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BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY
BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITYBHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY
BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY


TIRUCHIRAPPALLI – 620 024
INDIA

M.Phil. Microbiology
(AUTONOMOUS)

CURRICULUM
(with effect from the academic year 2007-2008 onwards)

DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY


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DEPARTMENT OF MICROBIOLOGY
REGULATIONS FOR
M.Phil. Microbiology
(UNDER AUTONOMY)

1. Name of the Course:

M.Phil. Microbiology (Full Time)

2. Department offering the Course:
The Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences will be
offering the course since 2007.
3. Eligibility for admission:
A candidate, who has qualified for the Master’s Degree (through
regular study / Distance Education mode / Open University System) with
not less than 55% of marks or 5.51 in 10.00 grade point average scale
under CBCS in Microbiology or other interdisciplinary subject(Botany,
Zoology, Plant Science, Animal Sciences, Bio Chemistry, Biotechnology and
M.Sc., Life Sciences. A candidate who has qualified for the Master’s
Degree prior to 19.09.1991, with not less than 50% of marks, is eligible to
register for M.Phil. Programme in this University. The SC/ST candidates
are given 5% relaxation from the prescribed minimum marks.

4. Duration of the course:
The duration of the M.Phil.programme shall be one year consisting of
two semesters. For the candidate’s course - I, course - II, course - III, will
be covered in the first semester and course - IV and dissertation will be
covered in the second semester.
5. Number of Course:
A candidate has to take three course papers (course - I, course - II,
course – III) in the First Semester and one Course paper (course – IV) and
Dissertation in the Second Semester
The M.Phil programme shall commence from July - August. The First
Semester examinations shall be conducted in January / February. The
Second Semester starts from March/April and the examinations shall be
conducted in August / September (credits and workload for each course
shall be as per the P.G. norms).


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6. Board of Studies:

The Board of Studies for academic programmes, syllabi etc., will
consist of all the members of the faculty of the Department of Microbiology
and two outside experts. The Head of the Department of Microbiology will
be the Chairman.
7. Programme of Study:

The syllabi for courses - I, II, III, and IV shall be prescribed by the
respective Adhoc Course Committee. The syllabi for all the 4 courses
shall consist of five units. The Question papers for Courses - I to IV shall
be set externally and valued by both external Examiners and Course
Teachers. The consolidated results passed by the Result Passing Board of
the Microbiology Department.
8. Scheme of Examinations:
(Credits and workload for the course shall be as per the P.G.norms)

Semester - I Marks Credit
Course I 100 4
Course II 100 4
Course III 100 4
Semester II
Course IV (Elective)

100 4
Dissertation 200 (150+50) 8

Of the above four courses, one could be a course on Research
Methodology and another(Course IV) shall be an elective from out of
three or four major branches of the concerned discipline in which the
research areas are likely to polarize.
9. Written examination

The examination for courses - I, II, & III shall be taken at the end of
the first semester (January/February) and course IV (Elective) at the end
of the second semester (August/ September). Each course shall have 75
marks for the Written Examination and 25 marks for Continuous Internal
Assessment. The duration for each written examination shall be 3 hours.
A candidate shall be declared to have passed course I, II, III and IV, if
he/she secures not less than 40% of the marks in the University
Examination and 50% of the marks in the aggregate (i.e. continuous
internal assessment and the written Examination taken together).

10 Supplementary examinations

The theory courses shall be conducted depending upon the exigency.
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11. Part - II: Dissertation
Candidates shall submit the two copies of dissertation to the
Department through the Supervisor not earlier than 5 months but within 6
months from the date of start of the second semester. If a candidate is not
able to submit his dissertation within the period stated above, he / she
shall be given an extension time of 4 months in the first instance and
another 4 months in the second instance with penalty fees. If a candidate
does not submit his / her dissertation even after the two extensions, his
/her registration shall be treated as cancelled and he / she have to re-
register for the programme. However the candidate need not write the
theory papers again, if he/she has already passed these courses.

