the human mind.

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19 Οκτ 2013 (πριν από 3 χρόνια και 8 μήνες)

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If the Industrial Revolution

was about extending

the power of
human muscle

with inventions like the Steam Engine, then



the computer revolution is about extending


the power of

the human mind
.

Algorithms: The Ever
-
Growing, All
-
Knowing Way Of The Future
by Laura
Sydell
. NPR: All Things Considered. May 14, 2012.

… and
algorithms

are
the key.

Teaching High School

Computer
SciencE

As if the Rest of the World Existed:

Applied CS

across the Secondary

STEM
,
Humanities

and

Arts

Curriculum

http://
www.youtube.com/watch?v=
4
uOxOgm
5
jQ
4

LOW OVERALL ENROLLMENTS

Jan
Cuny
,
who administers CE21 funding
at NSF, has
repeatedly said that
high school is the crucial piece in boosting enrollment numbers:
"
Without
the HS piece, anything we do for middle school will be lost

"
and
"
anything
we do at the college level will be insufficient.
"


Result of a survey polling 836 calculus and pre
-
calc high school students
"
showed that High School students are severely lacking in experience with
computing, particularly in formal classroom experience.
The vast majority
of students had
no concept

of what a Computer Science major entails
.
The top reasons for not choosing a CS major for both male and female
[students] were the lack of desire to sit in front of a computer all day, and
the fact that they had already chosen another major.
The number one
reason to choose a CS major for men was their interest in computer
games, and for women was their desire to
use it in another field
.
"

Carter, L.,
Why Students with an Apparent Aptitude for Computer Science Don’t
Choose to Major in Computer Science.

SIGCSE ’06, March 1

5, 2006, Houston,
Texas.

COOL

NEW APPROACHES


America’s youth perceive Computer Science to be
difficult
,
tedious
,
boring
,
irrelevant

and
asocial
. Unfortunately, many traditional introductory
Computer Science classes and textbooks do little to improve that image.

Kay, Jennifer (Rowan
Univ
, NJ),
Contextualized Approaches to Introductory
Computer Science: The Key to Making Computer Science Relevant or
Simply Bait
and Switch
?

SIGCSE’11, March 9

12, 2011, Dallas, Texas, USA .


In contrast,
CONTEXTUALIZED APPROACHES
to teaching
introductory Computer Science are very attractive. Instead of writing a leap
year program, students can learn about conditional statements by
programming
a robot
to follow a light, or by creating an

animation to tell a
story
, or even by
modifying a picture
of the college president so that she is
wearing a neon orange jacket instead of a navy blue one.


The arguments in favor of contextualized approaches to attract non
-
Computer
-
Science
-
majors to our classes are very persuasive. But what
about students who then choose to major or minor in Computer Science?
Of course we want to offer them interesting and engaging first courses in
Computer Science
, and indeed this may help with our efforts to attract more
students to our programs.
But what happens in subsequent semesters?


AP EXAM


2010

N


Physics
C E&M

14,191


Government
& Politics
Comparative

16,864


Music
Theory

17,267


Computer
Science A

20,120


Art
History

21,643


Physics
C Mechanics

31,973


Economics
-

Micro

51,601


Physics
B

67,312


Human
Geography

68,397


Calculus
BC

78,998


Economics


Macro

83,146


Environmental
Science

86,650


European
History

102,629


Chemistry

115,077


Statistics

129,899


World
History

167,789


Biology

172,512


Psychology

177,708


Government

&
Politics
United
States

211,681


Calculus
AB

245,867


English
Literature

353,781


English
Language

374,620


United
States History

387,416

Number of
US Students
taking

AP Exams

(by Subject)

12
x fewer students
took the CS exam than
took Calculus AB.

Low Overall Enrollments

It’s safe to say that
courses with the least
student participation
lack
BROAD APPEAL

as academic subjects,
i.e. they have an

image / P.R. problem
.


