M.Tech.Biotehnology.doc - Anna University

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1

ANNA UNIVERSITY :: CHENNAI 600 025


CURRICULUM 2005


FULL TIME MODE


APPLICABLE TO AFFILIATED COLLEGES OF ANNA UNIVERSITY



M.TECH. BIOTECHNOLOGY



Eligibility:
B.E. / B.Tech. Industrial Biotechnology / Biotechnology



SEMESTER


I



Code No.

Course Ti
tle

L

T

P

M

THEORY

MA1626

Mathematics for Biotechnologists

3

0

0

100

BT1601

Molecular Cell Biology

3

0

0

100

BT1602

Engineering Proteins for Biopharmaceutics

3

0

0

100

BT1603

Modern Techniques in Drug Discovery


3

0

0

100

BT1604

Biochemical En
gineering and Fermentation
Technology

3

0

0

100

BT1605

Enzyme Technology and Industrial Applications


3

0

0

100

PRACTICAL

BT1606

Advanced Biochemistr
y Lab

0

0

3

100

BT1607

Advanced Bioprocess Engineering Lab


0

0

3

100





2



MA1626 MATHEMATICS FOR BIOTECHNOLOGISTS 3 0 0 100


1. ALGEBRA AND CONICS

9


Algebra
-
Binomial, Exponential and Logarithmic series
-
straight lines, Conics
-
Parabola, Ellipse, Hyperbola tangent and normals and its applications.


2. DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS

9


Differentiation
-
methods of differentiation


integration
-
methods of integration
-
Maxima and Minima. First order and second order differential equations
-
Linear
differential equations with constant and variable coefficie
nts. Applications to
biological sciences.


3. PROBABILITY AND ITS DISTRIBUTIONS 9


Probability
-
addition and multiplication theorem
-
Binomial, Poisson
-
normal
distributions and its applications with calcul
us.


4. CURVE FITTING 9


Curve fitting
-
regression analysis
-
least square approximation
-
fitting non
-
linear
curves
-
bivariate correlation and regression
-
applications
to biological sciences.


5. SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS 9


Tests based on normal, students t and chi
-
square test. Goodness of fit ANOVA
-
applications for biological sciences (one way, two
way and three way
classifications).


Total No. of Periods : 45

REFERENCES:


1.

B.S.Grewal, Higher Engineering Mathematics, 37
th

Edition, Khanna
Publishers, July 2003.


2.

Johnson, R.A., “Miller & Freund’s Probability and Statistics for Engineers”
6
th

Edition, Pr
entice
-
Hall, 2002.








3



BT1601


MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY




3 0 0 100


1.

INTRODUCTION TO DNA & RNA





5


DNA, gene, genome structure and organization in prokaryotes and eukaryotes,
rRNA, tRNA, mRNA, posttranscriptional processing
.


2.

MUTATION, REPAIR AND TRANSPOSONS




10


Types of mutation, types of mutagens and mechanism, types of repair, light
dependent and light independent, transposable elements


prokaryotic and
eukaryotic, mechanism of transposons.



3.

CEL
L CYCLE, REGULATION & SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION


12


Eukaryotic cell cycle, factors involved in cell cycle, signal transduction, primary,
secondary messengers, involvement of G proteins, protein kinases, serine,
threonine and tyrosine kinases, me
chanism of signaling by steroids.


4.

CYTOSKELETON








10


Cytoskeletal elements, actin, myosin, tubulin, intermediate filament, cellular
matrix components and interaction.


5.

PROTEIN LOCALIZATION






8


Co

and post translational modifications, protein targeting to various sub
-
cellular
organelles; protein trafficking, protein folding and degradation.

Total No. of Periods : 45



REFERENCES
:

1.

Karp, Gerald, “Cell and Molecular Biology”, 3
rd

Edition., John Wiley,

1999

2.

Lodish, Harvey etal., “Molecular Cell Biology”, 4
th

Edition, Scientific American
Books, New york 2000

3.