The dissertation shall be valued by both external examiner and
concerned Supervisor for a Maximum of 150 marks and the average shall
be taken. The external examiner shall be selected from a panel of 3
experts suggested by the Research Supervisor and who are working
within/or nearby the respective University area. However, the Department
may ask for another panel, if necessary. The valuation of M.Phil.
Dissertations and viva shall be done on the same day at the place of the
Research Supervisor (viva is to be conducted only if the student passes in
the valuation of the dissertation) and the mark should be handed over
to the chairman of examination on the same day.
12. Viva-voce Examination
There shall be a viva-voce examination which shall be conducted
by two examiners, one being the supervisor and the other who evaluated
the dissertation. The maximum marks for the viva shall be 50 (joint
evaluation). A candidate shall be declared to have passed Part - II
Examination if he/she secures not less than 50% of the marks prescribed
for the dissertation and 50% of the marks prescribed for the viva-voce
Examination.
If the examiner who values the dissertation makes a qualified
recommendation such as revision of dissertation, the candidate shall be
advised to revise the dissertation in the light of the suggestions made by
the examiners and re-submit the dissertation, within a period of SIX
months. A sum of Rs.1500/- shall be charged as fee for Re-submission
of dissertation. The revised dissertation shall be sent to the same
examiner who evaluated the dissertation in the first instance.

13. Classification of Successful Candidates:

The candidate who passes written papers and dissertation in their first
attempt shall be classified as follows.
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Total Marks secured in written papers and dissertation Classification
80% and above I Class with Distinction
60% to 79% I Class
50% to 59% II Class

A candidate who passes the programme in more than one attempt
shall be declared to have completed the programme under the II Class.

14. Restriction in Number of Chances:
No candidate shall be permitted to appear for the written Examination
in any course on more than two occasions or to submit a dissertation or
appear for the viva-voce examination more than twice. Resubmission of a
dissertation shall be done with penalty fee, within 6 months from the first
of the month which follows the month in which result of the first attempt
is announced. The permitted attempts of semester-I & II Examinations
shall be completed within a maximum period of 36 months from the
first of the month which follows the month in which the registration was
done.
15. Conferment of the Degree:

No candidate shall be eligible for the conferment of the M.Phil.
programme unless he/she is declared to have passed both written
examinations and dissertation of the programme.
Normally a person shall be allowed to guide not more than three
candidates.
Change of Supervisor may be permitted by the University based on the
merit of the individual cases.
The Research supervisors, serving as teachers, would be permitted to
register candidates up to the age of 62 years.
16. Re-Registration:

The candidates shall be permitted for Re-Registration based on the
merit of individual cases.
The Re-registered candidates are required to submit the
dissertation not earlier than three months and not later than
one year after the date of re-registration. No further extension of time shall
be given
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17. Fees
Fees for M.Phil. Programme
Tuition fee (per annum) 3500/-
Special fee 400/-
Laboratory fee 2000/-
Caution Deposit 1000/-
Alumni fee 200
Registration fee 500/-
Re-registration fee 750/-
Matriculation fee 50/-
Library fee 200/-
Library fee SC/ST only 100/-
(and other fees as decided by the University from time to time)

Examination fee
(4 x 250 papers I to IV) 1000
Dissertation fee 1500/-

Submission of revised dissertation

1500/-

Late Submission of Dissertation:
1. Fee for first extension 250/-
2. Fee for Second extension 250/-
Cost of Application 250/-

The candidates who intend to Re-register shall pay the following fees
prescribed for Second semester / year


Particulars Amount

Tuition fee (per annum) 1500/-
Special fee 400/
Laboratory fee 2000/
Special Laboratory fee 1000/-
Re-registration fee 750/-

* * * * * * * * *
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GRADING OF THE COURSES
Marks
Grade point
Letter Grade

96 and above 10 S+
91-95 9.5 S
86-90 9.0 D++
81-85 8.5 D+
76-80 8.0 D
71-75 7.5 A++
66-70 7.0 A+
61-65 6.5 A
56-60 6.0 B
50-55 5.5 C
Below 50 0 F

FINAL RESULT
CGPA
Letter Grade

Classification of Final
Result
9.51 and
above
S+
9.01 – 9.50 S
First Class –
Exemplary
8.51 - 9.00 D++
8.01 - 8.50 D+
7.51 - 8.00 D
First Class -
Distinction
7.01 - 7.50 A++
6.51 - 7.00 A+
6.01 - 6.50 A
First Class
5.51 - 6.00 B
5.00 - 5.50 C
Second Class
Below 5.00 F Fail