Cool
” contextualized approaches (media, Alice, Scratch) may be having
limited success or showing promise at the post
-
secondary level, but they
don’t seem to be doing much for high school enrollment numbers.

These are good tools, but they may need to be used differently.

A reasonable tactic might be to somehow


hitch our wagon
” to the academic subjects that

students already flock to, and whose value they already
UNDERSTAND
.

Attempting to address the problems of low enrollments and low
participation rates by females and URMs, CS educators and policy makers
determined that CS education needs to begin in earnest as early as
middle
school
. Using such innovative programming environments as
Robotics,
Alice, Processing and Scratch
, and a range of curricula from simple to
sophisticated, educators have sought to introduce students at all K
-
12
levels to "computational thinking".

One major deficiency, though, is a
COHERENT CONTEXT
for this material.
Though this was a problem before the introduction of these tools,
students after such courses are still left with little to no idea how they can
use the concepts they’ve learned in
REAL
-
WORLD APPLICATIONS
and

CONTEXTS
. No matter how engaged students may be, if the contexts for
the problems they work on are
short
,
game
-
related

or
make
-
believe
,
the
message teachers send is that CS has no real world applications of any
consequence or value beyond entertainment, self
-
expression or theory
.
Such curricula tend to trivialize CS in pursuit of a
perceived

trade
-
off for a
rise in engagement at the expense of real world connections (and rigor).

COOL

NEW APPROACHES

Such curricula typically focus exclusively on concepts that have
traditionally been part and parcel of lower level college CS courses for the
last two or three decades


for all intents and purposes unchanged

Additionally, they do nothing to counter the popular misconception
pigeonholing CS as a field whose principal applications are limited to
Gaming, Social Media, the Internet and Mobile Devices
.

During those same decades, however, the applications of CS have
expanded to encompass a hugely diverse range of academic, scientific,
commercial and social fields.
K
-
12 CS educators have failed to
incorporate or even reference these CONNECTIONS in their curricula in
any serious or comprehensive way
.

An apt comparison might be teaching the fingerings of a musical
instrument using only practice exercises, with no attempt to play real
music compositions, even simplified ones. By not staying current vis
-
à
-
vis
the reach of CS across academic fields, educators have acquiesced in a
curriculum that is by default
TRUNCATED
.

COOL

NEW APPROACHES

A review of recent literature regarding interdisciplinary approaches
to teaching CS found the following programs at the college level:


1.
Bioinformatics / Computational Biology
: 157 undergraduate
programs [majors/minors] in North America

2.
Mathematical Biology
: Mathematical Modeling of Biological
Systems (Truman State
Univ
)

3.
Design of
Intelligent Spacecraft
(UNCC)

4.
Music

(
Univ

of Massachusetts, Lowell / Computing and Music
Committee of SIGCSE 2010)

5.
Computational Linguistics

(NACLO,
Univ

of Michigan, CMU)

6.
Mathematics

: math games, graph theory, heuristics
(Kingsborough Community College of the City
Univ

of New York)

7.
Computational Journalism

(College of New Jersey)

INTERDISCIPLINARY

UNCC offered "a highly interdisciplinary course to students during
the Spring 2007 semester:
DESIGN OF INTELLIGENT SPACECRAFT
.
The course integrates concepts from mathematics, physics,
engineering and computer science for the purpose of educating 4th
year undergraduate and introductory masters
-
level students on the
design of intelligent spacecraft. Course content is divided into two
pedagogically separate parts":


1.
The historical development of physical models, including
mathematical models for celestial mechanics and
thermodynamics.

2.
Application of these models for creating intelligent spacecraft, i.e.,
applications of these models to pattern recognition, computer
vision, and image processing.


Willis, A; Conrad, J.M.
Design Of Intelligent Spacecraft: An Interdisciplinary
Engineering Education Course
. Proceedings of the 2008 ASEE Conference,
Pittsburgh, PA, June 2008.