Alberts, Bruce etal., “Molecular Biology of the Cell”, 4
th

Edition, Taylor &
Francis, 2002

4.

Friefelder, David, “Molecular Biology”, 2
nd

Edition, Naro
sa 1999

5.

Weaver, R.F., “Molecular Biology”, 3
rd

Edition, McGraw Hill, 2002




4


BT1602 ENGINEERING PROTEINS FOR BIOPHARMACEUTICS 3 0 0 100


1.

INTRODUCTION TO AMINO ACIDS AND PROTEINS


6


Physical and chemical properties of amino ac
ids, different types of proteins,
proteins of pharmaceutical importance, roles of covalent and non
-
covalent
interactions important to protein structure and function.


2.

PROTEIN STRUCTURE







10


Primary, Secondary, Super secondary, Terti
ary and Quaternary structures and
the methods to determine, including prediction methods and utilization of
Genomic databases.


3.

PROTEIN STRUCTURE


FUNCTION RELATIONSHIP



12



Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic transcription factors and their role in gen
e expression
with special reference to anticancer targets and metabolic regulation in synthesis
of medicinal compounds, DNA polymerases as PCR reagents, Immunoglobulins
and their applications in pharmaceuticals, Serine proteases and protein
engineering stu
dies, proteases as targets for antivirals.


4.

PROTEIN ENGINEERING AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS 10



Concepts in engineering of proteins, Chemical modifications, Engineering
proteins for diagnostics, vaccines and therapeutics, Engineering of
Immunoglo
bulins for pharmaceutical applications, Engineering of Insulin for
increasing bioavailability.


5.

PROTEIN FOLDING & DESIGN






7


Optimization Methods


Search Algorithms


Factors affecting Protein Structure


Scaffold Design


Design
of Backbone


Loops and Turns


Design of Substrate
Specificity & Metal Binding.


Total No. of Periods : 45

REFERENCES
:

1. Fersht, Alan., “Structure and Mechanism in Protein Science”, W.H.Freeman,
1999

2. Branden, C and Tooze, “Introduction to Protein Stru
cture”, 2
nd

Edition,
Garland, 1999.



5


BT1603

MODERN TECHNIQUES IN DRUG DISCOVERY


3 0 0 100


1.

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE





10


Chemical Shifts


Spin


Spin Coupling


Relaxation Mechanisms


Nuclear
Overhauser Effect


Multidimen
sional NMR Spectroscopy


Determination of
Macromolecular Structure by NMR


Magnetic Resonance Imaging.


2.

MASS SPECTROMETRY







10


Ion Sources sample introduction


Mass Analyzers and Ion Detectors


Biomolecule Mass Spectrometry


P
eptide and Protein Analysis


Carbohydrates
and Small Molecules


Specific Applications.



3.

X
-
RAY DIFFRACTION







10


Scattering by X
-
Rays


Diffraction by a Crystal


Measuring Diffraction Pattern


Bragg Reflection


Unit Cell


Phas
e Problem


Anomalous Diffraction


Determination of Crystal Structure


Electron and Neutron Diffraction.


4.

MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY






5


Introduction


Construction


Analysis


Protein microarrays
.


5.

SPECIAL TOPICS AND APPLICATIONS





10


Electron Microscopy


Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy


Scanning Tunneling and Atomic Force Microscopy


Combinatorial Chemistry
and High Throughput Screening Methods. Adsorption chromatography


principles, flash col
umn chromatography, HPTLC.

Total No. of Periods : 45


REFERENCES:


1.

Bijoven, H.Basic 1D & 2D NMR Spectroscopy, VCH 1999

2.

Siuzdak, Garry, “Mass Spectroscopy for Biotechnology”, Academic Press,
1999

3.

