Java: what can it do and where is it going? - BCS

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2 Δεκ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 7 μήνες)

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Java™: What can it do and where is it going?


Andy Brodie

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2

Presentation Contents


What is Java?



Java and XML



Java and Web Services



The Future


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What is Java?

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4

The Java Language


“The Java™ programming language is a
general
-
purpose,
concurrent, class
-
based, object
-
oriented language “


Java
Language Specification



Provides many features of object orientation technology.



Largely copies the C syntax

int main(int argc, char **argv) {


for (int i=0; i<argc; i++) {


printf(“%s
\
n”,argv[i]);

}

public static void main(String[] args){


for (int i=0; i<args.length; i++) {


System.out.print(args[i] + “
\
n”);

}


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5

Java is not C++…


Java does not have:

Pointers … well… almost…

Operator Overloading.

Goto.

Structs or unions.

Multiple Inheritance.

Templates.

Automatic Type conversion.

#typedefs, #define, or #anything!

Default arguments.

No explicit in
-
lining


C++ does not have:

Garbage collection.

Arrays as first class objects and
bounds checking.

Built in program documentation
(javadoc).

A single “root” object, from which all
others inherit.

A dedicated immutable “String” type.

Primitive type size consistency.

Automatically nulled variables.

Built
-
in concurrency.


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6

The different types of Java


Java™ 2 Platform, Micro Edition (J2ME)

For consumer electronics and embedded devices.



Java™ 2 Platform, Standard Edition (J2SE)

“Normal” Java



Java™ 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE)

An extension to J2SE that provides:

Rapid development and deployment of enterprise applications.

Covers Security, Transactions, Distribution

Containers supplying runtime support for J2EE application components.


Encourages 3
-
tier architectures with separation of business and display logic.


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7

A Brief History of Java


1990



James Gosling, Patrick Naughton
and Mike Sheridan start project
Oak
.



1996


Java SDK 1.0 Released (first
commercial)



1997



Java SDK 1.1 Released



1998



Java 2 Language Released (1.2



2000



J2SE SDK 1.3



2002



J2SE SDK 1.4



2004


J2SE 5.0 Released (J2SE SDK
5.0)

202
1524
1840
2724
3278
477
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
1.0.2
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
Java Version
Number of Classes

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8

The Java Virtual Machine (JVM)


Java source is compiled in to
byte code
.



Byte code executes on the
Java Virtual Machine

(JVM).

Platform independent execution environment that abstracts operating
system specifics from the developer/user.

The byte code is interpreted by the JVM at runtime.

(Similar to Pascal’s PCode.)



The
Just In Time
(JIT) compiler converts Java bytes codes into
native machine code for quicker execution.

Allows Java performance to be comparable to C++.



The JVM forms a “
sandbox
” to execute applications.


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9

Operating System

The Sandbox


A term often banded around to describe Java applications and applet
environments.


Consists of 3 parts:

The byte code verifier


stops “bad” programs from executing

The class loader


loads code in to memory.

The security manager


polices the executing code.

JVM

Security

Manager

Class Loader

Byte

Code

Verifier

Application


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10

How multi
-
platform is J2SE?


Java is often touted as “multi
-
platform”, but how many platforms have
JREs or JDKs?


Windows IA
-
32

IBM NUMA
-
Q

Windows IA
-
64

AIX/PPC32

AIX/PPC64

Linux IA32

Linux IA64

HP
-
UX

Linux/S390

Linux S/390 64

OS/2

Solaris

zOS

I5/OS

Linux IA32

Linux IA64

Solaris x86

Solaris SPARC

Windows IA32

Windows IA64

Mac OS X

Mac OS Classic

Irix


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11

Enforcing J2SE compatibility


Sun licenses the
Java Compatibility Kit

(JCK) to J2SE vendors



Latest version contains
45,194

individual tests.

Up from Java 2 JCK which had 27,309.



Why do you need the JCK?

Without a successful pass you
cannot

call it Java or use the Java logo.


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12

How many J2EE licensees are there?

Apache Software Foundation

ATG

BEA Systems

Borland Group

Caucho Technology Inc.

Data Direct Technologies

Fujitsu

HP

Hitachi

IBM

IONA Technologies

IronFlare

JBoss Group

Kingdee Middleware

Macromedia

NEC

Nokia

Novell (Silverstream)

ObjectWeb

Oracle Corporation

Pramati

SAP

SAS Institute, Inc.