DESIGN OF INTELLIGENT SPACECRAFT (cont)


Part 1
. Specific classical topics include celestial mechanics and
thermodynamics which are introduced using excerpts from original
works of the scientists that defined and revolutionized our
understandings of these fields. Some scientists considered are
Aristotle,
Tycho
,
Kepler
, Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Fourier

and other
scientists relevant to course topics. Historical content is
complemented with discussion on
contemporary space missions
relevant to the discussion topic. For example, historical discussions
on the discoveries of
Cassini

or
Galileo

includes discussions on the
recent Cassini
-
Huygens mission to Saturn. Further, these discussions
include
mission spacecraft type
, its
relevant design considerations
and
mission objectives
. Discussion of mission objectives serve to
highlight
current boundaries of scientific knowledge
and
how
specific space missions seek to understand topics at these
boundaries.

DESIGN OF INTELLIGENT SPACECRAFT (cont)


Part
2
.

Students implemented programs relevant to spacecraft
design. Programs included
physical simulations
of celestial
mechanics, thermodynamics, and signal processing programs for
image manipulation and signal compression. Project topics reinforce
topics covered in Part
1
of the course. Results for physical
simulations are compared against theoretically perfect results for
thermodynamic simulations and established gold
-
standards from
NASA’s HORIZONS system in the case of celestial mechanics.
Applications of these mathematical models in electrical engineering
lead to signal processing projects which motivate subsequent course
topics on
communication
,
image processing
and
image
compression
.


This paper includes successes, failures and lessons learned in
teaching a course with such diverse content
and analyzes how well
the
mixture of history / engineering was received by the students
.

NACLO

(North American Computational Linguistics Olympiad)
includes problems in both
TRADITIONAL LINGUISTICS
and
COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
. "The traditional problems are in
the style of the International Linguistics Olympiad (ILO) and include
deciphering texts in lesser
-
known languages (such as
Aymara

from
Bolivia, Hmong from Cambodia, and
Huishu

from India), as well as
number, kinship, and calendar systems. We have collaborated
closely with colleagues in linguistics departments to collect original
problems in this genre."


"The computational linguistics problems are the most innovative
component of the contest ... So far, we have included problems in
Parsing
,
Optical Character Recognition
,
Text Summarization
,
Information Answering
,
Spelling Correction
,
Lexical Acquisition
,
Speech Processing

and

Finite State Automata
."


Radev
, D.; Levin, L.
Engaging High School Students in Interdisciplinary Studies:
Expanding the Pipeline
. Computing Research News, Vol. 21/No. 4, September
2009.

COMPUTATIONAL JOURNALISM
is emerging as a
discipline in its own right, gaining traction in higher education. For
example,
Georgia Tec
h
offers a course on computational journalism
and
Columbia University

recently announced a new dual Master of
Science program in Computer Science and Journalism. At
Duke
University
, researchers and professors at the DeWitt Wallace
Center for Media & Democracy are examining computational
journalism, and journalists and computer scientists are working
together to create software tools intended to help reporters move
more quickly to produce in
-
depth, authoritative stories. The Medill
School of Journalism at
Northwestern University
is offering
scholarships to lure programmers and web developers to their
journalism master’s degree program.


Pulimood
, S.M.; Shaw, D.;
Lounsberry
, E.
Gumshoe: A Model for Undergraduate
Computational Journalism Education
. SIGCSE’11, March 9

12, 2011, Dallas,
Texas, USA.

COMPUTATIONAL JOURNALISM


COMPUTATIONAL JOURNALISM


Initially, an Excel spreadsheet was created that listed demographic data for each
person arrested for violating 18 Pa. C.S.A.
§

6106, carrying a firearm without a
license, in a sample period of January
-
February 2006. … 613 defendants were
tracked… Using Pennsylvania’s online court dockets, the journalism students
painstakingly created and populated several more columns of data, for example
felony charges like murder, manslaughter, aggravated assault, rape, etc. while in
possession of a firearm that, under Pennsylvania law, theoretically should result in a
convicted gun offender receiving a mandatory minimum prison sentence of five
years.

