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29 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 4 μήνες)

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© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Lesson C


Material Basics


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Wood Basics


Characteristics


Inexpensive, strong, easy to work with, long
-
lasting



If properly protected and maintained


Combustible


Framing uses softwood


Lumber

may be classified as:


Timber
: 5 inches or thicker


Dimension
: 2 to 4 inches thick and of any width


Boards
: 1 to 1.5 inches thick and 2 inches or wider


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Figure D
-
2 Dimension Lumber.


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Wood Basics (cont’d.)


Visual grading system


Based on size and use


Moisture and shrinkage in unseasoned
horizontal members


Can make floors uneven


“Green” structural members


Can warp, twist, and shrink


May cause connectors to fail


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Wood Basics (cont’d.)


Size of wood beam depends on:


Load it has to carry


Strength of the lumber


Most common size of wood posts for residential
and commercial buildings:


4
×

4 feet, 4
×

6 feet


Wood
sheathing
:



Plywood and oriented strand board (OSB)


Replaces boards for most applications


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Figure S
-
1 Sheathing. (
Courtesy of Kathleen Siegel
.)


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Courtesy of Craig Allyn Rose


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Courtesy of Craig Allyn Rose


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Steel Basics


Characteristics:


Versatile, uniform quality, and great strength in
compression and tension


Standard grade in building construction


Carbon steel, ASTM grade A
-
36


Loses strength at 1000
°

F


Popular in commercial and industrial buildings


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Steel Basics (cont’d.)


Decking


Supports concrete slabs and
suspended ceilings


Exterior walls:


Metal panels,
precast
curtain walls,
or masonry


Common hot
-
rolled steel shapes


Wide
-
flange beam (W); American Standard Beam (S)


Cold
-
formed structural shapes


Used for secondary members in pre
-
engineered
metal buildings


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Figure S
-
17 Suspended Ceilings.

Figure C
-
20 Curtain Wall.


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Figure P
-
13 Purlin.

(Courtesy of Kathleen Siegel.)

Figure S
-
13 Strut.


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Steel Basics (cont’d.)


Steel studs


Used in Type I Fire Resistive and Type II Non
-
combustible buildings


Size/gauge dependent on location/loading conditions


Steel columns


Wide flange, pipe, and structural tubing


Steel decking



Flat or ribbed 12
-

to 16
-
gauge sheets


Used for floors/roofs with poured
-
over concrete slabs


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Courtesy of Craig Allyn Rose


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Masonry Basics


Characteristics


Durable


Fire
-

and heat
-
resistant


Sound
-
insulating properties


Fast and easy to put up; little maintenance


Choices of texture, color, style, and pattern


Heavy material, high compression strength


Requires
steel reinforcement
in earthquake zones


Little tensile or flexural strength


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Masonry Basics (cont’d.)


Typical examples


Concrete block,
brick, and stone with
mortar
and/or
grout


Uses


Load
-
bearing and nonbearing walls for interior and
exterior applications


Below and above grade for
piers
and columns,
fire
walls,
and curtain walls


ASTM grades describes structural properties


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Figure F
-
7 Fire Wall.

Figure R
-
3 Rebar.


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Masonry Basics (cont’d.)


Concrete masonry units (CMUs)


Typically 8
×

8
×

16 inches


Used for wall thicknesses of 8 to 16 inches


Steel
connectors


Joins masonry walls with wood/steel roofs and floors


Unprotected wide
-
flange beams


Support floors and roofs


Susceptible to elongation when heated


May cause failure of the masonry wall


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Concrete Basics


Characteristics


Noncombustible
, heavy, and brittle material with
great compressive strength


Uses: floors, walls, roofs, columns, beams


Steel reinforcement necessary for floors,
foundations
,

columns, and beams


Prestressing
develops greater load
-
carrying
capabilities with less weight


Pretensioning
used for
precast concrete


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Concrete Basics (cont’d.)


Posttensioning
used for
cast
-
in
-
place
concrete


Thickness of exterior concrete walls:


Depends on design load and
fire
-
resistance
requirements


Precast
tilt
-
up walls
are usually cast off
-
site


Walls are cast on
-
site


Wall panels
are lifted and then braced to the
floor slab


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Figure C
-
2 Cast
-
in
-
Place Concrete.


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Concrete Basics (cont’d.)


Panels are joined together by:


Welding them to steel columns


Joining them to cast
-
in
-
place concrete
pilasters


Concrete beams
:



Typically rectangular


Used to carry floor and roof loads


Reinforced with steel to resist
tension


Prestressing beams


Creates greater load
-
carrying capacity


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Courtesy of Craig Allyn Rose


© 2010
Delmar,
Cengage

Learning


Instructor Resources for

Summary


Wood


Inexpensive, strong, easy to work with, long
-
lasting,
but combustible


Steel


Versatile, uniform quality, and great strength


Masonry


Durable, fire
-

and heat
-
resistant, sound
-
insulating


Concrete


Noncombustible, heavy, great compressive strength