e-Commerce I Vocabulary Review Key

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e
-
Commerce

I

Vocabulary

Review
Key

1.

Storyboard
--

the process of developing and diagramming a site's structure that best matches your users' needs.

2.

Balanced Hierarchy
--

a hierarchical tree that facilitates quick access to information and helps users
understand how you
have organized content.

3.

Chunk
/chunking

--

short, uniformly
-
organized pieces of information that particularly lend themselves to web presentations.

Text and graphics divided into manageable sections within a website.

4.

Deep Hierarchy
--

a
hierarchy with too many menu sections; becomes a navigational nightmare for the user.


5.

Hierarchy
--

a graphical structure that flows from the most important or most general concepts down to the most specific or
optional topics.

6.

Linear Hierarchy
--

a hierar
chy that is viewed sequentially
--
in a line; one right after the other.

7.

Placeholder
--

a box that is sketched or drawn on your storyboard (page layout) to represent where a graphic, text or object
will be inserted.

8.

S
hallow Hierarchy
--

a hierarchy with too
few sections; becomes a massive menu on the home page.

9.

Site Assessment
--

evaluating the form and function of your website design.

10.

Webbed Hierarchy

--

a web like hierarchial structure with non
-
traditional linking pages.

11.

Site Map
--

a detailed structural
outline of a website.

12.

Flow chart
--

a quick sketch of the site's navigational structure.

13.

Page layout
--

a detailed sketch of each page.

14.

e
-
Commerce

--

In its broadest sense is the conduct of selling, buying, logistics, or other organization
-
management activ
ities
via the Web.

15.

Culture
--

The combination of language and customs.

T
he customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits of a racial,
religious, or social group.

16.

Globalization

--
To go worldwide in scope and application; a consumer can access the In
t
ernet from anywhere at anytime.

17.

Commerce

--

(Doing business), A negotiated exchange of valuable objects or services between two or more parties (a
buyer and a seller); includes all activities that each of the parties undertakes to complete the transaction
.

18.

Profit

--

Revenue minus all expenses.


The money a business has actually made from its operations.

19.

Socio
-
Economic

--

Group status based on social groupings and economic status; in terms of e
-
Commerce, these groups
may or may not be limited by financial s
ecurity, credit status/credit card ownership, and cost of online access.

20.

EDI
--
Electronic Data Interchange
--

A transaction that occurs when one business transmits computer
-
readable data in an
agreed
-
upon format to another business.

21.

VAN
-

Value Added Network

--

An independent firm that offers connections and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
transaction forwarding services to buyers and sellers; usually charges a fee for each transaction plus a monthly fee.

This
service provides connections, ensures security
for data, and charges a monthly fee plus a fee for each transaction. (The
services provided by a VAN are very similar to those provided by a fulfillment company.)

22.

EFT

--

Electronic Funds Transfer
--

the process of exchanging account information electronica
lly over private
communications networks; also known as wire transfers.

23.

FTP
--

File Transfer Protocol
--

transferring a file from one computer to another; played a significant role in the early
development of the Internet.

24.

HTTP
--

Hypertext Transfer Protocol
--

the language of the World Wide Web, it manages the hypertext links that are used to
navigate the Web.

25.

TCP/IP

--

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
--

establishes how data travels across networks; handles all
addr
essing of the data as it moves across the networks

26.

Transaction processing
--
Completing a transaction online
--
such as when a consumer uses a shopping cart to make online
purchases.

27.

e
-
Procurement
--
All purchasing activities plus all of the monitoring of all el
ements of purchase transactions

28.

Procurement
--
The purchase of goods for resale

29.

Snail mail
--
mail sent and received via the US Postal Service

30.

B2B

(
B
usiness
to

B
usiness)
--
the activities conducted online between two businesses. Example:
www.wholesalecentral.co

31.

B2C

(
B
usiness to
C
onsumer)?the exchange of products, services, or information over the Internet by businesses to
consumers. Example:
www.Gap.co
m

32.

B2G

(
B
usiness to
G
overnment)?involves the concept that businesses and government agen
cies can use central web sites
to exchange information and do business with each other. Example: eProcurement

33.

C2C

(
C
onsumer to
C
onsumer)?is the exchange of products, services, or information over the Internet between consumers.
Example:
www.eBay.com

34.

C2B

(
C
onsumer to
B
usiness)?is the exchange of products, services, or information over the Internet between consumers
and businesses. Example: www.priceline.com


35.

Shopping cart
--
an electronic tool used by online consumers t
o purchase goods and services
;
A common feature of an
electronic commerce site that keeps track of the items a customer has selected to purchase and that lets the customer view
and update the contents of the cart, add new items to it, or remove items from
it.

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36.

Fulfillment company
--
offers services to other companies such as transaction processing, providing security, etc.

37.

HR

(
H
uman
R
esources)
---

the division of a company which hires employees and takes care of all employee
-
related matters.

38.

ISP (Internet Ser
vice Provider)
--
a business that provides access to the Internet via modem, DSL, or TI. They also provide
other services such as e
-
mail, web hosting, and web design.

39.