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M.Phil. Microbiology

Semester - I

MCP 1 – Research Methodology

Unit – I: Microscopy
Bright field, Dark field, Phase contrast, Fluorescent and Polarization microscopes - Electron
microscopy – TEM & SEM – principle structure and applications – specimen preparation of
electron microscope. Ultra thin sectioning of specimens using microtomes - Confocal
microscope , Atomic force microscope (AFM).
Unit – II: Analytical instrumentations
Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, NMR, Mass spectrometry, GC & MS, MALDI ToP,
IR spectrum, X-ray crystallography. Measurement of radioactivity – X –ray film, GM
counter & scintillation counting methods. Application of Radioisotopes in biological
sciences.
Unit – III: Separation techniques
Centrifugation - preparative and analytical, ultra centrifugation, density gradient
centrifugation. GC & HPLC - Electrophoresis – Principle, types and applications - PAGE
(proteins), Agarose (Nucleic acids), Pulse field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Two
dimensional electrophoresis (IEF), DGCE, TGGE and TRFLP.

Unit – IV: rDNA techniques
Restriction mapping - RFLP, Cloning strategies, DNA sequencing – manual and automated
methods. Southern, Northern, Western and Dot blotting & hybridization. Polymerase
Chain Reaction – principles, types and applications, Single locus and multi locus DNA
finger printing, PCR based DNA finger printing - RAPD, AFLP, STRR and LTRR analysis.
DNA sequencing – manual and automated methods.

Unit – V: Bioinformatics
Genbank sequence data bases – NCBI, EMBL, DDBJ – retrieving database entries. Sequence
alignment and database searching – FASTA, BLAST - Phylogenetic analysis - Secondary
and 3D structure prediction using DNA and protein sequences. Data processing and
publishing. Guidelines in preparation of manuscripts & thesis.
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References:
1. Arora PN & Malhon PK, (1996) Biostatistics. Imalaya Publishing House, Mumbai.
2. Sokal & Rohif, (1973) Introduction to Biostatistics Toppan Co. Japan.
3. Stanton A & Clantz, Primer of Biostatistics –– The McGraw Hill Inc., New York.
4. Baxevanis, A.D. & Ouellette, B.F.F. (2001). Bioinformatics: A practical guide to the
analysis of genes and proteins – Wiley Interscience – New York
5. Cynthia Gibas & Per Jambeck (2001) Developing Bioinformatics Computer Skills:
Shroff Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd (O’Reilly), Mumbai
6. Des Higgins & Willie Taylor (2000) Bioinformatics: Sequence, structure and
databanks. Oxford University Press
7. Zar, J.H. (1996). Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall, Upper saddle River, New
Jersey, USA
8. John G Webster(2004).Bioinstrumentation .Student edition, John Wiley &sons, Ltd.
9. Keith Wilson& John Walker (2003) Practical Biochemistry Principles & techniques.5
th

edition,Cambridge university press.
10. Grumani N (2006) Research methadology for biological sciences.1st Edition , MJP
Publishers, A unit of Tamilnadu Book House .
11. Jogdand SN (2004) Gene Biotechnology Published by Himalaya Publishing
House,Mumbai.
12. Palanivelu P (2001)Analitical biochemistry and separation Techniques A Laboratory
maual. 2
nd
edition ,Published by Tulsi Book Centre, Madurai, Tamilnadu.
13. Karp, G. 1999. Cell and Molecular Biology – Concepts and experiments. 2nd edn.
14. Kleinsmith, L. J. & Kish, V.M. 1995. Principles of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2
nd

edn., McLaughlin, S., Trost, K., Mac Elree, E. (eds.)., Harper Collins Publishers, New
York.
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Semester - I

MCP 2 – Microbial Biotechnology

Unit – I: Historical development of Microbial technology
Introduction – Contribution of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Alexander Fleming, S.A.
Wakesman and others in the development of microbiology and the early discoveries.
Industrially important microorganisms. Products obtained from microorganism. Isolation,
purification and preservation of microbes. Cell culture techniques – aseptic transfer.

Unit – II: Microbes in Medicine
Clinically important microorganisms and their effects on infection and immunity.
Production of toxins by microorganism. Disease caused by pathogens and their control.
Production of medicinally important substances by microbes. Production of useful non-
microbial products produced through recombinant microbes – insulin, vaccines, and
antibiotics. Production of antibodies in E. coli.