SeeBeyond

Sonic Software Corporation

SpiritSoft

Sun Microsystems

Sybase, Inc.

TIBCO Software Inc.

Tmax Soft

Trifork Technologies

webMethods


32 at last count…


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13

J2EE Compatibility


In the same way that Sun controls the use of the Java logo.

J2EE implementations must pass a compatibility suite.



There are compliant implementations of J2EE 1.4 from:

IBM

-

WebSphere Application Server Technology for Developers v6.0

JBoss



JBoss Application Server (open source)

Oracle



Oracle application Server Containers for J2EE 10g

Sun



Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8

TMax Soft



JEUS 5.0

Trifork



Trifork T4 Application Server


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14

Who “controls” Java?


Sun

has ultimate control of Java.



The
Java Community Process


http://www.jcp.org

Produce
Java Specification Requests

(JSRs) determine future direction of
the Java language and libraries.


338

JSRs have been produced so far.

Almost

all new language features and standard libraries come via the
JCP.



Participated in by
Java licensees and vendors
:

Such as: IBM, Apple, BEA Systems, Compaq, HP, Novell, Symantec,
Wind River, Oracle and Silverstream


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15

Microsoft .NET and Java


Which is better?


The Equivalences

Java Platform

.NET

Java Virtual
Machine (JVM)

Common Language
Runtime (CLR)

Byte Code

Microsoft Intermediate
Language (MSIL)

Swing

Windows Forms

J2SE/J2EE

.NET Framework class
library

EJB

COM+ Services

J2EE Server

.NET Framework

JSP

ASP.NET

JDBC

ODBC

J2ME

.NET Compact
Framework


BOTH are here to stay.



.NET and Java platform provide some
equivalent facilities, shown here



Can .NET and Java work together?

Service
-
Oriented Architectures and Web
Services fit both .NET and J2EE.


The WS
-
I profiles promote interoperability
between .NET and Java applications via
Web Services.

The Web Service Interoperability
Organization produces WS
-
I Profiles.

See http://www.ws
-
i.org.



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16

C#
-

The Closest Language to Java


C# bears more than a passing resemblance to Java.



However…

The are plenty of pitfalls for the Java programmer to fall in to by expecting
C# to behave the same way as Java.

E.g. No checked exceptions, casting objects changes their behaviour


…and several for a C# programmer to fall in to by expecting Java to
behave the same way as C#!

E.g. Switch statement fall
-
through and constructors with same name
as enclosing type.


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Java and XML

Java provision
for the processing of XML data.

Sectional slide


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18

Java and XML


Java includes libraries specifically for XML document generation, parsing
and transformation:


Java API for XML Parsing
: JAXP

Supports DOM and SAX W3C standards for document parsing and
representation.


TRansformation API for XML
-

TRAX

Supports the XSLT language for specifying transformations of XML.


Java API for XML Bindings


JAXB

Static and Dynamic generation Java classes based on XML.


Java API for XML
-
based Remote Procedure Calls



JAX
-
RPC

Invocation of methods on remote services using XML
-
based calls.


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19

JAXP Example: Parsing an XML document


Creating an document object model (DOM) of an XML document is easy:


DocumentBuilderFactory factory =

DocumentBuilderFactory.newInstance();

DocumentBuilder builder = factory.newDocumentBuilder();

Document document = builder.parse(new File(xmlInputFile));



From here you can read, edit and write out the document.



For large XML documents, there is Simple API for XML (SAX), that is an “event
driven” way of reading a document.



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20

TRAX: Transforming XML documents


Transformations are done via the
eXtensible Stylesheet Language
Transformation

(XSLT) specification.



Each stylesheet is an XML document that contains a mix of
declarative and programmatic constructs to transform an XML
document in to another (XML or plain text) document.



Java provides the TRAX API to apply stylesheets to XML
documents.


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Java and Web Services

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22

What is a Web Service?


“A Web service is a software system designed to support interoperable
machine
-
to
-
machine interaction over a network. It has an interface described in
a machine
-
processable format (specifically WSDL). Other systems interact with
the Web service in a manner prescribed by its description using SOAP
messages,
typically

conveyed using HTTP with an XML serialization in
conjunction with other Web
-
related standards.”