The project wanted to answer the questions:

1.
What happens to defendants arrested for gun
-
related crimes?

2.
How many people serve prison time for committing violent felonies with guns?

3.
Are cases regularly being dismissed or bargained down?

The goal of the project was defined as developing a CAR (Computer
-
Assisted
Reporting) system to store, manage, track, and query data on gun crime in the
Philadelphia region.

COMPUTATIONAL JOURNALISM


Based on 859 dockets in a two month sample, the data and results of the analysis
were presented to The Inquirer, which in December 2009 published a four
-
part
series that documented the widespread failure of violent
-
crime prosecutions in the
Philadelphia court system.

Taking a broad look at the crimes of murder, rape, robbery and aggravated
assault, the newspaper revealed a dysfunctional system in which defendants had a
better than 50
-
50 chance of walking free, with dismissal or withdrawal of all
charges.

The series showed that Philadelphia had the nation’s lowest felony conviction rate
even as law
-
enforcement authorities struggled with crime rates above the national
average.

However, as the data grew, effective data management and analysis became more
challenging… It was clear that a well
-
designed database system would go a long way
in helping to analyze the data and find meaningful patterns and information.
Moreover, it would eliminate data redundancy, improve data integrity, improve data
accessibility, and enforce data consistency. The students in the project spent time
analyzing a number of data querying and organization methodologies to determine
which would be most effective for the CAR system.

MUSIC
:
"Now more than ever, we musicians find ourselves in an age
where technologically almost anything is possible. It is therefore
crucial that we understand what makes computers function and
acquire a strong working knowledge of programs and the coding
behind them. Interdisciplinary collaboration helps cultivate new and
exciting innovations that can bring about the revitalization of CS
education for which
Performamatics

was conceived. Using music as a
hook, we can create innovative live performances and interesting
visuals in conjunction with “musical live coding” to tap the imagination
of people who might never have considered CS as a possible major.
People (like myself) tend to be intimidated by the mystifying technical
jargon. However, with more exposure to interesting multi
-
disciplinary
projects, students can start thinking computationally and actively using
that new way of thinking in a hands
-
on way without even realizing they
are doing so."


Ruthmann, A.; Heines, J.M.; Greher, G.R.; Laidler, P.; Saulters, C.
Teaching
Computational Thinking through Musical Live Coding in Scratch
. SIGCSE’10,
March 10
-
3, 2010, Milwaukee, WI

PEDAGOGY

In CS Education, new student software tools appear at a relatively
fast clip, e.g.
Processing
,
Alice
,
Scratch
,
BYOB/Snap
, but little
collective

thought is focused on how best to use these tools. In
high school educational settings, these tools are primarily used to
engage students using story
-
telling or games, and lesson content is
often shallow.

Moreover, curricula fail to
explore and fully exploit in new ways
the possibilities

that these tools offer. The strength of
Alice

and
BYOB,
and
Processing

is their ability to visually model problems
and clarify the algorithms used for their solution.

For example, using
Alice
, students can build a simplified replica of
the solar system
(and contemplate calculating the trajectory of a space mission
to Mars)
; they can use
Processing

to construct biologically important
molecules to elucidate disease or drug mechanisms.
That is, they
can use these IDEs to build on
ACADEMIC

knowledge they
already have
.

Curricula centered around tasks such as skaters performing
pirouettes around holes in the ice tend to
trivialize CS
in pursuit of a
perceived

trade
-
off for engagement at the
expense of real
-
world
connections and rigor

(though this instructor found students
quickly losing patience with make
-
believe scenarios).

PEDAGOGY

An alternative to a CS
-
concepts
-
first curriculum is one whose units
revolve around a
CENTRAL PROBLEM

which students solve over a
period of several weeks using whatever CS tools are needed.

In mathematics,
IMP
1

(Interactive Mathematics Program), created
with the support of NSF in the 1990s, is such a curriculum.
IMP

is
a 4
-
year program of problem
-
based mathematics that replaces the
traditional
Algebra I
-
Geometry
-
Algebra II/Trigonometry
-
Precalculus

sequence.