Unit – III: Microbial Products and their bioprocesses
Single cell protein – Chlorella, Spirullina, Yeasts, Mushrooms – SCP from wastes. Economic
implications of SCP. Microbial production of enzymes – cellulase, lipase, Taq polymerase,
and restriction endonuclease. Production of wine, vinegar and alcohol. Biofertilizers –
cyanobacteria, Azospirillum, VAM and Azolla. Strategies applied for drug discoveries.

Unit – IV: Biodegradation and Bioremediation
Microbes involved in biodegradation of organic wastes and xenobiotic compounds – heavy
metals, pesticides, insecticides. Bioinsecticides – BT toxin. Microbial leaching – Extraction
of metals from ores. Biofuels, Microbial hydrogen production. biodegradation of oils and
petroleum products.
Unit – V: IPR, Biosafety and bioethics
World Trade Organization (WTO) with reference to biotechnology affairs – Basic
requirement of patentability, process of patenting, patenting biological materials. National
& International patent laws. Biosafety regulations and assessment of biotechnology
products – drugs/vaccines & GMO. Biosafety protocols – Biological weapons. Principles
of bioethics – ethical conflicts in biotechnology.
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References:
1. Raledge C and Kristiansen B Eds (2001) Basic Biotechnology, 2
nd
edition,
Cambridge University Press.
2. Balasubramanian D, Bryce CFA, Dharmalingam K, Green J, Jayaraman K. (1996).
Concepts in Biotechnology, University Press, India.
3. Baxevanis AD and BFF Ouellette, Wiley O. (ed) (2001) Bioinformatics – A practical
guide to the analysis of genes and proteins. Interscience, New York,
4. Borowitzka MA, Borowitzka LJ (1989) Microalgal Biotechnology, Cambridge
University Press.
5. Alan T. Bull. Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM press. Washington, D.C
6. Brenden Wren and Nick Dorrell, Functional Microbial Genomics (Volume 33)
(Methods in Microbiology), Academic Press
7. Alexander Hillisch and Rolf Hilgenfeld. Modern Methods of Drug Discovery,
Birkhauser, Switzerland
8. Doolittle RF. (1990). Molecular evolution. Computer Analysis of Protein and Nucleic
acid Sequences Methods in Enzymilogy. Academic Press, New York.
9. Gerbardt P, Murray RG, Wood WA , Kreig NR. (1994) Methods for General and
Molecular Bacteriology – American Society for Microbiology Washington D.C.
10. Glick BR, Pasternak JJ (1998) Molecular Biotechnology - Principles and Applications
of Recombinant DNA, ASM Press, Washington DC.
11. Higgins D, Taylor W. (2000). Bioinformatics, sequence, structure and databanks A
practical approach. Oxford University Press.
12. Glazer AN, Nikaido H. (1994) Microbial Biotechnology – Fundamentals of Applied
Microbiology WH Freeman and Company, New York.
13. Glick BR, Pasternak JJ. (1994) Molecular Biotechnology, ASM Press, Washingon DC.
14. Miyamoto MM, Cracraft JL. Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA sequences. Oxford
University Press. Oxford.
15. Pnolella P (1998) Introduction to Molecular Biology, WCB Mc Graw Hill, Boston,
Massacheutts.

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Semester - I

MCP 3 – Microbial Genomics

UNIT – I: Genome Mapping
Genome – size-complexity- structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome.
Physical mapping of genome-Sequencing whole genome- Restriction mapping – FISH – STS
mapping - Hybridization assays - Physical mapping without cloning- Mapping by genetic
techniques – DNA markers - RFLPs, SSLPs, SNPs – Linkage analysis – Cross breeding and
pedigree analysis.
UNIT- II: Sequencing methods and Strategies
Basic DNA sequencing - Modifications of chain-terminator sequences- Automated DNA
sequencing- DNA sequencing by capillary array electrophoresis- shotgun sequencing –
Overlapping clone contigs - High throughput sequencing- sequencing strategies-
Alternative DNA sequencing – EST sequencing and sequence skimming.

UNIT – III: Genome Analysis
Overview of sequence analysis- Gene prediction- Tools for genome analysis. Detecting
open-reading frames-using homology to find genes- software programs for finding genes-
Identifying the function of a new gene- Analyses not based on homology-Genome
annotation- Molecular phylogenetics.
UNIT- IV: Comparative Genomics
Comparative genomics of prokaryotes, organelles, Eukaryotes and other aspects.
Representational difference Analysis of cDNA and Genome Comparisons-Gene Expression
during Host-pathogen interactions- genomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis- Helicobacter
pylori-Approaches to bacterial mRNA extraction and labeling for microarray Analysis.

