M.Sc. MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY - Andhra University ...


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PAPER 1.1: Fundamentals of Oceanography

- Oceans-Physical Properties: temperature, light, transparency, turbidity,
pressure, water currents, tides and waves.
- Chemical properties: salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, trace
- Composition of seawater; estuarine and brackish waters.
- Law of the sea
- Remote sensing applications in monitoring ocean habitats and coastal
zone management.
1. O.Kinee(ed)Marine Ecology Vols I,II& VJOhn Wiley and Sons.

PAPER 1.2: Principles of Biochemistry-I

- Chemical bonds-Covalent bond, coordinate bond, hydrogen bond, ionic
bond, vanderwall’s forces, hydrophobic & hydrophilic interactions.
- Structure and a chemistry of biomolecules
a- Carbohydrates and lipids; carbohydrates of fish and shellfish(shrimp &
b- Amino acids and proteins; proteins of fish and shellfish
c- Nucleic acids and porphhyrins
- Chemistry and properties of vitamins and hormones.
- Biological membranes & transport of biomolecules &elements.
1. H. Stryer, Biochemistry, W.H. Freeman & Co
2. A.L. Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, CBS Publishers

PAPER 1.3 Cell Biology and Genetics
- Cell : ultra Structure, nutrient transport, cytoskeleton organization
- Signal transduction, mechanism of prolutin translocation
- Cell nucleus : chromosomes, nucleic acids, eukaryotic chromosomes,
heterchromatin, molecular components packing & organization;
necleosom phasing
- Cell division Chromosomal & extra chromosomal, molecular basis of
inheritance ; Mendelian principles of inheritance; allelism &
complementation; sex linked inheritance ; quantitative genetics ;
- Gene structure & function: transduction, conjugation DNA as genetic
material; easy phages to study T1,T2,T3 and T7.

1. D.Frifielder: Microbial genetics
2. B.Lewin: Genes VII.John Wiley
3. Arberts et al: Molecular Biology of cells
4. H.Lodish, A.Berk, S.L. Zipursky, P.Matsudaria, D.Baltimore and
J.Damell. Molecular Cell Biology, W.H.Freeman & Company,
5. R.F. Weaver. Molecular Biology.W.C.V.McGraw Hill, Dubeque,
6. S.R.Malog. Microbial Genetics

PAPER1.4: Marine Microbiology
- General classification and taxonomy of microorganisms
- Distribution of microorganisms in the marine habitats
- Protozoans, micrometazoans, microalgae and fungi; culture techniques
- Bacteria: Ultra structure, growth & life cycle; culture
- techniques
- Methods of Isolation and Identification of Marine Microbes.
- Methods of sterilization, inoculation techniques using different media
methods of isolation of bacteria and fungi.
- Staining techniques.

1. Pelczar, Chann and Kreig : Microbiology (5
Edition).McGraw Hill Inc.
New York
2. Salle A.J: Fundamental principles of Bacteriology Tata McGraw Hill
3. Stainer RT et al : General Microbiology. Mac Millan
4. Madigan,Martinko and parker : Brock biology of microorganisms. 9

5. Dimmock and primrose : Introduction to viruses. 2
6. Biswas and Biswas : An introduction to viruses. 2
7. Luria, Darnell, Baltimore and Campbell : General Virology, Wiley, New
8. Ross : Introduction to Microbiology
9. Tauro, Kapoor and Yadav : An introduction to Microbiology
10.Cappuccino and Sherman : Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual

PAPER 1.5 : Enzymology
- Nomenclature, classification of enzymes
- Enzyme structure, properties
- Enzyme specificity; factors affecting enzyme action
- Mechanism of enzyme action activators & inhibitors; characterization of
active site
- Multi – enzyme complex; single and multi-substrate systems;
Regulatory enzymes;
- ATCase, glutamine synthetase, hemoglobin and myoglobin
- Membrane bound enzymes : extraction, purification and assay.

1. Boyer, P.D : The enzymes Vols. 1&2. A.P. Freeman
2. Fersht, A.R : Enzyme structure & Mechanism A.P Freeman
3. Palmer T : Enzymes : Horwood publishers

PAPER 2.1: Marine Biology

- Classification of marine habitats
- Composition & distribution of Marine plants : seaweeds &
- Zooplankton: collection composition & distribution
- Nekton : collection, composition & distribution of important finfish &
shell fish resources.
- Marine reptiles & mammals
- Benthos : collection, composition & distribution of benthic organisms.
- Mangroves and coral reef ecosystems : General characters
- Foulers and Borers
- Impacts of man on marine habitats : Marine pollution & Over –
1. K.H.Mann : Ecology of coastal waters
2. RSK Barners & R.N Huges : Introduction to Marine Ecology

PAPER 2.2 : Principles of Biochemistry-II

- Carbohydrate metabolism
- Protein metabolism
- Lipids: Biosynthesis and oxidation fatty acids; Ketone bodies.
- Biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and their regulation.
- Prostaglandins, leucotriens, thromoxanes, interferons interleukins,
antibiotics: Structures and general properties.
1. H.Stryer: Biochemistry. W.H.Freeman &Co.
2.B. Lewin: Genes VII. John Wiley
3. Voet & Voet : Biochemistry (2
Edition )
4.Martin, Mayer &Rodwell : Harpers’ review of Biochemistry.
5. Plummer : An Introduction to Biochemistry.