Logistics


Consumer
--
Browsing for information from multiple sites for comparison shopping
purposes


Business
--
Delivery and warehousing activities that will provide the right goods in the right quantities in the right place at
the right time.

40.

GPS
--
Global Positioning System
--
an access mechanism which allows the tracking of vehicle location throu
gh satellite

41.

Web auction
--
a site which provides a forum for buyers and sellers to trade items. An auction site normally charges both
buyers and sellers; many web auctions sell advertising on its pages

42.

Intranet
--
a web
-
based private network that hosts Intern
et applications on a local area network; used for security purposes

43.

Combination Men
u
--
Using both graphics/images and text for website navigation link
s

44.

Ethernet Speed
--
10 Mbytes per second; the speed at which data is


transported across information lines
(cable,
telephone, etc.)

45.

Form

of website
--
The actual layout of the website
--
what it looks like

46.

Frames
--
Displaying two or more web pages at the same time in the same browser window (Example: text or graphic
menus in one frame and the main page in the larger

frame on one web page)

47.

Function
--
The navigation features of the website (Is it easy to navigate?)

48.

Graphics Menu
--
Using images as links from a home page or other website pages

49.

Home Page
--
A point of entry into a website; the beginning page

50.

Portal
--
The entry

into a website; a home page is considered the portal into a website

51.

Structured Menus
--
Links are easy to follow and in logical order

52.

Target Audience
--
The group of people a website is designed to attract

53.

Text

Menu
--
Using only keyed text for links from a
home page or other website pages

54.

Unstructured Menus
--
Words are hot
-
linked in a paragraph with no
organization

55.

URL
--
Uniform Resource Locator; the website's web address (Example:


http://www.henderson.k12.nc.us

56.

Animated GIF
--
A GIF based graphic file that moves. An animated gif is

created by displaying a sequence of still frame GIFs
over a timed interval.

57.

Anti
-
aliasing
--
A technique for diminishing/smoothing edges of a pixilated graphic
--
removing the jaggies or st
airstep
-
likeliness.

58.

Applets
--
Programs written in JavaScript to add action and glitz to a website.

59.

Background
--
The basic overall color or design of your web page. You may use a color or an image as the background.

60.

Demographics
--
Characteristics such as age,
sex, income, location, education, and religion. Has an effect on how a
customer/user purchases.

61.

Foreground
--
Text color

62.

Forms
--
Used to collect information with a variety of input fields.

63.

Form Handler

(Form Handling Software

)
--
A software program running on
a web server that interprets the data sent by a
web page and performs action with that data.

Specialized software that allows users to provide responses and submit the
data to a server
.

64.

GIF (Graphical Interchange Format)
--
One of several formats used to pre
sent images over the Internet. It is limited to
256

colors and was developed by CompuServe.

65.

Inline Graphic
--
A graphic that appears within a line of text.

66.

Input Controls
--
Form fields that are used to collect data entered by the user; can be radio buttons, c
heckboxes, textareas,
etc.

67.

JPG, JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)
--
Pronounced JAY PEG. A file format used for images. It is best used for
photographs and pictures with lots of different colors. JPEGs can display 16 million colors.

68.

PNG (Portable Netwo
rk Graphics)
--
Pronounced PING. Another file format for pictures. Unfortunately it is not supported


by
all browsers

yet.

69.

Tables
--
Used to hold text and/or graphics so that they do not shift on pages when viewed by different browsers.

70.

Thumbnails
--
Small graph
ics used to keep loading time to 5
-
7 seconds.

71.

Resolution
--
Describes how many pixels are displayed on your screen. The most popular resolution currently is 800x600.
The higher the resolution the smaller text and images will appear on your screen.

72.

Wallpaper
-
-
The background of the web page, containing a design and/or color.

73.

Anchor
--
Anchor tags are used to link the text or a graphic in one web page to another web page or image.

74.

Flash
--
A vector
-
based animation application that created animations that download
quickly and run smoothly.

75.

Monospaced Font
--
A font in which each letter is exactly the same size regardless of width.

76.

Plug
-
in
--
A small program that can be downloaded which allows users to enhance their browser; this allows extra activities o
the web For
example, the Quicktime plug
-
in allows visitors to watch movies and Shockwave plug
-
in allows users to play
games.

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77.

Printer Fonts
--
Fonts that are built into the printer; they are totally dependent on the make and model of the printer.

78.

Proportional Font
--
A fon
t which bases the size of the letter on its proportional width; for example, the letter would take up
must less space than the letter M.

79.

San Serif Font
--
Fonts that have straight edges without extensions. (Example: Arial) This font is easier to read on a
website

80.

Serif Font
--
Font that have small extensions at the end of the letters. (Example: Times New Roman)

81.

True
-
type Fonts
--
Fonts that are downloadable to the printer==they are usually generic and universal for viewing on most
computer screens and printed

correctly on printers.

82.

GIMP
--
Free downloadable graphics software program to design new graphics, retouch graphics, or create animation.

83.

Accessibility
--
Ability for all persons even with disabilities to use the Web.

84.

Accessibility Wizards
--
Option on m
ost com
puters that allow a user’
s computer to be configured for visual, hearing, and
physical needs.

85.