The W3C.



Helped to develop standards for web services…

Invocation:
Simple Object Access Protocol

(SOAP)

Description:
Web Service Definition Language

(WSDL)

Location:
Universal Description, Discovery and Integration Project

(UDDI)

Transport:
HyperText Transport Protocol

(HTTP)


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23

Web Services, Java and J2EE


Web Services are gaining popularity and recognition as an important technology for
the future of business computing.



Tools, specifications and libraries to make it easy to create, publish and invoke
Web Services from within a Java environment.

See the Web Services Interoperability WS
-
I Basic Profile on http://www.ws
-
i.org.

Enabling inter
-
operability between Java and non
-
Java services.



Support for Web Services described in J2EE 1.4 Specification

Also
JSR
-
109

-

Web Services for J2EE, Version 1.0


J2EE 1.4 platform provides tools and libraries to facilitate the development and deployment
of web services in a J2EE container.


Many vendors provide tooling to automatically generate WSDL and SOAP interfaces.

You don’t want to be writing XML by hand!

For example: WebSphere Application Developer Studio (
WSAD
).



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24

Java API for XML
-
based Remote Procedure Calls

(JAX
-
RPC)


Developed through
JSR
-
101
.



JAX
-
RPC 1.0

defines APIs and conventions for supporting XML based RPC in the
Java platform.



JAX
-
RPC 1.1

adds support for the WS
-
I Basic Profile 1.0 to improve interoperability
between JAX
-
RPC implementations and with services implemented using other
technologies.



JAX
-
RPC

is designed to keep the platform independence of Web Services and
XML.



Describes a reversible mapping from WSDL 1.1 to Java

Target namespaces can be mapped to and from Java packages

Port types can be mapped to and from Java classes

Operations can be mapped to and from methods

Etc.


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The Future

Where J2SE and J2EE are going

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26

J2SE 5.0


The product formerly known as J2SE 1.5, a.k.a. Tiger

Version number changes as the
language

is changing, not just the supplied libraries.



Released Java 5 on
September 30
th

2004
.



New language features:

Annotations

Generic Types

Enumerated types

Automatic conversion between primitive and object types: “Autoboxing”

Memory Model

Variable arguments: “varargs”

Enhanced loop syntax

Static Imports



Over 8002 features, enhancements and bug fixes integrated in to J2SE 5.0.


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27

Some of the J2SE 5.0 features


Autoboxing
:

Automatic conversion between primitive types and their object equivalents.

Integer six = new Integer(5) + 1;



Enhanced loops
:

int myArray[] = new int[10];

int total;

for (i : myArray) { total += i; }



Annotations
:

Simple markers or data structures compiled in to class files.

Similar to javadoc tags, such as @deprecated.

@api public void doIt();


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28

J2SE 5.0 Language Features (cont.)


Generics

(a.k.a. Parameterized Types)


E.g. not just a set of objects, but a
set of strings
.

Collection content types can be enforced at the language level.

Simplifies code and improves robustness.

NOT C++ Templates!!



Enumerated Types

True type
-
safe enumerated types (unlike C).

Can use constants inside switch statements.



Static Imports

Allows usage of static constants and methods without needing to qualify.

import static com.xyz.ConstantsClass.*;

message.setReliability(MY_FINAL_VALUE);



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29

Java 2 Enterprise Edition 1.5 (JSR
-
244)


Theme is “
Ease of Development


J2EE often criticised for complexity….

… when it was specifically designed to make life easier!



Still in the
very

early stages, expert group is being formed.



What’s proposed for J2EE 1.5?

Enterprise Javabeans 3.0

-

JSR
-
220

Abolishes local and remote bean and home interfaces.

Replaced by Java 5 annotations


JavaServer Faces

-

JSR
-
127

A user interface (UI) framework for Java Web Applications.

Emphasises the re
-
use aspects of UI components.


Web Services Metadata for the Java Platform

(JSR
-
181)

Uses annotations to declare how Java methods should be presented as Web Services.


Java APIs for XML Binding

(JAXB) 2.0 (JSR
-
222)


Java API for XML based Remote Procedure Calls

(JAX
-
RPC) 2.0 (JSR
-
224)


Standard Tag Library for Java Server Pages

(JSTL) 1.1 (JSR
-
52)


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End.

Thank you for listening!

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