PAPER 2.3 Molecular Biology

- DNA replication : Principles in eukaryotes & prokaryotes, enzymes
involved in replication, DNA polymerases, RNA primer, Primosome
complex, helicase, ssb proteins; discontinuous synthesis.
- Transcription : DNA-RNA hybrid; enzymes involved in RNA synthesis;
Reverse transcription; genetic manipulations; RNA processing; Nuclear
splicing; RNA as catalyst: ribozyme.
_ Regulation systems : lac operon, catabolite repression and activation;
tryp operon
- Protein Synthesis : translation factors : mRNA, tRNA & rRNA
Structure and function ; genetic code.
-Genetic Recombination : homogenus & heterogenus genetic
recombinations; DNA repair
_ Mutations : Types of mutations, detection, isolation & reversion.
Molecular basis of mutations, consequences and utilizations of
1. B. Lewin: Genes VII. John Wiley
2. Watson et al : Molecular Biology of Gene. Benj. Cumm.

PAPER 2.4: Microbial Technology
- Role of microorganisms in sea : recycling of nutrients.
- Estuarine and mangrove microbiology
- Microbial degradation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
- Fermentation and bioconversion by microorganisms
- General principles of bioreactors
- Control of microorganisms : Physical, chemical and chemotherapeutic
- Microalgal biotechnology : Single cell proteins : Spirulina ; agar,
agarose, carrageenans.
1. H H Rehm & G. Reed : Biotechnology Vol. IV
2. G. Reed et al : Industrial Microbiology. C.B.S. Publishers

PAPER 2.5 : Enzyme Technology
- Cell & enzyme reactors; fusion and diffusion control.
- Lipid- protein interactions and effect of fluidity on enzyme activity
- Enzymes involved in nucleic acid modification: methylases, dam
methylases, DNAses , RNAses , gyrases , topoisomerases &
- Enzyme Kinetics : Steady State Kinetics ; single and multi substrate
reactions . Competetive, non-competetive and uncompetitive enzyme-
substrate kinetics.
- Immobilization of enzymes : biosensors & modifications ; biological
energy transducers.
- Synthetic enzymes; problems & perspectives of co-enzymes; oxidases
and oxygenases.
- Enzymes of industrial and diagnostic importance.
1.Siseman A. ( ed ) : Hand Book of enzyme technology
2. Trevan M.D. : Immobilized Enzymes. Wiley & Sons
3. Plowman K. M. : Enzyme Kinetics. McGraw Hill

M.Sc Marine Biotechnology
PAPER 3.1:
Genetic Engineering – I

Definition of gene, introduction to plasmids, cosmids and lamda carrier DNA
called Vectors. Principles of plasmid preparation. Genetic types of various
bacterial strains.
Restriction Enzymes : Type I, II, III. Klenov Fragment, commonly used
restriction enzymes resulting blunt ends and cohesive ends.
Stringent and relaxed plasmids.
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics; submarine gel electrophoresis and blotting
Introduction to foreign DNA into plasmids, cosmids and lamda DNA.
Principles of using linkers and adaptors
Detection of cloned genes by transformation experiments.
Introducing cDNA as probe; kinasing experiments and incorporating 32
labelled DNA.
Text Books
1. W. Old & Primrose : Principles of gene manipulations S B Univ. Press.
Reference Books
1. Lewin B. Genes V . John Wiley.

PAPER 3.2 : Principles of Immunology
Immunity : History, scope and types of immunity.
Antigens : Types and properties
Immunoglobulins : Structure and properties.
Immunogenetics : Major histocompatibility gene complex.
Genetic basis of antibody diversity.
Molecular basis of B & T cells
Mechanisms of cell mediated cytotoxicity.
Compliment proteins : types and pathways.
Cytokines : types and functions
Invertebrate immune system.
1. L. Hood et al. Immunology. Benj. Cumur. Press
2. W. E. Paul. Fundamentals of immunology. Raven Press

PAPER 3.3. Marine Living Resources.