UNIT-V: Functional Genomics
DNA micro array – Construction and Design- Application of DNA micro array for
comparative and Evolutionary Genomics. Gene silencing, RNAi, SiRNA, SHRNA-Proteome
analysis – Protein-protein Interactions. Application of Microbial Genomics – Reverse
Vaccinology: from genome to vaccine- Microbial genomics for Antibiotic Target Discovery.
13


References:
1. C. M. Fraser, T. D. Read and K. E. Nelson (Eds) Microbial Genomes, Humana Press,
USA
2. Principles of Genome Analysis: A Guide to Mapping and Sequencing DNA from
Different Organisms by S. B. Primrose (Paperback - Jan 1998)
3. Genome Mapping: A Practical Approach (Practical Approach Series) by Paul H. Dear ,
Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2.
4. Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics - Page xviii by Richard M. Twyman,
Sandy Blackadder Primrose - Science - 2006 - 644 pages
5. Microbial Genome Methods by Kenneth W. Adolph (Hardcover - Oct 28, 1996)
6. Genome Mapping and Sequencing by Ian Dunham (Hardcover - Sep 1, 2003).
7. Brendan Wren (Editor), Nick Dorrell (2002) Functional Microbial Genomics (Volume
33) (Methods in Microbiology), Academic Press, UK.
8. Sandy B. Primrose Richard M. Twyman (2005) Principles of Genome Analysis and
Genomics, Blackwell Publishing, USA.

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Semester - II

MEP 1 – Microbial Biodiversity and Molecular Taxonomy

Unit – I: Biodiversity
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial diversity – bacteria, cyanobacteria, prochlorales,
cyanelles, microalgae, microfungi, zooplankton & protozoans. Habitats, nutition,
ultrastructure and mode of reproduction. Isolation, cultivation and preservation of
microorganisms.
Unit – II: Symbiosis
Microbial symbiosis - bacterial – Rhizobium & Frankia. Cyanobacterial symbiosis with
Bryophytes (Anthoceros), Pteridophytes (Azolla), Gymnosperms (Cycas), Angiosperms
(Gunnera). Lichens, VAM. Structure, nutrition and mode of reproduction of symbiotic
microorganisms.
Unit – III: Classification
Introduction, Haekel’s three kingdom concept. Whittaker’s five kingdom concept. Three
domine concept of Carl Woese. Classification of bacteria according to Bergey’s manual of
determinative bacteriology. Criteria for classification and identification of microorganisms
– morphological, physiological & biochemical. Numerical taxonomy. Phage typing.
Nomencalture – bacteriological code.
Unit – IV: Molecular Taxonomy
Introduction - DNA finger printing – RFLP, Plasmid profiles, G+C content. Importance of
16S rRNA in taxonomy & phylogeny. PCR based finger printing – RT PCR, 16S rDNA
amplification, cloning, transformation, DNA sequencing. RAPD, STRR & LTRR, Blotting
and hybridization. DNA Microarays/Chips.
Unit – V: Bioinformatics for genomics
Genome sequence comparison, alignment and data base searching. GenBank – NCBI,
EMBL & DDBJ – retrieving sequences. Tools used for phylogenetic analysis – Ribosomal
Database Project, FASTA, BLAST, Phylip. RNA structure prediction, Restriction enzyme
patterns. Designing primers & probes. DNA barcoding. Submission of rDNA sequences –
Bankit & Sequin guidelines.
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Reference Books
1. Groombridge, B (Ed.) 1992. Global Biodiversity – Status of the Earth’s Living
Resources. Chapman & Hall, London.
2. UNEP, 1995, Global Biodiversity Assessment , Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge.
3. Virchow, D. 1998. Conservation & Genetic Resources , Springer – Verlag, Berlin.
4. Gary K.Meffe & .Ronald Carroll ,C.1994. Principles of Conservation Biology, Sinauer
Associates, Inc., Massachusetts.
5. Danial Lim ,1998, Microbiology, McGrawHill Companies , New York.
6. Edward A. Birge ,1992, Modern Microbiology – Principles and application. Wm.C.
Brown Publishers , Inc. U.S.A.
7. HH Rashidi & LK Buehler (2002). Bioinformatics Basics: Applications in Biological
Science and Medicine, CRC Press, London
8. Gibas, C and P. Jambeck (2000). Developing bioinformatics Computer skills. Shroff
Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., Calcutta
9. Brige EA (1992) Modern Microbiology, WmC, Brown Publishers, Dubugue, USA.
10. Bryant DA (1994) The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, London.
11. Gerherdt P, Murray RG, Wood WH. Kreig NR (1994) Methods for General and
Molecular Bacteriology, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC.
12. Landecker EM (1996) Fundamentals of Fungi –Prentice Hall International Inc.
13. Pelczar Jr. MJ, Chan ECS, Krieg NR (1993). Microbiology – Mc Graw Hill. Inc, New
York.
14. Des Higgins & Willie Taylor (2002). Bioinformatics: Sequence, structure and
databanks, Oxford University Press
15. Baxevanis AD & Ouellette BEF (2001) Bioinformatics: A practical guide to the
analysis of genes and proteins, Wiley Interscience – New York
16