"
IMP

units are generally structured around a complex central
problem. Although each unit has a specific mathematical focus,
other topics are brought in as needed to solve the central problem,
rather than narrowly restricting the mathematical content. Ideas
that are developed in one unit are usually revisited and deepened in
one or more later units."

1

http://www.mathimp.org/general_info/intro.html


http://www.mathimp.org/curriculum/AppendixA.html

(Unit Summary)

For example, although the real
-
world application is a stretch, the
complex problem posited by
IMP
’s
High Dive

(Year
3
) unit has
students calculate at what point a circus performer on a turning Ferris
wheel should dive so as to land in a tub of water on a moving cart.

IMP: Interactive Mathematics Program

The
HIGH DIVE
problem. Students extend
right
-
triangle trigonometric
functions to the circular functions
, learn about the
graphs of the sine and
cosine functions
,
study

polar coordinates
,
inverse trigonometric
functions
, and the
Pythagorean identity
,
and study the
physics of falling
objects
.

1.
Software Engineering Approach.

Computer Science’s natural
relationship to other disciplines is
Software Engineering
,
a field which uses
programming and CS concepts, along with expert knowledge of
specific
target
topics
, to model and solve societal problems and needs. The vast
majority of
topic areas

lie outside the field of CS proper.

Guidelines for Interdisciplinary Problem
-
Based CS Units

2.
A Multi
-
Week Central Problem
. Each unit lasts several weeks and
revolves around
solving a central problem in the target
topic area
. A
software solution evolves in a
scaffolded

way, utilizing whatever CS
concepts and control structures may be required. Various strategies are
attempted at each step in a problem’s solution, and students examine the
advantages and disadvantages.

3.
Modeled After Real Applications.

One way instructors can foster
connections is by having students create
small scale versions of engaging
and complex real world applications
. With little imagination, students
should be able to envision logical extensions of their projects to the already
existing and more complex programs from which student exercises were
inspired.

5.
Social / Historical Context
. Units also place the central problem within a
SOCIAL or HISTORICAL CONTEXT.
This provides students an explanation
why
solving the central problem is important in the first place
. These so
-
called
back
-
stories

may utilize Literature, Theatre, History, Social Studies, Economics,
Film and Art in making those connections. This is
NOT

done in a tokenistic way.
This part of the unit may take up to several days and in some cases more than a
week of class time. Students are assessed on this material in a serious way, such
as writing an essay in response to a choice of several prompts.

4
.
Interdisciplinary Knowledge Provides Context
. To solve a unit’s central
problem, students will need to become familiar with relevant concepts in
geometry, trigonometry, biology, physics and so forth. This reflects typical
considerations that software engineers encounter in their day
-
to
-
day work, i.e.
programmers must not only be proficient in their own field, but
must have
knowledge of the specific non
-
CS systems they are modeling in order to write
accurate, robust and logically organized programs
. Pedagogically, this gives
students multiple
CONTEXTS

for recalling and integrating what they learn.

Guidelines for Interdisciplinary Problem
-
Based CS Curricula

6.
Connections to Other Academic Fields
. Units should
make CREDIBLE con
-
nections

to topics students have already studied
in other ACADEMIC courses
.

1.
Around the World in

24 Days
(
Geography
).


Relativity of Time Perception when Circumnavigating the Globe


Excerpts from Jules Verne's
Around the World in 80 Days
.

2.
Joshua at
Giv’on
, Commanding the Sun to Stand Still: Galileo's Revolution
(
Astronomy
).


Modeling the Copernican and
Ptolemeic

Planetary Systems to illustrate the phases

of Venus and retrograde planetary motion (using
Alice
)
. The Inquisition and

Galileo's Recanting of the Copernican Model.
Bertolt

Brecht's play
Life of Galileo
.

3.
The Right to Vote
(
History
).


Optical Scan Technology and Voting Machines.