Marine Plant Resources: Phytoplankton, seaweeds, sea grasses, mangroves
and marine fungi – their utilization and rational exploitation.
Marine animal resources : crustaceans, mollusks and finfish resources - their
utilization and rational exploitation.
Culture of live plant feeds; sea ranching of algae.
Culture of live animal feeds; rotifers, cladocerans, brine shrimp (Artemia ); sea
ranching of economically important marine animals.
Text Books
1. Jhingran V. G. Fish and Fisheries of India (2
ed. )
2. Prossar C.L. Comparative animal physiology
3. Kinne O. Marine Ecology , Vol. 3 , Part 3.

Paper 3.4: Bioactive Marne Natural Products – I
Bioactivities of Marine Natural Products. An introduction to the of marine natural
products; Antibiotic-tumor, repellent, anti-parasitic, Microbial, antifouling.
Commercial potential and development of marine natural products.
Chitosan as a biomaterial.
Algae products: carrageenan, algin, B-carotene and vitamins.
Marine microorganisms as a new biomaterial resources (marine microalgae, fungi
and bacteria).
Dinoflagellates as a source of bioactive compounds: A brief introduction of isolation,
chemistry and pharmacology of saxitoxin, brevitoxin and cigatoxn Tunicromes.
Isolation techniques: Liquid – Liquid extraction, membrane separation methods and
Chromatography (TLC, HPLC) and conventional techniques.
Characterization techniques: IR, UV, NMR, and mass spectra.
1. David H.Attway & Oskar R.Zabosky: Marine Biotechnology: Volume 1,2,3,
Plenum Press, 1993.
1. P.J.Scheuer: Marine. Natural Products, Volume 1 & 2 (1978). Volume (1980-
81) Academic Press.

Paper 3.5: Marine Pollution
Marine Pollution: Definition by GESAMP, major sources of pollution, dynamics,
transport paths and agents.
Toxicology: Lethal and sub lethal effects of pollutants on marine organisms,
evaluation of toxicity tolerance, bioassay.
Enzymatic removal of hazardous organic substances from aqueous effluents.
Sewage: Domestic, Industrial, agricultural and aquacultural discharges, their
composition and fate in the marine environment, toxicity and treatment methods,
sewage disposal system.
Environmental Impact Assessment Methods of aquaculture activities.
Oil pollution: Sources and fate of oil, composition and toxicity of oil, biological effects
treatment procedures.
Thermal and radioactive pollutants: Source and characteristics, strategies for
disposal of RNA and Heated effluents, biological effects and alternative uses of
waste dumping, mining and dredging operations, their effects on the organisms and
marine environment.
Text Books/References:
1. S.E. Nielsen: Tropical Pollution, 1982.
2. A.M.Chakravarthy Biodegradation and detoxification of Environmental
pollutants, CRC Press, 1928.
3. O.Kinne: Marine Ecology, Vol.V.Ocean Management 3&4, John Wiley &
Sons, 1984.
4. Johnston R. (Ed.) : Marine Pollution, Academic Press, 1976.
5. Patin. S.A.: Pollution and Biological resources of the Oceans Butterworth &
Co. Ltd., 1982.
6. Ruive M. (Ed.) : Marine Pollution and Fishing News Sea Life, 1972.
7. Venugopalan, V.K.: Pollution and Toxicology, CAS in Marine Biology, 1991.
8. Rita Colwell (Ed.): Biotechnology in Marine Sciences, Academic Press, 1981.
9. Prakesh P.: Textbook of Marine Pollution.
10. Gupta, P.K.: Introduction to Biotechnology.

M.Sc. Marine Biotechnology - IV Semester

Paper 4.1 : Genetic Engineering - II
Construction of cDNA libraries, Nick translation, probes using oligos, RNA, DNA and
auto radiogram.
Restriction mapping: hybridization: radioactive and nonradioactive. Introduction to
M13 phage DNA for MCS, directional & non-directional cloning.
Mutagenesis – site specific mutagenesis study gene function. Nested Deletion
maps construction.
Transfection, Transferring of genes into cells.
Construction of Genomic DNA libraries.
DNA Fingerprinting and Foot printing and chromosomal walking.
DNA sequencing; Sanger’s Dideoxy sequencing and Maxam & Gilbat sequencing.
Automated DNA sequencing using fluorescence.
Analysis of cloned genes.
PCR basic principles.
Introduction to oncogenes & oncogenesis – A molecular detail.
Movable genes – Transposons.
Biological risks, ethical, economical and legal issues.
Text Books:
1. W.Old & Primrose: Principles of gene manipulation SB Univ. Press.
Reference Books:
1. Lewin.B: GENES V, John Wiley.