Alternate Browsers
--
Browsers that validate websites for use by individuals with disabilities.

86.

Dragon Naturally Speaking
--
Voice activated software.

87.

JAWS
--
A Windows

software program with powerful accessibility solution that reads information on your screen using
synthesized speech.


JAWS also has braille output

88.

Read Aloud Software
--
Reads computer text for people with visual disabilities.

89.

ViaVoice
--
Voice activated sof
tware.

90.

Validation Methods
--
Steps and procedures to test website for accuracy And accessibility.

91.

Voice Activated Software
--
Software that allows use of the computer by voice commands.

92.

WAI (Web Accessibility Initiative)
--
Guidelines developed and continually r
evised since 1999 to ensure that persons with
disabilities have access to the Web.

93.

W3C (WWW Consortium)
--
Non
-
profit organization that oversees and assist in governing and monitoring the Web. W3C is
responsible for the WAI.

94.

Certification mark
--
Any word, na
me, symbol, device, or any combination, used, or intended to be used,
in commerce with
the owner’
s permission by someone other than its owner, to certify regional or other geographic origin, material, mode of
manufacture, quality, accuracy, or other charac
teristics of someone's goods or services, or that the work or labor on the
goods or services was performed by members of a union or other organization

95.

Collective mark
--
A trademark or service mark used, or intended to be used, in commerce, by the members of

a
cooperative, an association, or other collective group or organization, including a mark which indicates membership in a
union, an association, or other organization

96.

Copyright
--
Legal protection that gives the author of a work control over how that work
is used

97.

Cyber squatting
--
The act of registering, selling, or using an Internet domain name with bad
-
faith intent to profit from the
goodwill of a trademark of someone else

98.

Drawing Page
--
Part of the trademark application process where a black and white draw
ing of the mark is included.

99.

Fair Use Rule
--
Describes when and how much of a copyrighted work may be copied or used in another work. Copyrighted
works may be used for: criticism and comment, reporting, research and non
-
profit reporting, parody, small exc
erpts.

100.

Hacking
--
Gaining unauthorized access to computer systems for the purpose of stealing and corrupting data.

To write
program source code. Often refers to writing a small program or adding code to an existing program to solve a problem in a
hurry. A
hack also implies writing in a programming language rather than a macro language or other high
-
level language
oriented to the user.

101.

Intellectual property
--
The right an individual or group of individuals has in an idea

102.

Registered copyright
--
The author has r
egistered the piece with the U. S. Copyright Office. Doing this though makes it
easier to prove copyright infringement

103.

Registered trademark
--
A company can register a trademark with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Only registered
trademarks can use th
e ® symbol

104.

Service mark
--
Any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination, used, or intended be used, in commerce, to identify
and distinguish the services of one provider from services provided by others, and to indicate the source of the services

105.

Speci
men Page
--
Part of the trademark application process where a real example of how the mark is used in commerce is
included.

106.

Trademark
--
A distinctive word, phrase, logo, graphic symbol, slogan or anything used to identify goods or services and
distinguishes t
hem in the marketplace

107.

Unregistered copyright
--
An author does not have to do anything to copyright a work. Pieces written after 1989 do not
have to contain the © symbol to be protected

108.

Unregistered trademark
--
A company does not have to do anything to have
trademark protection. To designate an
unregistered trademark a company would use "tm".

109.

Accounting/Finance

--

This function plans and manages financial resources and maintains the records and information
related to the business

110.

Distribution
--

The process of

moving products from the merchant to the customer

111.

Management/Administration
--

This function is responsible for developing, implementing, and

evaluating the plans and activities of a business

112.

Marketing
--
This function is responsible for the process of planning and executing

the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of goods and

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services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational

objectives

113.

Production
--

This function crea
tes or obtains products or services for sale

114.

Cookies
--

A small piece of information sent from a web server to an individual's web browser so it can later be read back
from that browser

115.

Psychographics
--

Lifestyle characteristics which include activities, at
titudes, customs, and traditions

116.

Referring page
--

The last page visited before the current web page

117.

Segment
--

Components of a market in which people have one or more similar characteristics

118.

Site Personalization
--

Allows users to determine what features of
a site they want to appear when they come to the site.

119.

Target market
--

A clearly identified segment of the market to which the company wants to appeal

120.

Traffic Logs
--

Reports produced from software on your web server or provided by the company hosting your
web site that
tell you the domain of your visitors and their referring pages

121.

Affiliate Programs
--

A site (affiliate) agrees to place a merchant's ad without charge. The affiliate only gets paid when a
visitor clicks on the link, goes to the merchant site,
and buys something.

122.

Auto
-
responders
--

Programs that analyze incoming email and replies with a canned response.

123.

Channel Rotation
--

A banner advertisement is placed within a particular category of a web site. This is more focused on
the company's target mark
et.

124.

Classified Ad
--

Text ad just like a classified ad in print except it is listed on a web site.

125.

CPM
--

Cost per 1000 impressions.

126.

Ezine
--

Online magazines or email newsletters.

127.

Fulfillment company
--

It warehouses a merchant's goods and processes orders for the merchant.

128.

General Rotation
--

A banner advertisement is randomly displayed on a web site.