Semester - II

MEP 2 – Microbial Metagenomics

Unit – I: History of the Culture divide
Early Microbiology and Microscope- Pure culture – rRNA analysis and culturing –
Metagenomics – Culture independent insight – Microbial diversity – Uncultivables –
Archaea.
Unit – II: Bioprospecting
Population genetics and microheterogeneity- Symbiosis – Competition – Communication –
role of small molecules – Sequence based screening for small molecules – Antibiotics as
signal molecules – Chemical ecology – Sargasso sea explorations.

Unit – III: Community Genome Analysis
Methods – Microarray – Functional gene arrays – Community genome arrays -
Phylogenetic oligonucleotide arrays – Whole genome ORF arrays- Environmental Gene
Tags – Environmental genomics.
Unit – IV: Metagenomic approaches
Marine drug discovery platform – Sequence based analysis – Functional metagenomics –
Heterologous expression – Identifying active clones – Screens, Selections, Functional
anchors – Search for potential producers – Polyketide synthases.

Unit – V: Industrial applications
White biotechnology – Novelty – Diversity – Elusive metabolites - High throughput
screening - Multiparameter footprint analysis – screening for industrial enzymes –
Bioactive molecules – synthons – Putative gene products.

References:
1. Board on Life Sciences, The New Science of Metagenomics:Revealing the Secrets of Our
Microbial Planet, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC
2. Alan T. Bull. Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting. ASM press. Washington, D.C
3. Brenden Wren and Nick Dorrell, Functional Microbial Genomics (Volume 33) (Methods
in Microbiology), Academic Press
4. Alexander Hillisch and Rolf Hilgenfeld. Modern Methods of Drug Discovery, Birkhauser,
Switzerland
5. James N. Kyranos. High throughput Analysis for Early Drug Discovery. Esevier
Academic Press
17


Semester - II

MEP 3 – Rhizoremediation Technology

Unit - I: Rhizosphere
Definition and characteristics features of the rhizosphere: Physical, chemical and biological
processes. Methods of rhizosphere research related with sustainable in modern agriculture.
Applications to environmental technologies, soil protection and remediation.

Unit - II: Rhizosphere’s microorganisms
Distinguishing features; Soil Monera (Prokaryotic), Soil protista, Soil fungi and Viruses.
Distinct attributes of procaryotes. Individual groups of soil microorganisms. Types of
interaction; plant-microbe interactions, microbe-microbe interaction, uncultivable
microorganisms, gene expression at rhizosphere.
Unit - III: Xenobiotic nature of rhizosphere
Source and types of xenobiotic compounds, organisms involved in degradation of
chlorinated hydrocarbons, substituted simple aromatic compounds, polyaromatic
hydrocarbons, agrochemicals and surfactants.
Unit - IV: Bioremediation
Definition and concepts bioremediation, biogeochemical cycles, Isolation and screening
bioremediation’s microbes, organic compound contaminants bioremediation, heavy metal
and xenobiotic compounds bioremediation. Engineering and molecular biological
techniques used in bioremediation.
Unit-V: Bioinoculants
Microbial association: Symbiosis, asymbiosis, associate symbiosis – bacteria; actinomycetes;
BGA; mycorrhizae: Nitrogen fixers, phosphate solubilizers and mobilizers – application of
biofertilizers in agriculture. Out line of biopesticide, bioinsecticides, bioherbicides and its
application to the agriculture. Enhancement of novel microbes.
18