Paper 4.2 : Applications of Immunology
1. Immunological techniques: Immunodiffusion, Immunoelectropheres
Immunoflourescene, ELISA and RIA.
2. Production of Monoclonal antibodies.
3. Hypersenstivity reactions: Antibody-mediated and Cell-Mediated
4. Immunodeficiency disorders.
5. Auto immunity mechanisms
6. Immunotherapy techniques: Vaccines types and their preparation.
7. Transplantation immunology
8. Tumour Immunology
9. Immunology of infectious diseases.
1. L. Hood et al.: Immunology, Benn. Cumm. Press.
2. I.M. Riott: Essentials of Immunology, Blackwell Publications
3. E. S. Golub: Immunology a synthesis, Sinave-Associates.
4. Goding J W: Monoclonal antibodies – Principles and Practices – Academic

Paper 4.3 : Application of Biotechnology
Biotechnology applications in Aquaculture: Chromosomal manipulations:
gynogenesis, androgenesis, polyploidy and transgenics.
Hybridization: Production of new strains for broodstock improvement, hormonal
control and induced breeding.
Preparation of Synthetic feeds: Composition, formulation and processing.
Tissue Culture: Culture techniques of plant (marine algae and mangroves) and
animal (crustaceans, molluscs & fishes) tissues, preservation of germplasms,
cryopreservation of tissue cultures, IN VITRO fertilization technique.
Gene manipulations to improve strains: Industrial applications of tissue culture
Diseases in marine organisms: Application of biotechniques in disease diagnosis,
prevention and control – gene probes and their industrial applications.
1. R.R.Colwell (ed), Biotechnology of Marine Science, 1982.
2. R.R.Colwell et. al (eds) Biotechnology of Marine polysaccharides, 1985.

Paper 4.4. Bioactive Marine Natural Products - II

Bioactive marine natural products: Anti-tumour, tumour promoting, anti-
inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti- neoplastic and analgesic compounds.
Nitrogen containing marine natural products: Amides, (Symbioramide,
mycolamide – A), Tyrosin based metabolites (Aeroplisinin – 1), diagoamides – A and
B, Indoles (Herbindoles – A - C) Imadezoles (Girolline), Pyridines (Theonelladines),
Peptides (didemnins, Dolastatins), ara – A, nucleosides (toyocamnins), swinholide
and macrolides.
Non Nitrogenous Bioactive Compounds: polyketides (Dysidazirine, ficulinic
acids-A and B, Duryne, Aliphatic esters, peroxides), prostanoides (clavulone –II
punaglandin-1, chloro, bromo and iodo vulones).
Polyethers (hemibrevitoxin B, lokadaicacid), macrolides (amphidinilide .A.
swinholide A, bryostatins) Terpenes, laplysiterpenoid, geranyl hydroquinone.
Averol and Averone, curcuphenol, cembranoides, brantheines V&Z,
oxygenated sterols and saponins (sarasinoside A, Xeniasterol C, Imbricatosides A
and B, cephalostatins).
1. David H.Attway & Oskar R.Zabosky: Marine Biotechnology, Volume 1,2,3,
plenum press 1993.
1. P.J.Scheuer: Marine Natural Products, Volume 1&2 (1978) Volume (1980,
81), Academic Press.

Paper 4.5: Environmental Monitoring and Biodeterloration
Global environmental monitoring methods: Status and objectives, limitations for
monitoring critical pollutants.
Role of biotechnology in environmental pollution control: Indicator organisms, Test
organisms, Monitoring organisms, Enzymes.
Coastal developmental activities-environmental issues.
Micro and Macro fouling, corrosion of metals and alloys in the sea, effects of bio-
fouling and bio deterioration on marine structures.
Protection methods against corrosion and fouling Application of biotechnology in
controlling the bio deterioration of wood and synthetic substances in the sea.
Red tides: Cause character and effects on the organisms of Marine environment
Text Books/References:
1. S.E. Nielsen: Tropical Pollution, 1982.
2. A. M. Chakravarthy: Biodegradation and detoxification of Environmental
pollutants, CRC Press, 1928.
3. O. Kinne: Marine Ecology, Vol.V. Ocean Management 3&4 John Wiley &
Sons. 1984.
4. Johnston R. (Ed.) : Marine Pollution, Academic Press, 1976.
5. Patin S.A.: Pollution and Biological resources of the Oceans Butterworth &
Co. Ltd., 1982.
6. Ruive M. (Ed.) : Marine Pollution and Fishing News Sea Life 1972.
7. Venugopalan, V.K. : Pollution and Toxicology, CAS in Marine Biology, 1991.
8. Rita Colwell (Ed): Biotechnology in Marine Sciences, Academic Press, 1981.
9. Prakash P.: Textbook of Marine Pollution.
10. Gupta, P.K. : Introduction to Biotechnology.