Democracy in the context of both

the women's suffrage movement and the contested 2000 Florida Presidential

election (Bush
vs

Gore)
.


Films:
Recount

and
Iron
-
Jawed Angels
.

Units written (1
st

draft) and taught (2011)
1

4.
The Discovery of the DNA Double Helix
(
Biology / Biophysics / History of Science
)


Computer Graphics and Molecular Modeling Software as applied to the

Hydrogen Bonding

of bases between

the two anti
-
parallel strands of a DNA

molecule.


Using this structural model to

explain point mutations.


History of

the

complex interactions/clashes between the discoverers of the structure of

DNA: Rosalind Franklin, Maurice Wilkins, Frances Crick and

James Watson.


BBC Film:
Life Story

/ Double Helix
.

1

Moodle

Course
:
http://dmhsport.mdl.gnomio.com/course/view.php?id=
2


Click on the
Login as a guest button
.


Enrollment Key:
portnoffBYOB

5.
Computer Science Ethics: IBM's Strategic Contribution to the Efficiency of

Nazi

Germany's

Final Solution

(
History
)

Before the invention of computers,
PUNCH CARD TECHNOLOGY

was used to solve database
-
related problems.


The
sorting and tallying algorithms

used by Hollerith machines to process
these cards were precursors of methods used

for present
-
day databases.


IBM and its German
subsidiary were

active participants in the processing of

census data used to identify, transport
and exterminate the Disabled, Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals and Communists throughout
Europe from 1933 through 1945. E
xcerpts from the book:
IBM and the Holocaust
. Films:
Diary of Anne Frank
,
A Film Unfinished
.

Units in the planning stages

6.
Evolution and Social Reaction

(
Evolution, Genetics, Bioinformatics
).


Using Genomic Databases to Align DNA/Protein sequences from related species


and Build Phylogenetic (Evolutionary) Trees
. Play:
Inherit the Wind
.

7.
The pure and simple truth is rarely pure and never simple

(
Environmental Science
)


Predator
-
Prey Population Simulation Software, and the unintended

consequences of human activity, such as overfishing
.

8.
On the Road

(
Geometry / Math
)
GPS and Routing Programs


-

A GPS program based upon triangulation of satellite data, equations for

calculating longitude and latitude on a sphere, and a geographic database.


-

A routing program using
Dijkstra's

shortest path algorithm (like MapQuest).

9.
Music
(
Electronic Music
and

Music Visualization Software
)


Simulations of
Music Animation Machine
and/or
Synthesia
.


Case Study:
Wendy Carlos: Electronically Synthesized Music

IBM’s Role in the Holocaust

IBM and the Holocaust
http://www.ibmandtheholocaust.com/

Bioinformatics Resources

Teacher Seminar on Bioinformatics:



Computer Science in a Biological Context


Location: Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA (85 miles west of Philadelphia)


Dates: Last Week in June, 2½ Day Workshop, Application, Stipend


Contact: Prof. Ellie Rice (
erice@fandm.edu
)

http://www.fandm.edu/bioinformatics/high
-
school
-
teacher
-
opportunities

Databases, Online Resources

NCBI:
National Center for Biotechnology Information

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

ENSEMBL (west):
Joint project of
Welcome Trust Sanger Institute

&
EMBL
-
EBI

http://uswest.ensembl.org/index.html

PDB:
Protein Data Bank

http://www.pdb.org/pdb

The Clinic for Special Children
, Strasburg, PA

Studying and Treating Genetic Diseases of the Old Amish & Mennonite Communities

http://www.clinicforspecialchildren.org

Through My Window


Remarks at the 125
th

Year Celebration of Children’s Hospital of Boston:
http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/22042890/334253992/name/Holmes+Morton+Through+My+Wi
ndow.pdf

Bioinformatics Activity Bank

http://teachingbioinformatics.fandm.edu/

Books on Bioinformatics

Bioinformatics for Dummies

Authors:
Jean
-
Michel
Claverie

Ph.D.
,
Cedric
Notredame

Ph.D.


http://www.dummies.com/extras/bioinformatics_fd/

An Introduction to Bioinformatics Algorithms

Authors:
Neil C. Jones

&
Pavel

A.
Pevzner

http://bix.ucsd.edu/bioalgorithms/

Exploring Bioinformatics: A Project
-
Based Approach
Authors: Caroline St. Clair & Jonathan E.
Visick

http://biology.jbpub.com/bioinformatics/

Advertising

Augmented reality ads that virtually bring products to life.