129.

Goods
--

Tangible products, they have a touch and feel.

130.

Listserv
--

An emailing list that receives newslet
ters and updates.

131.

Newsgroup
--

Electronic billboards where people post questions and comments. They are broken into interest groups.

132.

Number of click throughs
--

The number of times viewers click on the banner.

133.

Number of impressions
--

The number of times a ba
nner is displayed to individual viewers.

134.

Opt
-
in
--

Mailing list that people have voluntarily given their email address in order to receive the email from that company.

135.

Press release
--

A short news article sent to various media channels.

136.

Return Policy
--

How
the company deals with a customer who wants to return a purchase.

137.

Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
--

Needed to provide credit card security for your browser.

138.

Services
--

Intangible products, they give a benefit or satisfaction.

139.

Automatic Deposits
--

The "paperless"

transfer of funds from an employer or other agency to the account of an employee
or beneficiary. Instead of receiving a check on payday, the employee will receive a check stub only.


This saves the
employee the inconvenience of a trip to the bank to make
the deposit F2F.

140.

Continuous Inventory Control
--

The process of managing product inventory where the information is updated
instantaneously each time there is an increase or decrease to the stock
-
in
-
hand. This is the type of inventory management
that is nec
essary to


e
-
Commerce businesses as it enables the seller to


provide customers with product availability
information that is current.

141.

Cyber
-
Intermediaries
--

Individuals who develop Internet
-
based Intermediary solutions.

142.

Direct Distribution Channels
--

A co
mpany produces goods or services and then delivers those goods and services to the
consumer without using an intermediary. This is a primary benefit to online shopping as consumers prefer immediate
delivery.

143.

Distribution Channels
--

This refers to the movem
ent of products or services from the producer to the consumer.

144.

Disintermediation
--

The process of losing distribution channels when they are no longer needed. The growth of e
-
commerce has effected the need for retail intermediaries or "middlemen" that exis
t between the producer and the
consumer.


One example would be the effect that Online Ticket Purchases has had on Travel Agencies. Consumers are
learning that the ability to buy directly from the producer saves money as the cost markup that occurs with the

"middleman"
has been eliminated.

145.

Distance Learning
--

A new trend in education and training whereby courses are offered via the internet from a remote site.
This allows for prospective students to access and receive credit for courses without geographical
limitations and schedule
constraints.

Both secondary and post
-
secondary


institutions have been able to increase their profitability through additional
programs and enrollment with minimal overhead costs.


146.

E
-
Checks
--

An encrypted representation of a paper

check. Checks


are written and sent electronically.

147.

E
-
Cash
--

Digital cash that is drawn directly from the consumer's bank account and stored in a digital wallet on a hard drive;
e
-
cash is also known as Scrip, digital cash, or digital coins.

148.

Electronic Pay
ments
--

A payment that is transmitted electronically either over the telephone line, or between Web sites on
the Internet.


Four types of electronic payments are:

credit or debit cards payments made at time of purchase.

payment for goods or services thr
ough an electronic draft of their checking accounts.

e
-
cash:


"virtual cash" account that is used to make online purchases.

e
-
checks:


checks that are written and sent electronically

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All of these types of payments are immediately reflected in bank and/or

credit card account balances.

149.

E
-
Service
s
--

The methods that a company uses to provide customer service directly from its web site.

150.

Electronic Wallets
--

A file on a seller's web site that contains buyer information such as buyer name, credit card
information, and shipping requirements/preferences.

151.

Encryption

and Encryption Software
--

An encrypted number is a number coded in a way that cannot be understood

by
anyone who is not supposed to use it. In electronic payments, the online seller does not actually receive your credit card
information.


Instead your encrypted number is sent to the payment gateway.


There the number is decoded and sent to
your credit
card financial institution for approval of your purchase
;
Software that scrambles data into a secret code that can
only be broken by complicated mathematical algorithms.

152.

The Float
--

The amount of time it takes for electronic transfer of funds; the time spa
nned from the draft of the payments
from the buyers account until it is deposited in the seller's account.


"The Float" benefits e
-
check services during this time
as the money earns interest for them.

153.

Indirect Distribution Channels
--

Channels of
distribution that require an intermediary such as a retail distributor to add
value between the manufacturer and the consumer. The ability to buy online directly from the manufacturer has eliminated
the need for Indirect Distribution Channels.

154.

Intermediari
es

Companies that assist consumers by giving them additional cost or product information, understanding
local markets, carrying a broader product line, or carrying multiple product categories. Similar to the "middleman," they are

a
business person such as
an agent, broker, or sales representative, who negotiates transactions between a business and a
consumer.

155.

Instantaneous Response
--

Right this instant;"


the immediate response to buyer inquiry made possible through the
interactive nature of the internet.

156.

J
ust
-
in
-
Time Inventory

JIT
--

Products are ordered and then manufactured on an as
-
needed basis to reduce
warehousing costs.

157.

Manual Inventory Controls
--

The process of counting and collecting information on current inventory manually.


This is
done on a perio
dic basis, unlike Continuous Inventory Control.


Therefore, it is not well
-
suited to online selling as the current
inventory status is not regularly updated.

158.