Fenniri, H., “Combinatorial Chemistry: A Practical Approach”,

Oxford
University Press, 2000




6

BT1604 BIOCHEMICAL

ENGINEERING AND FERMENTATION
TECHNOLOGY 3 0 0 100


1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOPROCESSES

5


Historical development of bioprocess technology, An overview of traditional and
modern applications of biotechnological processes, general requirements of
fermentation processes, Basic design and construction of fermentor and
ancillaries, M
ain parameters to be monitored and controlled in fermentation
processes.


2. METABOLIC STOICHIOMETRY AND ENERGETICS 8


Stoichiometry of Cell growth and product formation, elemental balances, degrees
of reduction of subst
rate and biomass, available electron balances, yield
coefficients of biomass and product formation, maintenance coefficients
Energetic analysis of microbial growth and product formation, oxygen
consumption and heat evolution in aerobic cultures, thermodyna
mic efficiency of
growth.


3. MEDIA DESIGN FOR FERMENTATION PROCESSES 12


Medium requirements for fermentation processes, Carbon, Nitrogen, minerals,
vitamins and other complex nutrients, oxygen requirements, medium formulati
on
of optimal growth and product formation, examples of simple and complex media.
Medium for plant cell culture and animal cell culture. Medium design of
commercial media for industrial fermentations


Plackett burman design,,
response surface methodology,

simplex design, continuous cultivation method to
determine the kinetic parameters and maintenance coefficient and pulse & shift
method of medium optimization. Case studies on each medium design methods.


4. KINETICS OF MICROBIAL GROWTH AND PRODUCT FORMATI
ON 10


Phases of cell growth in batch cultures, Fed batch and continuous cultures.
Simple unstructured kinetic models for microbial growth, Monod model, Growth of
filamentous organisms & yeast. Growth associated (primary) and non
-
growth
associated (
secondary) product formation kinetics, Leudeking
-
Piret models,,
substrate and product inhibition on cell growth and product formation.


5. FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY 10


Case studies on producti
on of Lactic acid, Glutamic acid, Pencillin, Microbial
Lipase and Protease, Recombinant Insulin. Case studies should deal with strain
improvement, medium designs, process optimization etc.

Total No. of Periods : 45



7

REFERENCES:

1.

Bailey, J.E. and Ollis, D.F.
, “Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals”, 2
nd

Edition, McGraw Hill 1986.

2.

Shuler, M.L. and Kargi, F., “Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts”, 2
nd

Edition, Prentice
-
Hall, 2002.

3.

Doran, Pauline M., “Bioprocess Engineering Principles”, Academic Press,
1995.

4.

Stanbury, P.F., Stephen J. Hall & A. Whitaker, “Principles of Fermentation
Technology”, 2
nd

Edition, Elsevier, 1995.





BT1605 ENZYME TECHNOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS 3 0 0 100


1. KINETICS AND MECHANISM OF ENZYME ACTION

8


Classification of enzymes: qualification of enzyme activity and specific activity.
Estimation of Michaelis Menten parameters, Effect of pH and temperature on
enzyme activity, kinetics of inhibition. Modeling of rate equations for single and

multiple substrate reactions.


2. IMMOBILIZED ENZYME REACTIONS 7


Techniques of enzyme immobilization
-
matrix entrapment, ionic and cross linking,
column packing; Analysis of mass transfer effects

of kinetics of immobilized
enzyme reactions; Bioconversion studies with immobilized enzyme packed
-
bed
reactors.


3. MASS TRANSFER EFFECTS IN IMMOBILIZED ENZYME SYSTEMS 5


Analysis if film and Pore diffusion Effects on kinetics of immobilized enz
yme
reactions; Formulation of dimensionless groups and calculation of Effectiveness
Factors.


4. APPLICATION OF ENZYMES 13


Extraction of commercially important enzymes from natural so
urces; Commercial
applications of enzymes in food, pharmaceutical and other industries; enzymes
for diagnostic applications. Use of enzymes in analysis
-
types of sensing
-
gadgetry
and methods. Case studies on application


chiral conversion, esterification,
etc.