References:
1. Environmental Biotechnology by Alan Scragg; Longman.
2. An Introduction to Environmental Biotechnology by Milton Wainwright: Kluwer,
Academic Press.
3. Environmental Biotechnology by C. F. Forster and D. A. J. Wase.
4. Principles & Applications of Soil Microbiology by M. Salvia David.
5. Soil Microbiology: An Exploration by Mark Coyne.
6. Environmental Microbiology by Raina M. Maier.
7. Bio-remediation Technologies, Technomic Publishing Co., USA. S.K. Sikdur & R.L.
Irvine.
8. Environmental Bio-monitoring: The Biotechnology Ecotoxicology Interface,
Cambridge University Press, James M., Lynch & Alan Wiseman.
9. Phytoremediation & Rhizoremediation: Springer; Mackova, Martina; Dowling,
David; Macek, Tomas (eds).
10. Subbha Rao, N.S. Soil Microbiology. IV edition. 2000. Oxford and IBH Publishing
Co. Pvt. Ltd.
11. Motsara, Bhattacharya, P Beena Srivastava. Biofertilisr Technology, Marketing and
Usage. FDCO, New Delhi.
12. Schulze, E.Beck, K.Muller-Hohenstein. Plant Ecology. 2002. Springer Publications.
13. Gillings, M and Holmes, A. Plant Microbiology. 2004. BIOS Scientific Publishers
London and New York.

19


Semester - II

MEP 4 – Applications of Nanobiotechnology

Unit – I: Introduction
History of nanobiotechnology; Terminologies of nanobiotechnolgy; Nanoparticals;
Nanotubes; Nanowires; Silver nanoparticles.
Unit – II: Nanobiotechnology in Cell biology.
Cellular structures in all three dimensions to generate an accurate three-dimensional map of
the interior of the cell; molecular structures in relation to the cellular architecture;
cytoskeleton and the cell organelles; Protein functions at the cellular level.

Unit – II: Nanobiotechnology in Tissue engineering
Surface characterization methodology; modification of biomaterials surfaces; quantitative
assays of cell behavior in culture; biosensors and microarrays; bulk properties of implants;
and acute and chronic response to implanted biomaterials; General topics include
biosensors; drug delivery, and tissue engineering.
Unit - IV : Nanotechnology in Therapeutics
Stimulation of antigens on macrophage using on-chip micro cultivation system; Virus
particles used as a novel nanomaterial for tumor targeting; Microbial growth response to
inorganic nanoparticles; Nanoparticle internalization and cytotoxicity; Nano curcumin
(Polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin) – a novel strategy for human cancer;
Therapeutic application of gold nanoparticles.
Unit – V: Advantages and Disadvantages
Advantages of scaffolds for bone tissue restoration; Protein nanopatterning advantages and
disadvantages; Social and ethical implication of nanoscale sciences; Nanobiotechnology:
Responsible action on Issues in ethics and society.
20

References:

1. Nanobiotechnology II: More Concepts and Applications (2007) by Chad A.
Mirkin, Christof M. Niemeyer 1
st
edition Wiley-VCH Publisher.
2. NanoBiotechnology Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (2005) by Sandra J
Rosenthal, David W. Wright Humana press publisher.
3. Nanobiotechnology Molecular Diagnostics: Current Techniques and Applications
(Horizon Bioscience) (2006) by K.K. Jain Taylor & Francis 1
st
edition. Taylor &
Francis Publication.
4. Nanobiotechnology of Biomimetic Membranes (Fundamental Biomedical
Technologies) (2006) by Donald Martin 1
st
edition, Springer Publication.
5. Nano-Bio-Ethics: Ethical Dimensions of nanobiotechnology (2007) by Johann Ach,
Ludwig Siep 1
st
edition Lit verlag publication.
6. NanoBioTechnology: BioInspired Devices and Materials of the Future
(2007) by Oded Shoseyov, Ilan Levy 1
st
edition Humana Press Publisher.
7. Building Biotechnology: Starting, Managing, and Understanding Biotechnology
Companies - Business Development, Entrepreneurship, Careers, Investing,
Science, Patents and Regulations (2006) by Yali Friedman; 2
nd
edition
Thinkbiotech Publisher.