Merchant Account Provider (MAP)
--

The financial institution that sets up a merchant account for a
company.


This
account enables the company to accept credit card payments from customers.

159.

Order Fulfillment
--

Activities including selecting the merchandise, checking to make sure the order has been filled
correctly, packing, shipping, and billing for the
merchandise. This is one of the strengths of e
-
Commerce as it has
significantly decreased the amount of time in which this process occurs.

160.

Payment Gateways
--

A company that serves as an intermediary for businesses to provide online payment options to
custo
mers. Payment gateways handle the technical steps involved in allowing customers to pay for purchases online.


Cybercash and ExciteStores are examples.

161.

Profitability
--

The conditions which determine a company's ability to make


a profit after their expens
es are deducted from
their income from sales.


Variables include overhead


such expenses as


facility, equipment, inventory, distribution


and
wages. E
-
Commerce businesses have improved their overall profitability through the increased productivity achieve
d
through the speed of the internet and the ability to eliminate intermediary costs.

162.

Productivity
--

The amount of output for each hour of work.


Productivity has a direct effect on the profitability of a
business.


Increased productivity results in a stro
nger economy because it deters inflation of prices and wages.


Economists attribute the strong growth of productivity


in the US to the speed of technological advances such as the
Internet.


(Oelkers, E
-
Commerce, p. 13.)

163.

Real
-
Time Marketing
--

A term that r
efers to immediate processing of an online purchase.

164.

Re
-
intermediation
--

The process of adding of a level of the distribution system.


In e
-
Commerce this refers to the new type
of intermediation being pursued by Web entrepreneurs who are exploiting markets

that could not have existed before the
Internet. Web sites that assist people in comparison shopping are an example of


re
-
intermediation in e
-
Commerce.


E
-
Check service providers are another example as they facilitate the online payment for goods and ser
vices.

165.

Response Time
--

The amount of time it takes a seller to respond to a customer's inquiry for purchase or service.

166.

Security Protocols
--

Sets of rules and standards that allow computers to exchange information such that the information is
not visible t
o those who are not allowed to view it.

167.

Teleconferencing
--

The use of sophisticated phone systems to conduct meetings with multiple persons at remote
locations
.

168.

Video
-
conferencing
--

The ability to have face
-
to
-
face interaction with business counterparts,
clients, customers, etc, at
remote locations via the internet and computer video capture devices.

As


the speed of internet connections become faster,
the use of video
-
conferencing is expected to have a major influence on the way we do business.


It allow
s for international
"virtual meetings"


to occur without the inconvenience of time and travel.

169.

Internet Infrastructure
--

the computers and software connected to the Internet and the communications networks over
which the message packets travel.

170.

Jurisdictio
n
--

the ability of a government to exert control over a person or corporation

171.

P
ermanent
E
stablishment (
PE
)
--

physical location of an organization or business for taxation purposes.

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172.

International business
--

an organization or business which conducts electro
nic commerce with nations around the globe;
any business that has a storefront on the Web and has the mechanisms in place to sell and ship to countries other than its
own.

173.

Income Taxes
--

taxes that are levied by national, state, and local governments on th
e net income generated by business
activities; one of the greatest taxation concerns faced by international e
-
businesses.

174.

Transaction taxes
--

include sales taxes, use taxes, and excise taxes, are levied on the products or services that the
business sells; the
sales tax

issue is probably one of the most immediate concerns of e
-
businesses today.

175.

Tariffs
--

a schedule of
duties (taxes)
imposed by a government on
imported
goods or in some countries
exported

goods

176.

Exchange rate
--

the ratio at which the principal unit of two currencies may be traded; international businesses offer this
information as a customer service.

177.

Currency Conversion
-
-

The process of using a financial formula (incorporating current exchange rates) to convert a given
amount of one currency to its equivalent value in another currency.

178.

Asynchronous
--

digital communication (as between users) in which there is no timing req
uirement for transmission of
messages; time is not a constraint for the person sending or the person receiving the message.

179.

Domain Name
--

a web address; locates an organization or other entity on the Internet. Domain names are used in URLs to
identify part
icular Web pages. For example, in the URL
--

http://www.stewsnews.com/actors/bradpitt.html,

the domain name
is
stewsnews.com
.

180.

Domain extensions (
T
op
L
evel
D
omain)
--

Every domain name has a suffix that indicates which top level domain (TLD) it
belongs to. These are often indicative of the origin or type o
f site to which the domain name
*points.* Example: in the URL
--

http://www.ncsu
.edu

the
edu
extension signifies that this is a university.

181.

Outsourcing
--
When a company hires another company to handle some of the tasks related to the creation and
maintenance of a web site. The growing number of market ?specialists? enables outsourcing.

ASPs, CSPs, and ISPs are
examples

182.

Job Displacement
--

Due to changes in the market place, the demand for certain job types is decreased and in some
instances become "obsolete" or unnecessary. For employees this means retraining and/or the learning of new w
orkplace
skills.

183.

Database Software
--

A collection of data records with fields such as names, addresses, etc. that is organized so that a
computer can quickly retrieve and update specific information.

184.