5. ENZYME BIOSENSORS 12


Applications of enzymes in analysis; Design of enzyme electrodes and case
studies on their application as biosensors in industry, healthcare and
environment.


8

Total No. of Periods : 45



REFERENCES:

1.

Blanch, H.W., Clark, D.S., “Biochemical Engineering”, Marcel Dekker,
1997.

2.

Lee, James M., “Biochemical Engineering”, PHI, USA.

3.

Bailey J.E. & Ollis, D.F., “Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals”, 2
nd

Editi
on, McGraw Hill, 1986.

4.

Wiseman, Alan., “Hand book of Enzyme Biotechnology”, 3
rd

Edition, Ellis
Harwood 1995.







BT1606 ADVANCED BIOCHEMISTRY LAB 0 0 3 100


List of Experiments*

1.

Amino acid titration and determining

their pKa values.

2.

Tryptic peptide mapping of proteins.

3.

N
-
terminal analysis of proteins with phenylthioisothiocyanate (PITC)


First
reaction in protein sequencing.

4.

Preparation of CM
-
Cellulose and separation of proteins.

5.

DNA isolation and quantitation

6.

Carb
ohydrate analysis of glycoproteins

7.

Phospholipid analysis of membranes

8.

Separation of proteins using 2D electrophoresis

9.

Biotinylation of proteins, western blotting, identification

10.

FITC
-
conjugation of antibodies

11.

Enzyme kinetics of phosphatase

12.

Enzyme denaturat
ion and renaturation


Laboratory Equipment Required

(for the batch consisting of 20 students)

Sl. No.

Description

Quantity


BT1606 Advanced Biochemistry Lab


1.

pH meter

2

2.

Colorimeter

3

3.

Water bath

(dry bath 40° C


120°C preferred; but expensive
)

3

4.

Balance (500g


0.1g)

1

5.

Balance (0.1mg)

1

6.

Table top Centrifuge Remi R
-
24

1

7.

Microfuge

2

8.

Micropipettes 20
µ
I
-

200
µ
l; 1
µ
l


20
µ
l

6

9.

Oven

1

10.

UV


vis Spectrometer

1


9

11.

Vortexer

4

12.

Magnetic Stirrer

2

13.

Fume hood

1

14.

Bunsen Burner

4

15.

Microplate Reader (vis

range) (300


700 nm)

1


*Minimum TEN experiments shall be offered



BT1607 ADVANCED BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING LAB 0 0 3 100


List of Experiments*

1.

Enzyme kinetics, inhibition

2.

Factors af
fecting reaction pH, temperature

3.

Enzyme immobilization studies

4.

Batch cultivation


recombinant microorganism
-
growth rate, substrate
utilization kinetics, plasmid stability, product analysis after induction.

5.

Fed batch cultivation

6.

Continuous cultivation


x
-
d construction

7.

Continuous cultivation


Pulse and shift techniques

8.

Gas analysis


CPR, OUR, RQ estimation and carbon balancing

9.

Sterlisation kinetics

10.

Scaleup


Kla determination


power correlation

11.

Residence time distribution


Laboratory Equipment Required

(for the batch consisting of 20 students)


Sl. No.

Description

Quantity


BT1607 Advanced BIOPROCESS Engineering Lab


1.

Shaker

2

2.

Laminar Flow Chamber

2

3.

Water bath

2

4.

Spectrophotometer

1

5.

pH meter

1

6.

Weighing balance

1

7.

Vortex mixer

2

8.

Peristaltic pump

2

9.

Glass columns for packed bed studies

2

10.

Micro centrifuge

1

11.

Bioreactor (3 batch & 1 continuous) (one reactor should
be in
-
situ sterilizable)

4

12.

Gas analyzer

1

13.

Refrigerated water bath

1

14.

Air compressor

1

15
.

Peristaltic pump

6