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4 Νοε 2013 (πριν από 4 χρόνια και 3 μέρες)

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CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY



This chapter provided

the methodology used in this r
esearch. The first part
included

the method of research done by the researchers followed by the
research design, description of respondents, sampling techniques and data
gathering pr
o
cedures. The statistical analysis used in this research
was

included
in the latter part.


Research Method


This research entitled
sPark: Parking Inquiry Module using Short
Messaging Service and Smart Card for Real
-
time Data Collection

use
d

a

developmental research approac
h
. According to Richey, Klein and Nelson
(2003),
developmental resear
ch could be either
of the three:

an instructional
design and development effort studied in terms of its process and impact;

a
procedure is studied simultaneously with the performance of instructional design
and development; a consentient study of the instructional design, de
velopment
and evaluation process.


Three types of developmental research are known. First is the most
common type wherein the product development process is studied and the end
-
product is evaluated. The next type of developmental research involves in
-
depth

27



research on the impact made by the product on its target users. Last type of
developmental research focuses on the general analysis

of the processes
involved in the development whether as a component or as a whole.


In this study, the researchers use
d

the

most common type of
developmental research. The focus of inquiry of the researchers
was

be on the
c
reation of the application that
enable
d

customers, better service through
adequate information and decrease transaction queues. After development, the
produ
ct
was

analyzed and discussed then eventually evaluated by the chosen
respondents.


Research Design



This part of the research methodology exhibits the design in which this
research
was

structured.
Major parts of this study were

attached by this
arrangement in order to address the central research questions. In this research,
a graphical representation
was

used to deliver a mental image of
the
data
processing. Thus, Unified Modeling Language (UML) will be most appropriate.

Unifie
d Modeling Language or UML include behavior and structure
diagrams that include graphical notations for specific purposes. In this res
earch,
two kinds of behavior diagram
was

used namely Activity and Use Case
Diagrams. Activity Diagrams

show the
business p
rocesses of organizations using
a collection of shapes and arrows. The most common are rounded rectangles,
diamonds, bars, a black circle and an encircled black circle

(Ambler, n. d.)
.
28



Activities are represented by rounded rectangles while diamond stand fo
r
decisions. Bars on the other hand, may start or end simultaneous activities.
Lastly, the initial state of the workflow is represented by black circles whereas
encircled black circles

are substitutes for the end of the process.
Figure 2 shows
how these sy
mbols are used in an Activity Diagram
.







Figure 2

Unified Modeling Language: Activity Diagram


Use Case Diagram alternatively, is a representation of
functionalities that
a system has. It uses actors to depict the user and also included are the actor’s
goals and dependencies

(Ambler, n. d.)
.

An example of a Use Case Diagram is
provided in Figure 3.

Essential as it is, the research design of this study
was

established by an
effective method suchlike Activity and Use Case Diagrams. The researchers
Activity 1

Activity
2

Activity
3

Start

End

Decision

Yes?

No?

29



were

able to stage the structure of this research by taking on a clear pace with
these two diagrams.






Figure
3

Unified Modeling Language: Use Case Diagram


Sampling Technique


The research

select
ed

respondents from one group of individuals

from the
regular customers and staff of the parking facility

using simple random sampling.
Simple random sampling wa
s applied

on the selection of the respondents. This
sampling method renders an unbiased outcome because members of the
population are given an equal opportunity of being selected (Fink, 2003). Such
event offer
ed

a credibl
e offset for the researchers on basing

their

conclusion and
recommendation on this research.


The selection processes began

by incurring a list of staff of the car park
and randomly select a representative of that population. In the case of the
Actor

System Boundary

Process

30



customers, the representative
s

from this population
we
re also

selected at
random. Once selected, these representatives
were

assigned to random
numbers that
were

processed by a computer to generate a list of prospective
participants.


Description of Respondents


This research
was

done accordingly
with

the goal of establishing a
relationship between the customers and the management (staff). In line with this,
the primary respondents who evaluate
d

this study
came

from

the people
prevalent
and regular
at the parking facility
. The staff of the University o
f Santo
Tomas


Multi
-
Deck Parking (UST
-
MDP)
was

represented by 3 respondents. In
contrast, 27 customers of the UST
-
MDP
beca
me respondents to this research.
All in all, 30 respondents

were

involved in evaluating the study proposed by the
researchers

as sho
wn in Table 1
.



Respondents


Individual



Percentage


Management (Staff)


3



10%


Customers



27



90%


TOTAL



30


100%


Table 1

Respondents’ Table

31



Research Instruments


The researchers use
d

the
Visual Basic

and PHP Server
-
side Scripting
Language

in developing this study. A GSM modem
was

connected to a personal
computer (PC) then programmed to send and receive data similar to mobile
phone communication. The database
was

built on mySQL as it is widely
supported and free. The hardware components at
the entry points include
d a

smart card and a smart card reader that
were

connected

to the database through
a network. A local area network (LAN) setup
was

required to connect the
terminals at the entry points of the parking lot to the data repository where

the
information about parking spaces and fees
were

retrieved.


Data Gathering

Technique


In the development of this

study, the researchers gathered information
from a number of sources. The processes involved in traditional ticket
-
based
parking lots were identified by means of personal communication by the
researchers
with the
operations personnel at the University of
Santo Tomas

Multi
-
Deck P
arking
. S
tudies and literatures cited by the researchers were
collected from books, journals, newspaper articles and the World Wide Web.

The
Information Systems Curriculum of the University of Santo Tomas contributed to
the research
ers’ knowledge of the subject matter.


The research evaluation
was

done using questionnaire
s

that
was

distributed
to the staff and customers of the parking lot. These questionnaires
32



were
then be answered by the staff and customers to determine the
effectiv
eness of the proposed research.


The questionnaires in this research utilize the Likert scale which is the
most extensively used psychometric scale in survey research. Respondents
specified

their level of
correspondence

to the statements
pos
ed on the
questionnaires

with
possible
answers shown in Table 2
.



Scale




Rating


Verbal Interpretation

Customer / Management



5


4.01


5.0


Strongly Agree

/

Very Effective



4



3.01


4.0


Agree

/ More Effective


3



2.01


3.0


Fair


2



1.01


2.0


Disagree

/

Less Effective


1



0.01


1.0



Strongly Disagree

/

Least Effective



Table 2

Likert Scale


Statistical Analysis


In describing the study, the researchers made use of the mean. The mean
is the average of the
value

of

the

samples. The average is computed by
33



summation of the values of the samples divided by the number of samples. The
me
an has

well corresponded
to

this research in relating the data that
was

collected because of its relatively simple approach in determining
t
he central
tendency. With this, the researchers casually
placed

forward their interpretation
of the gathered data.

Formula for mean:


̅





Where:

x

= mean

x

= value of samples

n

= number of samples

∑x

= sum of values