SQL (see
-
quel)
--

Structured Query Language is the standa
rdized language used to request information from a database.
SQL enables many users to access the same databases at the same time.

185.

Dynamic online catalog
--

Employs a sophisticated database software that quickly retrieves and updates data such as
inventory
availability. In a "database driven" catalogue, the information that is changed on one page is updated on all pages
simultaneously.

186.

Storefront Software Packages
--

Fully integrated software packages that provide users with all of the tools necessary to
crea
te an e
-
commerce site...one that can handle sales transactions and manage inventory.

187.

Security Software
--

Software that provides protection for both merchant and customer data. There are many types of
security issues related to online sales...most notably,
customer anxiety.

188.

Firewall and
Firewall software
--

Computer system or software that prevents unauthorized access to private data to
outside users
;

Software that surrounds an Intranet to prevent unauthorized access by examining each message or request
that

enters and exits the Intranet, then blocks messages or requests that do not conform to specific criteria. Firewalls are
usually your first protection against "intruders."

189.

Digital certificates
--

Certificates that verify that the sender of a message is who
he or she claims to be, and provides the
person who receives the message with the public key required to encrypt a reply.

190.

SAN
--
(Storage Area Network)
--
A network that exists exclusively to provide storage for the massive amount of data entailed
in an e
-
Comm
erce business.

191.

ASP
--

Application Service Provider
--
this is a company that offers individuals or enterprises access over the Internet to
application programs and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise
computers.

192.

CSP
--

Comme
rce Service Providers
--
similar to an ASP, this is a company that offers technical services to e
-
businesses
engaged in e
-
Commerce. The services offered are specific to e
-
Commerce.

193.

Liquation Broker
--

Independent third
-
party firms that find buyers for the unw
anted inventory of another firm.

194.

Brick & mortar
--

Retail location in the "real world." The traditional storefront!

195.

Click & mortar
--

Companies that sell products or services in both the "real" world and online.

196.

Bandwidth
--

The amount of data that can be
transmitted in a fixed amount of time. For digital devices, the bandwidth is
expressed in bits per second (bps).

197.

Bps
--

Bits per second, a unit of measurement of the speed of data transmission

198.

Cable Modem
--

A modem designed to operate over cable TV lines. B
ecause the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides
much greater bandwidth than telephone lines, a cable modem can be used to achieve extremely fast access to the Internet.
Cable modems offer speeds up to 2 Mbps in many areas.

199.

CD
-
ROM
--

Compact Disc
-
Read
-
Onl
y Memory, a type of optical disk capable of storing large amounts of data. The most
common CD
-
ROMs can store 650 MB of data, about 300,000 text pages.

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200.

CD
-
R
--

Compact
-
Disc
-
Recordable Drive
--
a type of disk drive that can create CD
-
ROMs and audio CDs. Most of

these can
only be recorded once.

201.

CD
-
RW
--

CD
-
ReWritable disk
--
a type of CD disk that enables you to write onto it in multiple sessions.

202.

Data Compression
--

Reducing the size of a data file by reducing unnecessary information, such as blanks and repeating
or

redundant characters or patterns.

203.

Destination
--

The place where data is moved to from the source.

204.

Downloading
--

To copy data (usually entire files) from a main source to another device. Downloading can also refer to
copying a file from a network server to

a computer on the network

205.

DSL
--

Digital Subscriber Lines
--
technologies which use sophisticated modulation schemes to pack data onto copper wires.
It requires a short run from the user to the central telephone office. DSL offers speeds up to 32 Mbps for up
stream traffic
and from 32 Kbps to over 1 Mbps for downstream traffic.

206.

DVD
--

Digital Versatile Disc OR Digital Video Disk, a type of optical disk technology similar to the CD
-
ROM. A DVD holds a
minimum of 4.7 GB of data, enough for a full
-
length movie. The

DVD specification supports disks with capacities of from 4.7
GB to 17 GB and access rates of 600 Kbps to 1.3 Mbps. DVD uses MPEG
-
2 to compress video data.

207.

ISDN
--

Abbreviation of Integrated Services Digital Network, an international communications standard

for sending voice,
video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps.

208.

Multimedia
--

The use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way.

209.

Pixel
--

The smallest element of the computer or television display.

210.

Refresh
--

To update something with new data; usually a Web browser
--
to include updates of currently displayed web
pages; sometimes called reload.

211.

Source
--

A place from which data is taken.

212.

T
-
1 Ca
rrier
--

A dedicated phone connection supporting data rates of 1.544 Mbps. A T
-
1 line actually consists of 24
individual channels, each of which supports 64 Kbps channel can be configured to carry voice or data traffic. T
-
1 lines are a
popular leased line o
ption for businesses and ISPs connecting to the Internet backbone. The Internet backbone itself
consists of faster T
-
3 connections.

213.

Uploading
--

To transmit data from a computer to a mainframe, network, or other computer.

214.

Interlaced GIF
--

An image which dis
plays on the screen in a sequence of four passes; each pass displays the whole image
at a higher resolution than the previous pass.

215.

Lossless Compression
--

Refers to data compression

in which all data is retained when the image is compressed.

216.

Lossy Compress
ion
--

Refers to data compression in which some amount of data is lost
--
eliminates redundant or
unnecessary information.

