be

classified

according

to
:


Type

of

Technology

Used


Gasoline


Diesel



Electric

Flow

Entities


Combination



Cement

Concrete


Tar

Fixed

Facilities


Combination

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


8


Type

of

Service

They

Provide
:



Goods

Transport


Community

Needs


School


Shopping


General

Transportation

needs


Ownership

/

Responsibility

of

Operation

and

Maintenance

All

these

different

ways

of

looking

at

the

transportation

system

are

necessary

when

making

different

types

of

transportation

related

decisions
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


9

Transportation

systems

can

also

be

characterized

according

to

medium

on

which

flow

elements

of

the

system

are

supported
.

These

are

commonly

referred

as

modes
.


Land

Transportation


Highways,

Roads,

Streets

etc
.


Rail

Roads
.


Air

Transportation


Domestic


International


Water

Transportation


Inland

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


10


Coastal


Ocean


Pipe

Lines


Oil


Gas


Other

Transportation

services

are

classified

as



For

hire

(also

called

“Public”)
:

The

name

refers

to

their

availability

to

general

public

as

well

as

to

private

parties

and

does

not

refer

to

their

ownership
.

E
.
g
.
,

the

public

bus

system

may

be

publicly

owned

or

privately

owned

but

it

is

available

to

the

general

public

as

well

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


11

as

private

parties

alike
.


Not

for

Hire

(Also

called

“Private”)



Common

Carrier


Contract

Carrier


Mass

Transportation

(Also

called

Mass

Transit)

This

usually

refers

to

common

carriage

of

passengers

such

as

taxis,

car

rentals

etc
.


Urban

Transportation

Systems
:


Pedestrian

Oriented

(Initial

modern

era)


Water

Based

(Only

a

few

places

have

it)


Animal

Driven

(Earlier

centuries)


Rail

Supported

Electric

Streetcars

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


12


Commuter

Railroads

(From

city

to

city)


Heavy

Rail

Rapid

Transit

System


Underground

rail

system


Internal

Combustion

Engine


Ignition

Compression

Engines


Compression

Ignition

Engines


Busses

and

Automobiles

Some

terms

in

development

of

public

transport

system


Rapid

Transit
:



Refers

to

all

exclusive

right

of

way

systems


Fixed

Guide

way

Transit
:

This

is

a

system

in

which

the

vehicles

are

fixed

to

a

guide
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


13

This

includes

all

monorail

systems

and

two

rail

(dual

rail)

systems
.

The

system

may

or

may

not

have

an

operator

on

board
.


Articulated

Systems
:

These

are

systems

in

which

flow

units

can

be

connected

to

form

trains
.

An

articulated

bus

is

two

buses

connected

together

with

a

flexible

joint
.

This

arrangement

is

called

“Bandy

Bus”
.


Dual

Mode

Systems
:

Systems

in

which

vehicles

can

operate

in

manual

control

mode

or

an

automatic

mode
.



Demand

Responsive

Systems
:

System

that

employ

flexibility

in

route

or

time

scheduling

to

respond

to

actual

demand

placed

on

them
.


Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


14


Role

of

Government
:

It

is

an

organization

consisting

of

rules

of

conduct,

the

collective

decision

making

process

and

enforcing

the

rules

that

attempt

to

impart

social

and

economic

order

and

to

maintain

a

cohesiveness

of

the

society
.


transportation

system

provides

connectivity

between

activity

centers

that

enhances

interaction

between

people
.


Advances

in

transportation

system

spurs

evolution

of

civilization
.

In

ancient

times

also

the

cities

developed

near

or

around

transportation

routes,

nodes

etc
.

for

commerce
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


15


Transportation

is

key

to

industrialization
.

The

raw

material

need

to

be

brought

to

factories

and

then

the

product

of

factories

need

to

be

distributed

to

the

world
.


Because

of

the

profound

role

transportation

plays

in

the

society,

government

have

always

become

involved

in

the

provision,

operation,

and

regulation

of

transportation

systems

through

the

establishment

of

public

planning

processes
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


16

The

specific

actions

of

a

government

and

method

by

which

it

chooses

to

implement

these

actions

reflect

the

contemporary

values

system

of

the

society

it

represents
.


Instruments

of

Government

Involvement

Government

intervenes

in

market

place

to

accomplish

objectives

that

are

in

public’s

interest
.