A digital fashion show with customizable models that match the

consumer's clothing size and body type.

Video billboards that let advertisers change their messages daily.

Archaeology & Anthropology

Software that helps archaeologists determine the age of ancient

Mayan jewelry.

An online oral history project that collects songs and stories from

Native American cultures.

A 3
-
D virtual museum of religious objects from indigenous

communities around the world.

CS Careers
(
www.dotdiva.org
)

Art & Art History

A database to preserve images of fragile paintings and sculpture.

A virtual tour of an ancient Greek or Chinese temple.

A
3
-
D drawing and painting program that lets an artist simulate

mixed media.

Business

High
-
definition videoconferencing that makes it feel as if everyone is

in the same room.

A cloud computing platform that hosts a company's technology

infrastructure, saving huge amounts of time and money.

A data
visualizer

that transforms dull spreadsheets into interactive

graphics.

Astronomy & Space Exploration

Powerful telescopes that offer high resolution imaging of our earliest

galaxies.

Sophisticated explorer robots that collect samples on other planets.

A GPS
-
enabled sky chart app to easily locate stars, planets, and

constellations.

Communications

A communications device with voice synthesis and a touch screen

that enables speech
-
impaired stroke patients to carry on

conversations.

Software that allows military and government agencies to instantly

share classified data about potential terrorist attacks.

Computer Graphics & Media

A 3
-
D simulation of the rise in sea levels around the world from

global warming.

Crowd flow models to ensure the safety of cars and pedestrians

during parades, concerts, and sporting events.

Cooking

Internet
-
enabled refrigerators and cabinets that monitor your food

supplies and organize your shopping list based on the recipes

you select.

A digital cookbook that guides you from the beginning of a recipe to

the end, and includes a question
-
and
-
answer capability.

A sensor that lines the bottom of a cake pan and notifies you when

your cake is done to perfection.

Education

Interactive whiteboards that are even more interactive.

Software for medical schools that features 3
-
D virtual patients
.

Digital research labs that link international scientists virtually,

allowing them to collaborate on pressing global issues.

Engineering

Software that can predict the durability of bridges during earthquakes.

A "
smart
" wheelchair with a GPS navigator for severely handicapped

people.

Solar design software that analyzes the type of solar panels that

would work the best in a green building.

Disabilities

A program that helps people with physical disabilities create art,

even though they may no longer be able to hold a paintbrush.

A computer chip that enables people who are paralyzed to move their

limbs.

GPS systems for people who are blind.

Fashion & Design

A shopping app that helps you choose styles

and then recommends

matching accessories, and where to buy them.

A home design program that records a room's parameters and helps

the user redesign realistically and within budget.

Film, TV & Theatre

A digital set design program that lets you add virtual actors to the set

and visualize how all the elements interact.

Internet TV that lets you talk to your friends, browse web sites, and

update social media, all while watching the program of your

choice.

Environment

Software that can monitor the spread of pollution through the Great

Lakes.

Wireless sensors that can track endangered polar bears in the

Arctic.

Environmental forecasting that allows scientists to collect and analyze

climate change data from every corner of the world.

Forensics & Detective Work

A DNA scanner that can instantly sift through the files of crime

suspects.

A mobile forensics lab for on
-
the
-
spot analysis of evidence at crime

scenes.

Software that can create a 3
-
D visualization of blood spatter based on

the type of weapon used and the proposed orientation of the

murderer and victim.

Gaming

Video games that rely more on a teen's brainpower than finger

dexterity.

Games that speak to the interests and experiences of girls and

women.