217.

Progressive JPEG
--

Displays on the screen in a sequence of passes, giving the viewer a preview of the image to come.

218.

Java
--

A high
-
level

programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. Java was originally called OAK, and was
designed for hand
-
held devices and set
-
top boxes. Java is an object
-
oriented language similar to C++, but simplified to
eliminate language features that cause comm
on programming errors. Small Java applications called Java applets can be
downloaded from a Web server and run on your computer by a Java
-
compatible Web browser.

219.

JavaScript
--

A scripting language developed by Netscape to enable Web authors to design intera
ctive sites. Although it
shares many of the features and structures of the full Java Language, it was developed independently. JavaScript can
interact with HTML source code, enabling Web authors to spice up their sites with dynamic content. JavaScript is o
pen
source and therefore anyone can use it without purchasing a license.

220.

Object
-
Oriented Programming
--

A system that deals primarily with different types of objects, and where the actions you
can take depend on what type of object you are manipulating.


Vi
deo Terminology

221.

AVI
--

Audio Video Interleave; the file format for Microsoft's Video for Windows Standard. AVI files are limited to 320 x 240
resolution and 30 frames per second, neither of which is adequate for full
-
screen, full
-
motion video. It does not r
equire any
special hardware.

222.

Compression
--

The process of reducing the information content of a signal so that it occupies less space on a
transmission channel or storage device.

223.

FPS
--

Stands for Frames per Second, a measure of how much information is used

to store and display motion video. Each
frames is a still image; displaying frames in quick succession creating the illusion of motion. The more frames per second
the smoother the motion appears.

224.

Frame

(as in a movie)
--

A single image in a sequence of
images.

225.

MPEG
--

Short for Moving Pictures Experts Group, and promounced m
-
peg, this term refers to the family of digital video
compression standards and file formats. MPEG generally produces better quality video than competing formats. MPEG
achieves high co
mpression rate by storing only the changes from one frame to another, instead of each entire frame.

226.

MPEG
-
1
--

Provides a video resolution of 352 x 240 at 30 fps. This produces video quality slightly below the quality of
conventional VCR videos.

227.

MPEG
-
2
--

Pro
vides a video resolution of 720 x 480 and 1280 x 720 at 60 fps, with full CD
-
quality audio. This is sufficient for
all the major TV standards. MPEG
-
2 can compress a two hour video into a few gigabytes.

228.

MPEG
-
4
--

This standard is designed to transmit video a
nd images over a narrower bandwidth and can mix video with text,
graphics and 2
-
D and 3
-
D animation layers.

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229.

Multicasting
--

To transmit a single message to a select group of recipients.

230.

NetMeeting
--

A product developed by Microsoft that enables groups to te
leconference/videoconference using the Internet
as the transmission medium. Users can chat, talk with each other using a microphone, use a whiteboard, and share
applications.

231.

Quicktime
--

A video and animation system developed by Apple Computer; a
multi
-
platform industry
-
standard multimedia
architecture

232.

RealOne
--

Streaming audio/video technology; most used on the Web.

233.

Streaming
--

A technique for transferring data such that it can be processed as a steady and continuous stream.

Sound Terminology

234.

AU
--

Short for audio, a common format for sound files on UNIX machines. It is also the standard audio file format for the
Java programming language. AU files end with an .au extension.

235.

Codecs
--

Special computer programs that greatly reduce audio file size. The

codecs (compressors/decompressors) utilize
lossy compression to remove redundant and less
-
significant data.

236.

Encoder
--

A special program used to convert a .wav file to an .mp3 file format.

237.

MIDI
--

Produced middy, an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, a standard adopted by the electronic music
industry for controlling devices, such as synthesizers and cound cards. The compact size of MIDI files make them especially
well suited for deli
very over the Internet.

238.

MP3
--

The file extension for MPEG, audio layer 3. Layer 3 is used for the compression of audio signals. It removes all
redundant and irrelevant parts of a sound signal. The .mp3 file format compresses sound at about a 12:1 ratio of
the original
size.

239.

Ripper
--

A special program used to extract an audio segment from a CD.

240.

WAV
--

The format for storing sound in files developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM. WAV sound files end with the .wav
extension and can be played by nearly all Window
s applications that support sound.


Text Terminology

241.

Body type
--

Type used for the main content of the page, is smaller than display type.

242.

CSS
--

Cascading Style Sheets
--
A template that defines the appearance of a web page, including text fonts.

243.

Display
type
--

Larger type that is used for elements such as headings and subheadings.

244.

Font
--

The combined features of the typeface and type style.

245.

Kerning
--

Spacing between letters.

246.

Leading
--

Spacing between lines (vertical).

247.

Tracking
--

Spacing between words.

248.

Typeface
--

The actual design of the type regarding the slant and thickness of the lines.

249.

Type size
--

The size of the type on the page, measured in points, where 72 points = 1 inch.

250.

Type style
--

Variations in style such as regular, bold, or italic.

251.

Typograp
hy
--

The appearance and arrangement of the characters that make up your text.

252.

Authentication
--

Establishing the validity of on
e’
s claimed identity

253.