These

methods

of

government

intervention

are
:


Soft

Promotion
:

This

refers

to

attempts

made

by

government

to

encourage

or

to

discourage

certain

situations

without

legally

requiring

them

to

do

so
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


17

e
.
g
.
,

an

advertising

campaign

favoring

car

pooling

to

reduce

rush

hour

congestion

and

a

reduced

energy

consumption
.


Regulation
:

This

refers

to

those

government

actions

that

place

legal

requirements

on

individuals

in

public

interest
.

An

example

of

this

is

the

seat

belt

law

in

the

state

of

California,

engine

efficiency

standards

to

reduce

pollution

in

the

environment
.


Investment
:

This

involves

the

financial

support

,

public

financing

or

even

public

ownership

of

various

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


18

systems

or

services
.

Subsides

to

privately

owned

services

to

ensure

service

to

mobility

disadvantaged

group
.


Tools

and

Applications
:


Need

Basic

Sciences


Mathematics


Computer

Programming


Applications

are

served

by

these

things


Well

Informed

Decision

Making


Practical

Approximation


Changing

the

System

Design

as

more

Experience

is

Gained


Clear

Understanding

of

the

Problem

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


19

Mathematical

Models
:

Engineers

employ

models

to

study

and

analyze

the

system

of

concern
.


MODELS

PHYSICAL

MATHEMATICAL

STATIC

DYNAMIC

STATIC

DYNAMIC

ANALYTIC

NUMERIC

ANALYTIC

NUMERIC

SIMULATION

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


20

Models

represent

a

part

of

reality

in

some

manner
.

Static

models

represent

the

structure

of

a

system

while

dynamic

models

represent

structure

of

a

system

as

well

as

incorporate

a

representation

of

the

system’s

process,

the

way

in

which

the

system

changes

over

time
.

Models

are

abstraction

of

systems

they

represent
.

Since

they

are

approximation

of

the

system,

a

number

of

models

for

the

system

may

exist
.

Selection

of

the

model

of

system

must

strike

a

balance

between

ease

of

application

and

degree

of

reality

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


21

represented

by

the

model
.

As

an

example,

motion

of

a

body

can

be

well

modeled

by

Newtonian

mechanics,

however

modeling

the

motion

of

a

particle

in

a

particle

accelerator

may

need

the

Einstein’s

theory

of

relativity
.


Components

of

Mathematical

Models
:

Mathematical

model

can

have

one

of

many

forms

linear,

non
-
linear,

exponential,

logarithmic,

differential,

integral

etc
.

One

needs

to

postulate

the

model

which

is

simply

selecting

a

mathematical

form
.

Consider

the

following

mathematical

model
:

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


22

X,

Z,

and

Z

are

called

the

independent

variables
.

They

can

take

any

values

in

the

given

set

of

values
.

Once

the

X,

Z,

and

W

are

decided

and

the

constants

a,

b,

and

c

are

given

values,

Y

can

be

evaluated
.

Y

is

called

the

dependent

variable
.

The

constants

a,

b,

and,

c

are

called

the

parameter

of

the

model
.

Model

Calibration
:

This

is

the

process

by

which

numerical

values

of

the

parameters

of

the

model

are

determined
.

This

is

many

times

done

by

using

statistical

methods

and

is

dependent

on

the


d
c
b
W

Z

X

a

Y



Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


23

Experimental

knowledge

of

the

dependent

and

independent

variables

of

the

model
.

I

=

1
,

2
,


,N

experiments

are

done

to

obtain

X
i
,

Y
i
,

Z
i
,

and

W
i

values
.

These

are

used

to

evaluate

parameters

that

will

yield

the

same

value

for

observed

dependent

variable

Y
i
.

Model

Validation
:

This

refers

to

testing

of

a

calibrated

model

using

empirical

data

other

than

those

used

for

calibration
.

If

the

model

bears

out

then

it

may

be

used
.

If

it

does

not

then

some

changes

may

need

to

be

implemented
.

Even

if

the

model

is

changed,

the

model

may

still

be

useful

but

in

a

limited

way
.

Anil V. Kantak

Introduction


24


Transportation

Models
:

The

transportation

system

involves

a

physical

phenomenon,

the

motion

of

the

flow

entities

on

the

fixed

facilities
.

Since

human

presence

is

there

inevitably,

the

model

should

account

for

the

human

behavior

and

human

factor
.

The

lines

of

demarcation

between

human

factor

and

human

behavior

and

human

factor

is

not

very

clear,

human

behavior

is

in

a

continuous

state

of

flux

and

is

influenced

by

the

technological

changes
.