Computer games designed to address the social and educational

needs of autistic children.

Health & Fitness

A wearable device that calculates how many calories a person burns

each day.

Interactive simulations that demonstrate yoga sequences

and

modify

the poses according to one's level of experience.

A pharmaceutical app that helps you identify thousands of

drug interactions and potential side effects.


Human Rights

A secure database to record human rights abuses that shields the

identity of victims or witnesses.

Online petition software that can instantly collect signatures about

urgent causes.

A mobile toolkit that allows human rights workers to discreetly video

and document abuses in remote or dangerous areas.

Internet Technology

A single interface that gathers and streams together all the social

media we use.

A personalized search engine so accurate it seems to be reading our

minds.

Humanitarian & Disaster Relief

Proximity
-
location devices to keep relief workers and

separated families connected during disasters.

A camera phone microscope that can diagnose diseases in remote

areas without access to hospitals.

Journalism

A mobile device that lets reporters research and fact
-
check stories as

they write them, without having to open a separate search

engine.

A real
-
time news feed that provides updates in five, ten, or twenty
-

minute intervals for news
-
hungry readers.

A recording device that picks up an interviewee's voice even when

there's lots of ambient noise

and provides a highly accurate

transcription.

Law

A web portal with a database of pro bono lawyers and other legal

services for low
-
income people.

A mobile app that puts all state and federal laws at a lawyer's

fingertips.

An online small claims court site that helps people prepare, file, and

serve a claim quickly and cheaply.

Languages

Audio language translators that sound like a native speaker instead of

a robot.

A smart recorder that translates your question into another language,

and then translates the response of a native speaker into

English.

A wearable computer for people who are deaf that translates

American Sign Language.

Literature

E
-
readers that hold an entire library of books.

Children's e
-
books with animated illustrations.

A cyber bookstore that's "device neutral," and lets users download

content to any smart phone.

Medicine

Video
-
conferencing allowing for a real
-
time consultation among

doctors in different parts of the world.

A
smartphone
-
based fetal monitor for rural areas.

Music

A cloud computing storage platform for your entire music collection,

so you can play anything anytime from any device.

On
-
line guitar instructor that lets you know when you’re out of tune

or if your rhythm is off.

Math

Software that analyzes DNA sequencing in plant and animal

genomes.

Global climate models to predict how Earth's climate is

changing.

A data mining tool that measures poverty and income inequality

around the world.

Politics

A news app that collects and organizes articles and videos about the

political issues you care about.

A mobile tool allowing urban dwellers to report potholes, trash, and

other local annoyances directly to city hall.

Virtual political communities that mobilize people to meet and organize

in real life.

Poverty & Social Justice

A program that identifies available shelter space for the homeless

within a city.

A web
-
based tool to monitor the safety of blood supplies in

developing countries.

Public Safety

An airline accident simulator that can pinpoint a plane crash and help

rescue people faster.

An early emergency warning system in your car that can anticipate a

collision.

Psychology

A phone app that helps people deal with stress and reinforces basic

cognitive therapy techniques.

Brain imaging software that helps analyze schizophrenia.

An interactive program that teaches psychologists how to have effective

conversations with their patients for short
-
term therapy.

Science

Software that evaluates the genetic make
-
up of individuals with

predispositions to disease.

Simulations that can predict the strength, velocity, & path of a

tornado.

Undersea vehicles that are capable of exploring the depths of the

ocean floor.

Social

Networking

Group texting that's easy and fast, so you can form new groups

instantly.

A charity network that lets you team up with others to support a cause.

Sports

An app that offers real
-
time updating on scoring, stats, and other

info for baseball.

A wearable monitor that provides verbal feedback on your skiing

technique.

A marathon app that provides you with a customizable training

program, records your progress, and gives you a daily pep talk.

Robotics & Artificial Intelligence

Security systems with face, speech, and handwriting recognition
.

A robot than can perform brain surgery while a patient is in an

MRI machine, making impossible operations possible.