Black Hat Hacker
--

A person who breaks into a computer system with the purpose of inflicting damage or steali
ng data. In
other words, a "bad guy." Contrast with
white hat hacker

and
blue h
at hacker

254.

Bug
--

A persistent error in software or hardware. If the bug is in software, it can be corrected by changing the program. If
the bug is in hardware, new circuits have to be designed

255.

Cracker
--

A person who breaks into a computer system without authorization, whose purpose is to do damage (destroy
files, steal credit card numbers, plant viruses, etc.). Because a cracker uses low
-
level hacker skills to do cracking, the terms
"cracker" and "hacker
" have become synonymous with the latter becoming the most widely used term.

256.

Denial of Service
--

A condition in which a system can no longer respond to normal requests. See
denial of service attack

257.

Denial
-
of
-
service Attack
--

A bug or virus that will not allow a user to log on to a website

258.

Encrypted Server/Browser
--

Use in order to protect ag
ainst unlawful access to a user’
s credit card number

259.

E
-
privacy Act
--

Desi
gned to protect individual privacy, while still addressing national security

260.

Fair Trade Act
--

Acts that deals with fraudulent sales. Protects consumers against being mislead or treated unfairly by
traders or shops by prohibition or misrepresentation

261.

Filter
ing Software
--
An Internet filter (also known as an Internet nanny) is a piece of software, controlled by some authority
(such as government or parents), that filters by keyword or blocks by URL what a web browser will display, usually for the
benefit of ch
ildren

262.

Hijacking
-

Process

of copying part or all of a site and setting it up on a server that uses pirated content

263.

Internet Tax Freedom Act
-

Proposed legislation that suggests the federal government mandate a 5% Internet tax on
Internet commerce

264.

Interstate Commerce Act
--

Regulates shipment of products via surface transportation

265.

Millennium Digital Commerce Act
--

States that electronic commerce contracts are valid when signed electronically

266.

Pharming
--

Setting up a fraudulent Web site that contains c
opies of pages from a legitimate Web site in order to capture
confidential information from users. By hacking into DNS servers and changing IP addresses (see
DNS hijacki
ng
), users are
automatically redirected to the bogus site, at least for some period of time until the DNS records can be restored.

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267.

Phishing
--
Pronounced "fishing," it is a scam to steal valuable information such as credit card and social security numbers,
u
ser IDs and passwords. Also known as "brand spoofing," an official
-
looking e
-
mail is sent to potential victims pretending to
be from their ISP, bank or retail establishment

268.

Security
--

Risk introduced to a company when someone accesses a company?s website u
sing a browser

269.

Site Certificate
--

Verifies the host’
s identity to computers that access it

270.

Telecommunications Act
--

Preserves the vibrant and competitive free market that presently exists for the Internet and
other interactive computer services. Gives the consumer the right to purchase services on
-
line

271.

User authentication
--

Procedure of verifying the identity of a remo
te user

272.

Veri
-
Sign
--

A for profit organization that provides products that allow the web sites to transmit encrypted data and to
authenticate the web site through the use of digital certificates

273.

Declaration
--

Made up of one or more property and value pairs

274.

External Style Sheets
--

Enables you to give your entire website a common look

275.

Inline Style Sheet
--

Enables you to add style information to a single element.

276.

Internal Style Sheets
--

Enable you to effect how a web page displays; it is located inside the Head

tag.

277.

Property
--

Describes the type of formatting you’d like to apply (for example: color, or font)

278.

Ruleset
--

Consists of selector, and declaration

279.

Selectors
--

Identifies the tag that you wish to format

280.

Style Rule
--

Consists of the selector and the declara
tion

281.

Styles
--

Define how XHTML elements are to be displayed

282.

Value

(as used in coding)
--

One of a list of allowable options for that property

283.

Internal hosting
--

Operating and maintaining your own server

284.

External hosting
--

Using an outside company to serve your web site

285.

Catalog


A listing of goods or services that may include photograph or descriptions.

286.

Signature file
--

A file that places something you have prewritten at the end of each e
-
mail message you send out.

287.

Meta
tags
--

Describes the content of your site to a search engine by using keywords that are associated with the site

288.

Newsletters
--

Small articles of information by which one can continually inform customers of updates in the business.

289.

Search engines
--

Responsi
ble for directing traffic to various sites as a result of user searches.

290.

Contests
--

A method for promoting an e
-
Commerce site. As customers register to enter the contest, they give personal
information that is useful to marketers.

291.

Banner Ads
-

Online adve
rtising technique where small hyperlinked advertisements are placed on frequently visited pages
of a web site.

Ads that are usually ¾ of an inch tall and approximately 6 inches wide

292.

P
ayment processing
--

Processes the shopper's request as they proceed to the virtual checkout counter

293.

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
--

ADSL
--
A network access that allows your computer to communicate at
approximately one Mbps.

294.

Web Server
--

Rout
e
s web user requests to
e
-
commerce servers.

295.

Web Server Software
--

Basic software that is required to service a website.

296.

Discussion Group Software
--

Software that supports discussion threads

297.

Link exchange
--

When owners of similar sites agree to trade links to each other’s sites.